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RELICS OF OLD LONDON.

1: Roman Bath, Strand Lane. 2. Roman Wall, London Wall. 3. London Stone, Cannon Street. 4. St. Bartholomew's Church, Smithfield (Norman). 5. The Tower (Norman, etc.). "G. Old Houses in Holborn. 7, St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell. 8. The Monument. 9, Charterhouse ghapel (associated with Thackeray's Newcomes). 10. Old Curiosity shop, Portugal street (said to be the one which gives the title to Dickens's novel).

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London

Lock were transferred, in 1908, .

to the newly constituted Port of London Authority, which is considering a plan for harbor improvements to cost $75,000,000. The Port of London being thus more or less indeterminate, London itself is even more so. It stretches its ever-growing tentacles into the four counties

of Essex, Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent. Within its various boundaries London may

defined in the following ways: (1) “GREATER LoNDoN,'...including the Metropolitan and City of London Police Districts, which extends over a radius of 15 miles from Charing Cross, and has an area of 443,419 acres, a population (1911) of 7,252,963, and an assessable value (1910) of $302,480,000. (2) The Administrative County of London ("Inner London'), composed of the City and the County of London, is bounded roughly by Highgate and Hampstead on the north, by Woolwich on the southeast and Blackwall on the east, by Sydenham on the south, and on the west by Hammersmith and Putney. It covers 74,816 acres, and has a population (1911) of 4,522,961, and an assessable value of $224,329,980. (3) The CITY of LoNDON within municipal and parliamentary limits; area, 655 acres; a sleeping population of caretakers (1911) of 19,657; the day or working population rising to over 1,000,000. The City of LoNDoN proper lies on the north bank of the river, stretching between the Thames and Finsbury, and east and west from the Tower to Temple Bar. Both in size and shape it corresponds very nearly to the ancient Roman London, even as its chief thoroughfares, Cannon Street, Cheapside, Bishopsgate Street, etc., themselves run over the sites of Roman streets. Four bridges—Blackfriars (recently widened), Southwark, London, and the Tower (the last built on the bascule principle—i.e., a balanced bridge which can move up or down)— connect the City with the Borough of Southwark on the south side. Along the river front are strung out various steamer piers, Queenhithe Dock, the steam-packet wharf by London Bridge, Billingsgate Fish Market, the Custonn-House, and the Tower. Within the City precincts stand famous buildings and monuments too numerous to detail. Among them, however, may be mentioned the Guildhall (1411, rebuilt 1789) in King Street, off Cheapside; St. Paul's Cathedral; the Mansion House, the

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official residence of the Lord Mayor; the Bank of England, the new General Post Office in King Edward Street, enclosing a portion of the old Roman wall; St. Bartholomew's Church in Smithfield, the finest example of Norman architecture in ndon, if not in Great Britain; and the Monument (202 feet high) to commemorate the Great Fire. The topography of the City is very simple, and its main arterial thoroughfares—Upper Thames Street, Cannon Street, Cheapside with the Poultry, and London Wall (which defines part of the course of the old wall round the City)—run in a parallel east and west direction, intersected by numerous cross streets forming roughly rectangular blocks. At either end of Cheapside-Poultry there is a nodus whence radiate several streets in many directions. The Poultry end is the most important, for thence branch off (past the Bank of England, the Royal Exchange, and the Mansion House) Princes Street, Threadneedle Street,

London

The County of LoNDON covers an area of 116 square miles. The boundaries have already been indicated. In the table on this page is a list, with statistics, of the twenty-eight boroughs of which the County of London consists.

Of these, ten lie to the south . of the Thames in the geographical counties of Surrey and Kent— viz. (proceeding along the river from west to east), Wandsworth, Battersea, Lambeth, Southwark, Bermondsey, Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich (part—North Woolwich—in Essex), and two inland boroughs, Camberwell and Lewisham. The two latter and the inland parts of the riverine boroughs are principally residential, and are inhabited by those who six days a week hurry northward over the Thames. Lewisham still contains considerable stretches of open country or fields—in particular the highlying, open golfing common of Blackheath, near Greenwich Park, where golf was first played in England, probably about the

Çornhill....Lombard Street, and year 1608. Camberwell, densely
King William Street—the focus built over, contains Dulwich Col-
Area in Area in
- op. - Pop.
Name of Borough. ão. (1911). Name of Borough. §. (1911).
Battersea.............. 2,160 | 167,793 Kensington.........., 2.291 172,402
Bermondsey... 1,500 125,960 lam -- ... 4,080 298.126
Bethnal Green 759 128,282 Lewisham 7,014 160,843
Camberwell. 4.480 261,357 Paddington.. 1, 142,576
elsea . 660 | 66, Poplar........ 23:8 162,449 |
Deptford 1.563 109.498 St. Marylebo 1,478 118.221
Finsbury sso 7,976 St. Pancras.. 2,694 218,453
Fulham. 1,704 || 158,325 | Shoreditch cos | 111.4es
Greenwich 3,852 95.977 Nouthwark 1,132 191.951
Hackney ....... 3.288 222,587 Stepney ... 1,766 280,024
| Hammersmith 2.2×6 121.603 Stoke Newington 864 50.683
amps 2,265 85,510 Wadsworth. 9,108 r11.402
Holborn... 405. 49,336 Westminster 2,503 || 160,277
Islington . 8,092 || 327,423 Woolwich... 8,277 121.403

of London's and the world's financial activity. Cheapside, the ‘Golden Cheapside' of Herrick, still the main central artery of the City, no longer enjoys its old pre-eminence as a centre of commerce and finance. That has shifted eastward, just as the shipping interest has settled itself chiefly in Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street. But, as of old, Lombard Street is still one of the main seats of the banking industry; large mercers still have their shops in St. Paul's churchyard; Paternoster Row continues to be the quarter of book publishers; and Fleet Street (the home of journalism) maintains its reputation for taverns, which have been its special feature for centuries. One of the most noted of the Fleet Street taverns is the Cheshire Cheese, once a favorite resort of Dr. Johnson, whose accustomed seat is still pointed out.

lege (which was founded by Edward Alleyn, 1619), and the magnificent but little frequented Dulwich Picture Gallery. (See DULwiCH.) Coming now to the boroughs bordering on the river, the following is the order from east to west: Woolwich, which includes Eltham and Plumstead, is notable for the possession of the Royal Arsenal and the Royal Military Academy (for the training of Royal Engineer and Royal Artillery officers), the former employing some 12,000 men. Greenwich, with its engineering shops, telegraph works, and chemical works, contains Greenwich Hospital for sailors, naval schools in connection with it, and the Royal Observatory. At Greenwich, too, is a huge power station to supply electricity to the South London tramways operated by the County Council. Deptford is no longer the site of the royal dockyard

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LONDON BRIDGES.

1. Tower Bridge. 2. London Bridge. 3. Southwark Bridge. 4. Blackfriars Bridge. , 5. Waterloo Bridge. 6. Westminster Bridge. so Lambeth Bridge. geVictoria Bridge. 9. Asort Bridge. ge

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London

(closed in 1869), where Drake received his knighthood, but possesses the Royal Victoria Naval Victualling Yard, and also the London Corporation's foreign cattle-market. Deptford devotes itself to marine engineering. Bermondsey, with its extensive tanwards and wharves, is one of the owest-lying districts of S. London, and the j of some streets adjoining the river are occasionally flooded by a high tide. Rotherhithe, at the N.E. end of Bermondsey, contains the Surrey and Commercial Docks (350 acres), which import grain and timber, and which keep in touch with the heart of S. London by the Grand Surrey Canal. Southwark, or the Borough, is a borough of dingy mean streets, with a river-front lined with great warehouses and busy wharves. It is o, covered with factories. Guy's Hospital stands in the High Street of the Borough. Bankside, Southwark, was, in Shakespeare's day, the home of the amusementmongers of London, for here were the É.in s, the bear-pits, the notorious §o.d. Leaguer,’ and the Globe, Rose, Hope, and Swan Theatres. The Borough is the seat of the largest hop-market in the world. §.t in order comes the borough of Lambeth which faces Westminster, an reaches down from the river almost to the farthest southern confines of London County. It contains the district of Brixton. Lambeth Palace, which fronts the river, has been the chief official residence of the archbishops of Canterbury since 1197. To the N. opposite the Houses of Parliament stands St. Thomas's Hospital (removed to that site in 1870). In Lambeth, too, stand Bedlam, or Bethlem Royal Hospital, for the Insane (originally founded 1247 as a priory at Bishopsgate), and one of London's two great cricket grounds, Kennington Oval. The people of Battersea are fortunate in the possession of . Battersea Park (185 acres), and in their easy access to Clapham Common on the south. (See BATTERSEA.) Last of all the South London boroughs is Wandsworth, , the largest of the twenty-eight, which ends in the parish of Putney. The principal bridges and tunnels connecting London S. of the river with that of the N. bank are Blackwall Tunnel, between Greenwich and Blackwall, which cost $7,500,000 and was used by 4,148,590 passengers and 862,843 vehicles in 1903 (a second Thames tunnel scheme, between Rother: hithe and Shadwell has received §.no sanction); Deptford Subway, between Deptford and Millwall (used by 3,972,843 passengers in 1903); the Thames Tunnel (finished 1843), between

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Rotherhithe and Wapping; the Tower Bridge, between Bermondsey and the tower (opened 1894); the City and Southwark Subway; London Bridge, with a cable subway on either side of it; the SouthEastern Railway Bridge; Southwark Bridge; Blackfriars Bridge, with a South-Eastern Ry. #: on one side, , and the tunnel of the City and Waterloo electric tube on the other: Waterloo Bridge; Charin ross Rail#. and Foot Bridge, with the Baker Street and Waterloo tube tunnel beside it; Westminster Bridge; Lambeth Bridge; Vauxhall Bridge; Victoria, Bridge, from Battersea to Chelsea; Albert Bridge; Battersea Bridge; Battersea Railway Bridge of the W. London, Extension Ry.; Wandsworth Bridge into Fulham; Putney Bridge, with a railway and foot bridge beside it; and Hammersmith Bridge. Old London Bridge, which was finished in 1209, was of stone, and on it rows of houses were built for tradesmen. South London possesses the following parks and commons: —Plumstead Common. Woolwich Common, Greenwich Park, Blackheath, Deptford Park, Southwark Park, Lambeth Palace Gardens (the private property of the archbishop, but thrown open to the public on certain occasions), Kennington Park, Vauxhall Park, Camberwell New Park, Battersea Park, Brockwell Park, Clapham Common, Wandsworth Common, and a number of other small parks and commons in the southern districts of the o: of Wandsworth, Lambeth, and Camberwell. The London boroughs on the N. side of the Thames number eighteen. Five lie on the N.—viz. §o. w. to E.) Hampstead, !. ancras, so .Stoke Newington, and ackney; six abut on the river–Hammersmith, Fulham, Chelsea, Westminster, .."; and Poplar; and seven form the central band-Kensington, Paddington, St. Marylebone, Holborn, insbury, Shoreditch, and Bethnal Green. The northern districts of London lie comparatively high on the w. o: point 450 ft.), but so slope down to the low§. ackney, marshes around the Lea R. on the E. Celebrated at one time for its medicinal waters, Hampstead continues a favorite residential district and also a resort of holiday makers, who on public holidays throng the famous Heath (240 ac.). Next to Hampstead lies St. Pancras, which stretches from the maze of dingy streets which surrounds the three great railway stations of St. Pancras (Midland Railway), King's Cross (Great Northern Railway), and Euston (London and North Western Railway),

London

through Camden Town and Kentish Town (an old prebendal manor, Kentish being a corruption of “Cantler's,” or “Cantelupe's') to the breezy slopes of Highgate. Islington, which includes Lower and Upper. Holloway and Hornsey, contains a number of religious, , philanthropic, and educational institutions, and , also the Agricultural Hall (capable of holding, 30,000 people), where cattle and horse shows, military tournaments, etc., are held. On the N.E. of Islington lies the small borough of Stoke Newington, next to which is Hackney, which, though densely covered with working-men's houses between Hackney Downs and Hackney Canal, can yet boast of large stretches of open field and common land towards the river I.ea. Immediately s. of Hackney lie two of the seven central boroughs—Bethnal Green and Shoreditch. The former is a wilderness of lower-class houses and factories, but contains the riceless boon of Victoria Park 217 ac.). Shoreditch principally consists of the densely-pack parishes of Haggerston and Hoxton, and reaches down to the northern , borders of the City. Westward lie the parishes of Finsbury—St. Luke's and Clerkenwell. Clerkenwell (once the clerks’ or priests' well of pure clear water which formed the chief supply of the district), is the headquarters of the watch- and clock-making industry, and is also occupied by a number of printing-houses. #. stands, the Charterhouse, on the site of an old Carthusian monastery. In 1872 the school was transferred to Godalming in Surrey, but the building is still used as an educational institution by the Merchant Taylors' Co. Holborn is intersected by the thoroughfare of the same name, across which once ran the littlé river called the Holbourne in its upper and the Fleet in its lower course. On either side of the thoroughfare lie some of the Inns of Court—Gray’s Inn to the N. associated with the name of Francis Bacon, Lincoln's Inn and its Fields on the s.; and in Holborn itself stands the finest example of a ‘half-timbered’ house in London-Staple Inn. In the district of Bloomsbury, N. of New Oxford Street (which is a continuation of Holborn), lies the British Museum. The street names round the Museum—Chenies Street Great Russell . Street, Bedford Place, Tavistock *: (where Charles Dickens lived)—are reminiscent, of the Russell family, to which a #. part of Bloomsbog. still belongs. Sharply divided from , Westminster on the S. by Orford Street (named after ward Harley,

LONDON LANDMARKS, OLD AND NEW.

1. Law Courts. (Photo by York.) 2. Marble Arch. 3. Trafalgar Square, looking towards Westminster. (Photo by G. W. Wilson.) .4. Albert Memorial and Albert Hall. 5. New Gladstone Statue, Strand. 6. The New Gaiety. Theatre, Strand and Aldwych. 7. d improvements. the Savoy Hotel extension. 8. New War Office. 9. Hotel Russell.

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