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London

Charles II.; sent James II. on his travels. This is a most remark: able record of king-making and king-breaking, unequalled in the history of any other city. We must not forget the trade of London. For many generations the chief export was wool. There was no export and import of food-stuffs, save on rare occasions; each village was sufficient to itself, or contributed to the wants of the neighboring towns. The imports of the country consisted principally of luxuries, such as fine stuffs, silks, velvets weapons, spices, wine, oil, an so forth; while the exports continued to be wool, skins, iron and tin, and in the earliest times slaves. The great outburst of discovery and travel which characterized the 16th century laid the foundation for the expansion of trade, and therefore of empire, in the 17th and 18th centuries. This outburst is marked in the history of the city, not only by the increased wealth of the merchants, but also by the creation of the trading companies, of which so many, were founded by Elizabeth and her immediate successors. Fire, plague, and famine from time to time attacked the city. It was in 1666 that the Great Fire occurred which destroyed fifteen city wards, , with 13,000 houses. The fire, it is commonly stated and believed, cleared away a great number of narrow courts and lanes. But their successors were nearly as narrow. Pestilence in some form or other was always present in the city. We hear of terrible visitations, such as that of the Black Death in the 14th century; but we forget that durin the whole of the 16th and 17t centuries, down to the last visitation of 1665, the streets of London were never wholly free from plague. . Perhaps the boon of a lentiful so of water. conerred for the first time by the New River Company, in 1620 may have done much toward averting more attacks of the disease. Other events of importance– their importance must not be measured by the brief mention here allotted to them—were the Reformation, on the whole welcomed by the people; the dissolution of the religious houses; the Marian persecutions, which consolidated the Reformation; the rebuilding of the city after the fire: the foundation of the Royal Exchange, and its subsequent rebuilding after the fire of 1666 and of 1841; the closing of the Exchequer, by Charles II., which effectually alienated the merchant class from the Stuarts: he establishment of the Bank o ngland in 1694; the removal of

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the ń. gates in 1760; the piecemeal destruction of the city wall; the .# up of the town ditch; the rebuilding of London Bridge; the building of the many bridges which now span the river; the abolition of imprisonment for debt—an event of the highest imrtance in a trading city; the ecrease of the population of the . proper until it now numbers only a few, thousands; the occupation of the suburbs, which are now covered with houses; the enormous, increase of the population reckoned over this newlybuilt area; the creating of the London County Council and the metropolitan boroughs. GoverNMENT.-For the purposes of the imperial and judicial side of , local government the County of London and the City of London are almost entirely distinct, while, for the purposes of the administrative side of local government they are to a considerable extent united, forming together the Administrative County of . London. The purposes for which local government exists on its imperial and judicial side are: (1) the preservation of the King's peace; (2) the administration of justice in local courts, both civil and criminal; (3) the enforcement of civil process; (4) the militia; (5) the representation of the people in Parliament; and § the police. The organization or these purposes, in counties enerally consists of the sheriff, the lord-lieutenant, the magistrates, the clerk of the peace, the coroners, the county courts, and the standing joint committee of the County, Council and , the justices. All these authorities exist, in London, but in some cases, their jurisdiction is superseded by that of other authorities peculiar to London. The Sheriff.-There are two sheriffs of the City of London, elected annually on Midsummer Day in the Court of Common #: by those freemen of the city who are liverymen of the city companies. The sheriff of the County of London is pointed in the same way as in other English counties. The sheriffs of the city attend the sittings of the Central Criminal Court, attend the Lord Mayor on official occasions, and share the expense of his entertainments, present the city's petitions to Parliament and addresses to the King. The sheriff of the County, of London, has merely nominal duties, as the county is within the Čentral Criminai Court District. The Lord - Lieutenant. The lord-lieutenant of the County of London has the same duties as in other English counties. (See LoRD-LIEUTENANTs.) In the

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City of London the fieutenancy is in commission—i.e. there is no lord-lieutenant, but a large number of commissioners who together exercise the office. Magistrates. – In the County of London the magistrates are the justices named in the Commission of the Peace for the §: . They have all the civil jurisdiction of justices in other counties, both at special and quarter sessions; but their criminal jurisdiction is exercised by the metropolitan police magistrates and the paid chairman and deputy-chairman of the courts of quarter sessions. In the City of London the magistrates are the Lord Mayor, aldermen, and the recorder, who are all justices by charter. There is a court of quarter sessions for the City of ndon, but most criminal cases arising in the city are tried at the Old Bailey, where the recorder and the common sergeant of the city sit as judges of the Central Criminal Court. The Lord Mayor or an alderman, sitting at the Mansion House or Guildhall justice room, has the powers of two justices sit.# as a court of petty sessions, and, in addition, nearly all the special powers of a metropolitan police magistrate. The clerk of the peace is the clerk of the court of quarter sessions. He has , the custody of all records and documents belonging to the court of quarter sessions and the justices out of session. In most counties he is also the clerk of the County Council, but he is not so in London. The coroners in fondon have the same duties as English coroners elsewhere; but the coroner of the City of fondon also holds inquests in cases of fires in the city, under the City of London Fire Inquests Act, 1881. The Central Criminal Court is a court of the High Court of Justice, adapted to meet the needs of London and the surrounding district. (See CENTRAL CRIMINAL Court.) In 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works and the Metropolitan Vestries and District Boards were created by the Metropolis Management Act of that year. This act, did much to remedy the confusion which had reviously existed in the administrative local government of London. All the powers and duties of the Metropolitan Board of Works were transferred to the London County Council in 1888. The vestries and district boards continued to exist till the creation of the metropolitan boroughs by the London Government Act, 1899. The Local Government Act, 1888, made a great change in the

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tunnel; the maintenance of the Thames embankments; the making of large metropolitan improvements, and contributing to the cost of local improvements; the management of existing parks and open spaces, and the purchase of new ones; the management of the Metropolitan . Fire Brigade, and of the county lunatic asylums, reformatory and industrial schools; the clearin of insanitary areas; , the building of houses for the workin classes, and the erection, an management of common lodginghouses; the appointment of coroners, and the provision of places for holding inquests; the purchase, leasing, and working of street railways; a service of passenger steamers on the Thames; the administration of the Contagious Diseases of Animals Acts; the provision of small holdings; the management of lands and houses belonging to the council, of the estimated value of between $10,000,000 and $15,000,000; and the execution of a considerable part of the council's own works by means of its works department The council also exercises large powers of , supervision over #. work of the local sanitary authorities, and can take action itself when they are in default. It licenses thcatres outside the Lord Chamberlain's district; all music halls in London; racecourses within ten miles of Charing Cross; slaughter-houses, cowhouses, and places for carrying on offensive businesses; all factories, magazines, and stores for making or keeping explosives and petroleum; and houses for the reception of children under the Infant Life Protection Acts. It examines and approves plans, and makes by-laws under the London Building Act. . It appoints inspectors of dairies and cow-sheds and inspectors of weights an measures. It appoints gas examiners, and tests gas and electric meters; and exercises duties with regard to the prevention of floods and the pollution of rivers. It makes by-laws for a number of purposes, and has powers to promote and oppose bills in Parliament affecting London. Its current, expenditure is provided for }. the county tax, assisted by the xchequer contribution; and its capital opi. is met by the creation of London County Council stock and bills. All new borrowing must be sanctioned by Parliament, and the council introduces an annual money bill which includes all the capitai roposed to be borrowed, both or the purposes, of the council and of the other local authorities in London, who must all borrow through the council. By the Education (London) Act, 1903, London

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the Education Act, 1902, is aplied to London. The London chool Board was abolished, and the County Council was made the education authority for Londen. The local or district administrative authorities in London are the councils of the twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs created by the London Government Act, 1899, and the Corporation of the City of London. The metropolitan boroughs are not boroughs within the meaning of the Municipal Corporations Acts. Each metropolitan borough has a council consisting of a mayor, aldermen, and councillors; but the council is really only a district authority created because of the enormous size of London, to exercise those subordinate powcrs and duties which can best be administered locally, while the real central authority is the Count Council. The borough councils are the local sanitary authoritics, and exercise nearly all the powers cf the London Public Health Act; all powers with regard to the construction and maintenance of sewers and drains, oxcept main

drains; and the making, main- .

taining, lighting, watering, cleansing, and regulating of the streets. hey provide and manage baths and wash-houses, public libraries, and minor open spaces. They are overseers, of the poor within their boroughs; and they collect all the taxes of London both for their own expenses, and the other spending authorities in London. In addition to the powers possessed by the borough councils, the corporation of the city exercises, some powers within the city which elsewhere in London are in the hands of the County Council, such as the management of lunatic asylums, and reformatory and industrial schools, and the powers as to petroleum, oxplosives, and weights and measures. The corporation also possesses and manages four bridges over the Thames—Blackfriars Bridge, Southwark Bridge, London Bridge, and the Tower Bridge, all maintained on revenues from the Bridge House Estates. The city markets have already been spoken of; and the corporation has also provided, out of the proceeds of an old duty on grain, certain open spaces outside the Čounty of ionon, but within twenty-five miles of it, the principal of which are Epping Forest and Burnham Beeches. The local authorities engaged in administering poor relief in the administrative county of London are the guardians, the school district managers, the sick asylum district managers, and the Metropolitan Asylums Board. London's poor relief expenditure WOL. WIL.-Jan. 10.

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in 1906–7 was £3,902,549, that of England and Wales for the same period being £14,524,262. The water supply of London and the surrounding districts is controlled by the , Metropolitan Water Board, which was created in 1902, to carry on the undertakings of the eight metropolitan water companies and of the urban district councils of Tattenham and Enfield. The Board consists of 66 members, of which 14 are appointed by the London County Council, 30 by borough councils and the remainder by other loca authorities. The area supplied by the Board is 522.69 sq. m., the Hol." supplied is 6,943,412. he total cost of London's water *Rol in 1907–8 was £2,766,555. MARKETS.–The administration of the principal markets of London (London Central, Leadenhall, Billingsgate, Smithfield Hay, Metropolitan Cattle, Deptford Čattle, and Spitalfields), is in the hands of the Corporation. The minor markets (Whitechapel Hay, Borough, Woolwich) are directly or indirectly controlled . b ocal authorities. Markets in hands of private owners are Covent Garden and Portman Markcts (fruits, flowers, and vegetables) and Cumberland Mark; t (hay). In 1908, 193,820 tons of fish passed through Billingsgate Market; 56,057 cattle, 330,216 sheep, and 1,512 calves passed through Metropolitan Cattle Market; 144,239 cattle, 2,642 sheep, and total animals, 534,691, K. through Forcign Cattle arket; 409,730 tons of produce (meat É. , and provisions) assed through London Central Markets. illingsgate , is the most ancient market in London. It is mentioned in a proclamation dated 1297, and it was given in evidence before the Royal Commission of 1893 that it was used for the sale of fish a thousand years . Smithfield was an existing market in 1253, and from 1614 to 1855 was utilized for the sale of live stock. In the last-named year it was removed to its present site at Islington, and became known as the Metropolitan Cattle Market. The new market occuies a site of about 75 acres. The oreign Cattle Market at Deptford was opened in January, 1872, “for the landing, reception, sale, and slaughter of foreign animals, with a view to the prevention of the introduction into Great Britain of contagious diseases’, and was enlarged in 1881. The ionion Central Markets stand partly on the site of old Śmiłość" Market, and were opened in December, 1868. They comprise a meat market, a poultry and provision market, fruit, vegetable, and flower sections, etc. The meat section, which affords direct and indirect employment to 9,000 per

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sons, and the erection of which involved a capital expenditure of $5,375,000, is believed to be the largest meat market in the world. Leadenhall Market has existed from very early times, and was an ancient prescriptive market for the sale of meat, poultry, game, and provisions. TRAFFIC.—The problem of London traffic presents two broad asts. The one is concerned with agilities for getting from the outside to the inside of the metropolis, and vice versa; and the other with progression , in the main thoroughfares of the central districts. A third question which is involved in the general problem is the constitution of a tribunal or authority, similar, it may be, to the Rapid Transit Commission of New York, which, shall be especially charged with the coordination, the control, and the regulation of the whole of the traffic projects in and for London. The means of what has now come to be spoken of as “intramural transportation’, having become hopelessly, inadequate for the necessities of the population under the present conditions of London life and labor, Parliament was appealed to, and on Feb. 10, 1903, a royal commission was appointed to inquire into the whole subject of London traffic. The commissioners issued their report on July 20, 1905, the main conclusions of which are briefly stated here. The population must be taken out of London in many directions at, rapid speed, fréquent intervals, and cheap rates, as to rehouse them “on site' is far too costly. The commissioners therefore recommend the construction of two main avenues through London, each 140 ft. wide—one, from east to west, to connect Bayswater Road with Whitechapel; and , the other, from north to south, to connect Holloway with the Élephant and Castle. These avenues are to have four lines of tramways on the surface, and four lines of railway beneath, , both to be worked by electricity, so that express trains and local stopping trains may run on different rails. The total cost is estimated at $120,000,000. The widening of several other streets, a viaduct at Blackfriars Bridge, and a bridge, across the Strand are among the other, recommendations. The commissioners advise a. H. extension of tramways in ndon and in the suburbs: through connection between the different tramway, systems; that provisions be made for running outside as well as inside the county, and that the power of veto at , present exercised by local authorities be abolished. It is estimated that 15,000 street

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railway cars run daily in London, most of them having their termini just on the boundary of the central area. The number of passengers carried in the London County Council cars during the year ended Dec. 31, 1907, was 372,515,754. The London streets were traversed by 3,288 omnibuses in 1908 (many § them motor-cars of an improved type). They conveyed in iQ07, 275,479,000 passengers. In 1908 there were 4,825 licensed hansoms and 3,650 “four wheelers.” With the stupendous increase of traffic the streets of London, with

a few exceptions, have remained as

narrow and as irregular as they were a century ago. Sixty years ago the number of railway stations in London was only eight. On Jan. 1, 1909, there were 332. ithin the area of what is known as Greater London there are 609 railway stations, while within the metropolitan area there are 24 stations which may be regarded as termini. The total average number of trains to all termini on an ordinary week-day in December, 1908, was 8,556, of which 8,071 were suburban trains. The underground and surface railways rating in London, acting as distributors and feeders of the trunk lines, carry not less than 600,000,000 passengers per annum, and it has been asserted that the new accommodation being provided will afford greater facilities, to an extent ranging from 400,000,000 to 450,000,000 additional passengers a year. The main difficulty, or at least one of the main difficulties, in so far as “intra-mural transportation is concerned, is the getting of the passengers who arrive in the suburban trains at the scattered termini to their work in the central area. . It is, expected that this difficulty will be largely removed when the new “tube’ railways (having tunnels between 11 and 12 feet in diameter) are opened. The enterprise, which is being developed in accordance with the lans of the late Mr. Charles T. serkes, who built and successfully "É. the electric trolleys in Philadelphia and Chicago, is one of great magnitude. It involves the construction of three new lines of tube railways (Baker Street and Waterloo; Great Northern o and Brompton; and Charing Cross, Euston, and Hampstead); the electrification of the existing District (Underground) Railway; the provision of a new line of electric surface railway, between Edgware and Hampstead; and the working, in conjunction with a portion of the scheme, of the London United Tramways (1901) Co., Ltd. The capital invested in the deep level Vol. VII.-Jan. "10.

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railways, of which 39.9 miles were in operation July, 1909, is 22,995,295, excluding the Water. oo and City Ry. This undertaking is vested in the London and Southwestern Co. London thus has the largest and most comprehensive, system of underground and tube railways in the world. The ‘underground as distinguished from the “tube' railways are the Metropolitan and the District, which were changed to electric railways in 1905. Another enterprise which is working towards the solution of some of the present difficulties is the extension of the electric streetcar service. There are in Greater London 309.63 miles of street railways open for traffic. Of this distance 108} miles is owned by the County Council at a total cost of acquisition of £2,185,155. Only about one-quarter of these tram. ways has thus far (1910) been electrified, but the work of electrification is proceeding rapidly. . The electric cars have a double-deck. In June, 1905, the County Council inaugurated a municipal service of passenger steamboats on the Thames—a great highway which, as regards this E.T.: had been §§ derelict for several years. The expenditures in 1907–8 were 51,998, and the revenue was 35,635. The council is carrying out (1910), immense street improvements in the lengthening and widening of thoroughfares such as the Šion and Fleet Street and Piccadilly and the construction of new broad arteries of traffic. The opening (October, 1905) of the thoroughfares of Kingsway and . Aldwych completed the principal part of the great Holborn and Strand improvement scheme. LONDON Port is still, as it has been for at least two centuries, the greatest port in the world in respect of the amount of ship# and of goods which enter it. he total s o; entering it is, roughly speaking, one-fifth of the total o of the United Kingdom; while the value of the commodities imported at the port is, approximately, one-third, and of the exports about one-fourth, of the total value of the imports and exports of the whole of the country. The number of sailing and steam vessels engaged in the foreign trade and coastwise which entered the rt with cargoes and in ballast in 1907 was 25,857, with a tonnage of 17,292,438, and 26,474 vessels, with a tonnage of 16,486,232, cleared it. The Port of London Act, 1908, transferred the powers and duties of the Thames onson; Board, the Watermen’s and ightermen's Co., the three chief dock companies, to the Port of London

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Authority. . The powers of Trinity, House in respect of pilotage, lighting, and buoying, and of the City Corporation in respect of functions of port sanitation, remain unchanged. The Port of London Authority consists of 30 members, of whom 17 are elected by payers of , dues, wharfingers and owners of river craft, and 4 are appointed ... by the iondon County Council. The term of members is 3 years; members of the first Port Authority will go out of office in 1913. LoNDoN UNIVERSITY, South Kensington, S.W.-In 1835 it was decided to incorporate London University, College, and to establish a distinct examining body to be called the University of London. In 1836 charters were duly #. § King William Iv., to nqon University College and to the University of London, provision being made that the university should be unsectarian and under the general control of the government. The university, in 1854, obtained the power of grant1ng o in medicine, and in 1858 the examinations, except in medicine, were thrown open to all comers. In 1878 it was decided that every degree, honor, and prize awarded by the university should be made accessible to students of both sexes on absolutely equal terms. In 1900 it was also made a teaching body. The ImHo! College of Science and echnology, incorporated under Royal Charter of July 8, 1907, was admitted as a school of the University in 1908. The university, now... (1910) consists of the chancellor, the existing fellows for their respective lives, the senate, the graduates, and the students. The former examining work of the university has been continued without any break of continuity. But since the reconstitution a great change has taken place in the relation between the university and the various colleges and institutions within the prescribed circle of . thirty miles round the university. Any such public college or institution, in which the teaching is of university character, o op; for recognition as a ‘school of the university.’ The courses of study and the teachers of these colleges are also recognized, provided they fulfil the o conditions. To meet the needs of certain institutions, such as the London polytechnics, whose work is only in part of university character, it was provided that teachers in these institutions might be recognized. The ‘schools” of the university include University and King's Colleges, the medical schools attached to the eleven great hospitals of London,

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