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London

the Royal College of Science, the Central Technical College, the London, School of Economics, seven theological colleges, three colleges for women—viz. Bedford College, Holloway College, and Wojd College—and one agricultural college, Wye College– the last, being the only school of the university situated beyond the appointed radius. The Wor§F Company of Goldsmiths have presented to the university their great institution at New Cross known as the Goldsmiths' Institute. A research laboratory in o has been opened in the university, and arrangements have been made for the education of university candidates for commissions in the army. The important work of the £oná. University Extension Society has been transferred wholly to the university, which also undertakes the examination and inspection of secondary schools, these depart: ments being under the control of a special board. It may be of interest to note that in 1907-8 there were about 1,000 recognized teachers and 3,648 registered internal students. LIVERY CoMPANIES.—The Livery Companies, one of the peculiar appurtenances of the City of London, are the successors of the craft guilds. . The guilds were voluntary associations, governed by ordinances of their own framing, which regulated, and to some extent controlled, the trades carried on in the city. , They a pointed overseers to inspect the wares produced or sold, and um#. to adjudicate in cases of ispute between masters . and workmen. . In the reign of Edward III. charters were granted to these voluntary associations, and their ordinances formally recognized and enrolled in the Lord §. court. Each company assumed a distinctive livery, and it is to this fact that they owe their present name, though there is no reference to them as “livery companies’ in the original char: ters. The companies continued for some time to exercise the functions of the guilds; but their decay as trade organizations, began in the early part of the 16th century, and during the last four hundred years they, have generally been mainly identified with acts of hospitality and benevolence. There are seventy-six ‘city companies,’ to adopt their everyday designation. Twelve of these are known as the “great companies, the remainder as “minor'companies. The majority of the “great' companies are possessed of immense wealth. Much of this wealth is devoted to educational urposes. The City and Guilds of nqon Institute, for the advanceWOL. VII.-Jan. “10.

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ment of technical education, was founded in 1877 by the companies who contribute the larger part of its annual income of $175,000. The Clothworkers’ Company promoted the establishment of &;. shire College, Leeds, now merged in the Yorkshire University. Merchant . Taylors' School, was founded in 1561 by Sir Thomas White and the Court of the Merchant Taylors' Company, who are to-day the governing body of the school. e companies largely subsidize the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the matter of exhibitions; the Drapers' Company provide a large number of scholarships at the East London Technical College; and between thirty and forty schools in London and the provinces are supported to a considerable extent out of the rivate income of the companies: t is estimated that they spend about $375,000 a year on educa: tional purposes. They contributed $65,000 to the establishment of the Royal College of Music; and during the ten years 1869–79 the London Hospital received $132,500 from the Grocers alone. The companies expend annually about $375,000 of their trust income on the support of their almshouses and in the relief of poor members, and many thousands a year on benevolent and public objects of a general character. hey H. thirty-eight halls in Lonon, the rateable value of which is placed at about $300,000 a year. he value of their plate (which includes some of the finest and rarest specimens of antique silver known to connoisseurs) and furniture is estimated at $1,600,000; while the capital value of the whole of their property was, in 1880, put at the figure of $75,000,000. A royal commission was o: in 1880 to inquire into the circumstances and dates of the foundation of the city § companies, the objects for whic they were founded, and how far those objects were now being carried out. he commissioners reorted in 1884, but the recommenations, they made have never been given effect to } Parliament. See Herbert's Hist. of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London, Hazlitt's Livery Companies of the City of London (1892), and Report of the Royal Commission (5 vols. 1884). Bibliography. — The earliest work on London was that of John Stow, A Survey of London (1598), republished as Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, continued from 1683 to 1720 by Strype (1720; new ed. 1842). See also Besant's London (1892), History of London o Westminster (1895), South London (1899), East London (1901), London in the 18th Century (1902), London

London

in the Time of the Stuarts (1903), Holborn and Bloomsbury (1903), The Thames % London in the Time of the Tudors (1904), with Besant and Mitton's Westminster (1902), and Strand District (1902); Lethaby's London before the Con#: (1902), Thornbury's Old and ew London (1898), The Queen's London (1895); Hutton's Literary Landmarks of London (1892); Hopkins's The Boroughs of the Metropolis 1900); "Walford's Greater. London (1901); Hare's Walks in London (7th ed. 1901); Loftie's Hist, of London (1884); Villars's London and its Environs 1887); Loftie's §"{o}} are's Westminster 1894); Sharpe's London (1894); Cunningham's Handbook to London (new ed. 1891); Hueffer's The Soul of London (1905); Barton's Familiar Tondon (1904); Wylie's London to the Nore (1905); Marshall and Miss Mitton's . The Scenery of ##.9% Norman's London Vanished a Vanishing (1905); Cripps's Position of the London Water Companies (1892); Firth's Municipal London (1876); Hunt's London Local Government (1897); ;" Government of ndon under the London Government Act, 1899 (1899); The London Manual (yearly); and the statistics published annually by the London County Councis. London. (1.) Cit Ont., Canada, co., seat of Middlesex co., 105 m. w.s.w.. of Toronto, on the Thames R., and on the Can. Pac., the Gr. Trunk, the Pere Marq., and the Mich. Cent. R. Rs. It is situated in a fine agricultural country, and is the trade centre of a wide district. The chief manufactures are stoves, enamelled ware, tinware, biscuit, , confectionery, cigars, structural iron, engines, threshing machines, foundry products, canned goods, organs, malt liquors, cte. Shops of the Grand Trunk Railroad situated here employ 400 hands. The city is the seat of Western University with complete medical, arts and divinity departments, the Provincial Normal School and Collegiate Institute. Victoria Hospital is situated in the southern art of the city and St. Joseph's ospital, the provincial :* for the insane, occupies. 300 acres just outside the city limits. Among the charitable institutions are the Protestant and Mount. Hope Orphans' Homes, Home for Aged People, Women's Shelter, Children's Shelter, Convalescent Home, and Home for Incurables. The chief parks are Victoria Park, in the heart of the city, containing about 14 acres; Queen's Park, in the east end, i.o.o. acres, and Springbank Park, of 272 acres, whic is a resort about five miles distant London

on the river bank. London was settled in 1826. Pop. o 37,981. (2.) Vil., O., Co. seat o Madison co., on the Cle., Cin., Chi. and St. L., and the Pitts., Cin., Chi. and St. L. R. Rs., 24 m. w.s.w.. of Columbus. It is a shipping point for agricultural produce and manufactures carriages, pans, shoes, lumber, flour, etc. e electric jo, plant is owned, and operated by the municipality. Pop. (1900) 3,511.

London, JACK (1876), American author, was born in San Francisco, Cal., and, after studying, for a time at the University of California, *|†. a roving life, visiting the Klondike, iPof as a sailor before the mast, and making extensive pedestrian tours in Canada and the U. S. He also acted as war correspondent, and was present in that capacity dur: ing the Russo-Japanese War, and gave lectures on these and his other experiences. Mr. London's o studies, made in the guise of a working man, are portrayed in such ks as The People of the Abyss (1903), and The War of the Classes (1905). His novel, The Sea Wolf (1904), is generally considered, his most powerful work of fiction. Other notable stories are The Son of the Wolf § The Children of the

Frost (1902), The Call of the Wild #} and Tales of the Fish Patrol 1905).

London Clay, a formation of Lower Eocene age, is the substratum on which most of London is built. It is a tough, compact marine clay in which traces of bedding are rarely seen, and, at the surface, is typically blue-gray, and is very impervious to moisture, forming a soil which is damp and cold in winter, while in summer it bakes hard and cracks with the drought. Around London and in the lower part of the Thames valley the London clay covers a large area, and many brick fields have been opened in it. As a rule, it contains few fossils, but in some places shells, remains of plants, birds, fishes, and quadrupeds are found. Often there are bands of large calcareous septaria, which have been used for the manufacture of cement.

London Company, at first a subdivision, of a large company which, in April, 1606, was chartered for planting colonies in America, and later, after 1609, a separate joint stock company, officially known as “The Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the City of London for the First Colony in Virginia.’ The original London Company was to plant a colony somewhere between the 34th and 38th degrees of latitude, to the other subdivision (the Plymouth

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Company) being assigned the territory between the 41st and 45th degrees. The company's charter was withdrawn and the company itself consequently dissolved in 1624; during its last three or four years it had a membership of about 1,000. Among its leading members were Sir Thomas Smith, , Sir Edwin Sandys, the Earl of Southampton, and John and Nicholas Ferrar. It was by this §." that, Jamestown was found (1607) and that, until 1624, the colony of Virginia was administered. Londonderry. (1.) Maritime co., Ulster, Ireland, with seaboard extending between the Bann and Lough Foyle. In the S.E. it is washed by Lough Neagh. The surface is in great part mountainous, the highest point being Mt. Sawell (2,236 ft.), on the southern border. There are many fertile valleys and lowlying tracts, especially near the northern coast and Lough Neagh. The principal rivers are Foyle, Faughan, and Bann, flowing north, and Moyola into Lough Neagh. Agriculture is the chief industry, and linen is manufactured. The fisheries are valuable. Area, 816 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 144,400. (2.) Or DERRY munic. and parl. bor., city, an cap. of above co., 144 m. N.w.. of Dublin. It is situated on a hill, partly surrounded by the Foyle, about 4 m. above its expansion into the lough. The walls, about 1 m. in circuit, were constructed early in the 17th century. Shirtmaking is the principal industry, and there are distilleries, foundries, tanneries, and a shipyard. In 1688–9 took place the memorable siege by the forces of James II. Pop. (1901) 39,892. See Dwyer's The Siege of Londonderry in 1689, and Waddington's Guide to Londonderry (1896). Londonderry, CHARLEs STEWART WANE-TEMPEst - Stewart, MARQUIs of (1852), English statesman, was born in London, and educated at Eton and Oxford. As Viscount Castlereagh he occupied a seat in the House of Commons (1878–84), when he succeeded to the marquisate. Lord Londonderry was lord-lieutenant of Ireland (1886-9), chairman of the London School Board (1895– 7). He became Postmaster-general, and was admitted to the cabinet (1899). Lord Londonderry was President of the Board of Education in the Balfour administration (1902-5), and on the retirement of the Duke of Devonshire from the government (1903), he also held the office of Lord President of the Council. London Gazette, THE, official organ, of the British government, has been published now for nearly two hundred and fifty

Lone Wolf

years. It first appeared in November, 1665, under the title of The Oxford Gazette, when the court of Charles II. had been driven to Oxford by the plague; but in the following February the title was changed to that by which it has ever since been known. At the present day the Gazette is wholly occupied with proclamations of state, promotions, appointments, transfers and retirements of naval and military officers, official and legal announcements, and advertisements inserted in compliance with the law or the order of the courts. London Pride, or NoNE-SoPRETTY, is a little evergreen plant, Sarifraga umbrosa. roin pretty green rosettes of leaves spring numerous tall, hairy flowerstalks, bearing panicles of white flowers dotted with red and yelOw. Lone Wolf, (Indian name Gái pago), a chief of the Kiowa or Gäigwil tribe of Indians, originating in the North, but É. almost three-quarters of a century one of the largest and fiercest of the tribes of the Southern plains. Lone Wolf succeeded Dohasān as chief of the tribe in 1866, not lon after the treaty was made with Kit Carson and others confining the Kiowa to Western Texas and what is now Oklahoma. In spite of this and the Medicine Lodge treaty of 1867, hostilities were renewed by the Kiowa in 1868, and in the Fall of that year Gen. George A. Custer was assigned the duty of suppressing the general Indian outbreak. In December Gen. Custer seized Lone Wolf and his second in command, and threatened to hang them unless their tribe came into Fort Cobb within two days. The following spring Fort Sill was established in their reservation to keep them and other Indians in check. Lone Wolf participated, in the inter-tribal peace council of 1872, and later in the same * visited Washington as one of a delegation from the Kiowa and Apache. Invasions of the Indians’ reservations by white hunters and the death of Lone Wolf's son and nephew while raiding in Mexico, led the chief to § on the war path again in 1874. he outbreak was suppressed, and Lone Wolf and others surrendered to Gen. Scofield in Feb. 1875, and in May, Lone Wolf was sent to Fort Marion, Fla., and placed in military confinement. He was released in 1878, and died in 1879 at the reservation, having previously conferred his name and the succession as head chief of the Kiowa upon a comrade of his son who had been killed in Mexico. The succession of the second Lone Wolf was puted by a nephew of the first.

Long

Long, Loch, arm of the sea between Argyllshire and Dumbartonshire, Scotland, 5 m. N.w.. of Greenock. Its western extension is known as Loch Goil. At its northern extremity are the village of Arrochar, and Ben Arthur, or the “Cobbler’ (2,891 ft.). Long, CRAwford W. (1815– 78), American physician, born at Dánielsville, Ga. He graduated at Franklin College, Pa., in 1835, and received the M.D. degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. He practised at Jefferson Ga., until 1851, when he removed to Athens, Ga., where he resided until his death.' Early in 1842 he experimented with anaesthesia for surgical operations, and in March, 1842, he performed an operation upon a patient in a state of anaes: thesia, from the inhalation of ether. The results of this and other successful experiments were reported to the Georgia State §. Society in 1842. It is now generally agreed that Dr. Long was undoubtedly the discoverer of the value of ether in surgery, and the first to demonstrate its action publicly. See MoRTON, W. T. G. Long, GEoRGE (1800–79), English classical scholar, born at Poulton, and educated at Cambridge, where his career was marked with brilliant success. He held professorships at Charlottesville, Virginia (1824-8), and in the newly-founded University of London, now University College (1828–31), and again from 1842 to 1846. He edited several atlases, classical and modern, a Political Dictionary, the series known as the Bibliotheca Classica, and published Two Discourses on Roman Law (1847), and the Decline of the Roman Republic (1864–74); , also manuals of Greek and Latin grammar and etymology. See Mathews's In Memoriam (1879). Long, JoHN DAVIS (1838), American politician and official, born at Buckfield, Oxford co., Me. He attended Hebron Academy, graduated at Harvard College in 1857, and taught for several years in Westford Academy in Mass. He studied law at Harvard, was admitted to the bar, in 1875–78 was a member of the lower house of the legislature, and served as speaker in 1876–78. In 1879 he became lieutenant-governor of Mass., and he was governor in 1880–82. From 1883 to 1889 he was a representative in Congress, and became well known as a conscientious member and as a ready speaker. He became sec§ of the navy under Pres. McKinley in 1897, and at once be£o to prepare the na's for a possile war with Spain. Much of the success of the naval forces during the Spanish War was due

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to his untiring efforts. He resigned in 1902 to return to the ractice of law in Boston. He as given much attention to the affairs of Harvard University, of which he is president of the Board of Overseers. He has gol After Dinner and Qther peeches (1895), and, The New American Navy (2 vols. 1903). Long, STEPHEN HARRIMAN (..*.*}}} American engineer, rn at Hopkinton, N. H. ... He aduated at Dartmouth §: in 1809, and in 1814 entered the United States Engineer, Corps. He was instructor in mathematics at West Point from 1814 to 1816, and then took charge of important surveying operations in the country west of the Mississippi river as far as the Rocky Mountains. In 1827 he was appointed chief engineer of surveys to the Baltimore and Ohio R. R. In 1856 he was appointed managing engineer to the Mississippi Improvement Board, and in 1863, he retired from active service with the rank of colonel of engineers. o Peak, in the Rocky Mts. Ç: ..), is named after him. See Keating's Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River, etc. (1825). Long, WALTER HUME (1854), English statesman, born at Bath; educated at Harrow and Oxford, and entered Parliament (1880). He sat for a constituency in Wiltshire, his native county, until 1892, when he was defeated, but was returned (1892) for the West Derby division of Liverpool, and afterwards for S. Bristoi (1900). In the second Salisbury administration (1886-92) he was appointed parliamentary secretary to the Local Government Board, and on the formation of the coalition government (18951900) he was made President of the Board of Agriculture. When the government was reconstructed (November, 1900), Mr. Long was made President of the Local Government Board, a post to which he was again appointed in 1902. In March, 1905, he became Chief Secretary for Ireland on the retirement of Mr. George Wyndham, a position which he held till Mr. Balfour's resignation in December of that year. Longan, an Indian evergreen tree, No." longana, twenty feet in height, and , bears loose panicles of small white flowers, which are followed by yellow globose berries, containing... white, tart, juicy pulp not unlike the litchi nut. Longbeach, city, Los Angeles co., Cal., on San Pedro harbor and on the S. Pac. and the Salt Lake R. Rs., 20 m. s. of Los Aneles. It has a trade in lumber, ruits, farm produce, etc. It is a very attractive watering place,

Longevity

with fine parks and many features of scenic interest, including the Catalina Islands, Portuguese Bend, White's Point, and Signal Hill. Pop. (1900) 2,252. Long-boat. A term, not now much used, formerly applied to the largest boat carried o a sailing vessel. The long-boat was fitted with masts, sails, and oars, and was usually of sufficient size to carry nearly all the crew of a merchantship. Long Branch, tr., Monmouth co., N.J., situated on the Atlantic Ocean and on the Pa., the Cent. of N. J., and the N. Y. and L. B. R. R.S., 38 m. s. of New York. It is noted as a fashionable watering place. Rumson and Shrewsbury drives and Ocean Bluff are features of interest. The industries include pound, fisheries, market soloin}, and some manufacturing. ong Branch was settled about 1667. The first, act of incorporation was passed in 1867. he Monmouth Memorial Hospital and the Long Branch Circulating Library are among the public institutions. Pop. (1905) 12,183. Longchamp, pleasure resort in the . Bois de Boulogne, w; of Paris. Its abbey, founded in 1260, was, until its suppression in 1792, a centre of musical attraction during Holy Week. The race for the Grand Prix is run over Longchamp course. Longchamp, WILLIAM DE (d. 1197), a Norman of low birth, who won the confidence and favor of Richard I., under whom he rose to be bishop of Ely and chancellor. He was a strong opponent of the faction led by John, and throughout a loyal defender of Richard's interests in England, particularly in the matter of raising the king's ransom. His exactions, rendered him generally unpopular, in spite of his great talents for government, organization, and diplomacy. See Gesta Ricardi Regis, and Boivin-Champeaux's Notice sur Guillaume de Longchamp (1885). Long evity. In considering length of life from the biological standpoint, it is convenient to divide organisms into two categories—those with one reproductive period, and those which reproduce more than once. In the former the whole life history may be run through very rapidly, as in many of our garden annuals among plants; or the life may be divided into a prolonged vegetative period and a brief reproductive period. Thus the socalled biennials among plants accumulate food-stores during their first season, and use these up during the second or reproductive season. . If the strain of reproduction be very heavy, then the vegetative period may be greatly Longfellow Ilongfellow

prolonged, as in the familiar case of the century-plant (Yucca). Quite similar conditions occur among insects, where the whole life history may be short, or, as in the May-flies or Ephemerides, larval life may be prolonged though the adult reproductive life is very short. In all such cases death ensues as soon as the needs of the new generation are provided for. Where there is periodical reproduction the matter is much more complicated. In the case of perennial plants, if the foodsupply continue sufficient, there seems no reason why life should not be prolonged, unless through accident, almost indefinitely. The same is apparently true of many sluggish and sedentary animals. With most active and highly differentiated animals, however, the length of life is more or less definitely determined for the species, though the reason for the limit is not quite understood. It has probably something to do with size, for, generally speaking, small animals are shorter lived than large ones; but this is only approximately true, for queen ants are long-lived. Again, the length of life has something to do with the rate at which maturity is reached: man and the elephant alike come slowly to maturity, and are long-lived. On the whole, however, no general statements can be laid down as to what determines the length of life, and the problem is greatly complicated by the fact that most of the available figures refer to animals under the artificial conditions of domestication or captivity. We have at present no means of knowing how frequently natural death occurs among wild animals. Longfellow, HENRY WADSworth (1807–82), American poet, was born at Portland, Me., on Feb. 27, 1807. He was the son of Štephen flon fellow, a Portland lawyer, and Zilpah, daughter of General Peleg Wadsworth a descendant of join Alden and Priscilla, the ‘Puritan maiden,” whose fame the t has preserved in The Courtship o iles Standish. He graduated from Bowdoin College in , 1825. The same year he entered his father's office, but disliking the study of law, he accepte the newly founded chair of modern languages at Bowdoin, with leave of absence for travel. He sailed for Europe in 1826, and during the next three years made a study of European languages, visiting France, Spain, Italy, and Germany. e entered upon his duties at Bowdoin in the autumn of 1829, , and proved eminently successful as a teacher. Longfellow published a translation of Las Coplas of Don Jorge Man

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of diction, tenderness, and pathos. Two years later a drama, without any special merit, The Spanish Student, enjoyed an almost equal popularity. , Longfellow paid a third yisit to Europe in 1842, and on his return home he published his Poems on Slavery, a volume including The Quadroon Girl, The Slave Singing at Midnight, and The Warning. The Poets, and Poetry of Europe F. ared in conjunction with Proessor #es. The |ry of Bruges, The Waif, and The Estray, written between 1845 and 1846, widened the poet’s fame. These were followed by Evaneline (1847), the best of his onger poems, written in dactylic hexameters. ... Kavanagh (1849) proved a failure; but The Seaside and the Fireside (1850), a volume of minor poems written in a most engaging form, was more successful; and equally so was The Golden Legend (1851)—a romance of the middle ages, based on Hartmann von Aue's Der Arme Heinrich—ranking next to Evangeline, and containing many passages of great beauty. Longfellow resigned his chair at Harvard (1854) in order to devote himself more freely to purely literary work. Hiawatha (1855), an Indian legend, the outcome of his new and welcome leisure, was written in the trochaic tetrameter measure of the Finnish epic Kalevala. The metre, , which readily lends itself to ridicule, and is by some considered monotonous, suits the subject, and Hoe. pleasing to most ears. The poem ran through thirty editions in one year. he Courtship of Miles Standish (1858), a romance in hexameters founded on the early history of the Plym

outh colony, tells in grim and realistic tones of the hardships and struggles of the ‘Pilgrim

fathers.’ The beautiful story of the noble and womanly lové of Priscilla compels us to forget all blemishes in the poem. collection of minor poems, Birds of Passage, appeared simultaneously with Miles Standish. In 1861 Longfellow’s wife was burned to death, in his presence and from this shock the poet never recovered, although in time he resumed his writing. His charming Tales of a Wayside Inn appeared in 1863; a second series of the Tales , was published in 1872, and a third in 1873. Flower de Luce and Other Poems ap#. in 1867, New England ragedies in 1868, and The Divine Tragedy, in 1871, the last a poetical rendering of Leiden's history of Christ. he two last-named works, together with The Golden Legend, appeared in 1873 in one volume, under the title of Christus, a Mystery. Longfellow’s

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later works, which show few signs of his advancing years, include 4|in}} (1873), The Hanging of the Crane (1874), The Masque of Pandora o Keramos (1878), oems of Places (in 31 vols. 1875– 78), Sonnets (including the five sonnets entitled Three Friends of Mine), a translation of Dante's ivina Commedia (1867–70), Ultima Thule {:} and Hermes Trismegistus, (1882). The , poet died at Cambridge on March 24, 1882. It is difficult to estimate Longfellow's real place among the poets of the world. In imagination and intensity of feeling he is not to be compared with poets of the first rank, yet, his poetic form was at once simple and beautiful, his figures and pictures and expressions as well as his rhythms and cadences. . He had preeminently the gift of associa: ting fine ideas with attractive and nduring forms. The fact that these ideas are very often not profound, but on the other hand very normal and comprehensible, is the foundation of his poetic eputation. The ideas of Excelsior, of the Psalm of Life, of The Bridge, can be appreciated by every one; the lasting popularity of such expressions is assured. Longfellow, was a man of great mental, and moral refinement, of high ideals and

broad humanity. See Life by his brother, the Rev. Samuel Longfellow (1886); Stedman's

Poets of America (1885); Final Memorials of H. W. Longfellow 1887), by the same author; igginson's Old Cambridge (1889), . a Life of Longfellow in American Men of Letters (1902); and Carpenter's Longfellow, in the Beacon Biographies (1901). Longfellow, SAMUEL (1819– 92), American clergyman, brother of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was born in Portland, Me., and raduated (1839) at Harvard, and in 1846 at the Harvard Divinit School. In the latter year §§ Samuel Johnson he edited A Book of Hymns (1846) for use by Unitarian congregations. e was É.io. of Unitarian churches in 'all River, Mass., and Brooklyn, N. Y., from 1848 to 1860, and at Germantown, Pa., from 1878 to 1882, residing at , Cambridge, Mass., before and after the latter pastorate, and o himself, after his brother's eath, with the reparation of The Life of Henry Wadsworth ###. (2 vols. }*}”; Final Memorials o H. . L. (1887). , He edite other collections of hymns, than that mentioned above, and was

himself the author of several }. hymns. See May's Memoir (1894).

Longfellow, WILLIAM PITT

PREBLE (1836), American archi

Long Island

tect and author, nephew of H. W. Longfellow, was born in Portland, Me., and graduated (1855) at Harvard, practising his profession in Boston. From 1869 to 1872 he was assistant architect of the Treasury Department, , and he was chairman of the architectural section of the Columbian Exposition i". in 1893. He is a graceful, and illuminating writer on architecture and art matters enerally. Among his works are yclopædia of Architecture in Italy, Greece, and the Levant (1895), and The Column and the Arch, Architectural Essays (1899), besides many contributions to eriodicals. Mr. Longfellow was or some time adjunct professor of architectural design at the Mass. Institute of Technology.

Longford. (1.) Inland co., Leinster, Ireland. It has extensive tracts of bog; on the Leitrim border are bare hills, and in the centre and S. good grazing land. The Shannon, on w. border, expands s.w.. into Lough Ree; other rivers . are Inny and Camlin. Pasturing , and agriculture are principal industries. Area, 421 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 46,672. (2.) Town, cap. of above co., 9 m. w. by N. of Edgeworthstown. It is an agricultural centre, and has military barracks. The seat of the Roman Catholic bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise. Its cathedral is a fine structure of the Ionic order. There is also a Roman Catholic college. Pop. (1901) 3,747.

Longinus, DIONYSIUs CAssius (c. 213-c. 273 A.D.), a famous Greek rhetorician, whose place of birth was most likely Athens. Late in life he went to Emesa in Syria, where he met Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, who induced him to become her teacher of Greek literature. After the death of her husband he was her chief adviser, and counselled her to throw off her allegiance to Rome, the result of which was that ...(273 A.D.), the Emperor Aurelian captured and destroyed Palmyra and executed Longinus. A number of critical, rhetorical, and philosophical works of his are mentioned, but they are nearly all lost. The great work De Sublimitate — the finest example of ancient literary criticism—attributed to him, is probably of earlier date. See ed. by Rhys Roberts (1899); Saintso Hist. of Criticism (19004

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