صور الصفحة


title of “Lord’ before their Christian names, as Lord Archibald Campbell and Lord Charles Beresford. Many holders of high office are called lord as part of their of ficial title, as, for example, the Lords of the Privy Council, of the Treasury, and of the Admiralty, the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Privy Seal, the Lord Chamberlain, the Lord High Steward, and the Lord Advocate ; the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and the Lord-Lieutenants of counties, the Lord Chief-Justice, the Lord Justices of Appeal, and the judges of , the Court of Session. The judges of the High Court in Eng; land are addressed, My, Lord, but their title is ‘Mr. Justice. The mayors of London, Manchester, Liverpool, , Birmingham, York, Cardiff, and Dublin are Lord Mayors; and the provosts of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aber

deen, Dundee, and Perth are Lord Provosts. Lord, CHESTER SANDERS

(1850), American o In an was born at Romulus, N. Y., an studied, but did not remain to raduate, at Hamilton College. fter leaving college he served for a time as associate editor of the Oswego, N. Y., Advertiser, and in 1872 became a member of the staff of the N. Y. Sun, of which paper he was a few years later made managing editor, a position which he still held in 1906. He has made a notable record in the selection and training of able newspaper men. Lord, JoHN (1812–94), American historical writer, born at Portsmouth, N. H. (or at Berwick, Me...). He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1833 and studied theology, but was never ordained. He lectured in England on the Middle Ages (1843–46), and after his return lectured more than 6,000 times on various historical subjects in different cities and towns. These lectures were published (1883–96) under the title Beacon Lights of History. . From 1866–76 he was lecturer in history at Dartmouth College. He published several historical textbooks. Lord Advocate. The law officer of the crown for Scotland, combining the functions of the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General in England and corresponding to the Attorney-General of the United States. The office is one of great dignity and importance, its incumbent being a member of Darliament, public prosecutor of crimes, senior counsel for the crown in civil causes, and legal adviser to the government. Lord High Steward. The highest officer of the crown in England during the Norman and Angevin period. The office be

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

covered in 1788, and occupied in 1834. Vegetation is abundant, particularly banyan trees. Area, 5 sq. m. Pop. 100.

Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, the head of the executive in Ireland. As representing the King, of England, he holds courts, drawing-rooms, and other functions of a semi-regal nature. See IRELAND.

Lord-Lieutenants of counties in Great Britain were originally appointed in the reign of Henry VIII. to control the military forces of the crown. They also exercised many of the duties formerly performed by the sheriffs. In 1662 they were given entire control of the militia, but by the Militia Act, 1882, their functions were transferred to the crown. The lord-lieutenant may also appoint a vice-lieutenant, and he generally recommends county justices to the lord chancellor for appointment.

Lord of Misrule. See ABBot OF UNREASON.

Lord of the Isles. See Isles, LORD OF THE.

Lords, HöUSE of. See PAR

LIAMENT. Lords-and-Ladies. See ARUM. Lord’s Day. See SABBATH. Lord’s Supper. See EUCHARist. Lorelei, or LURLEI, a famous rock on the right bank of the Rhine, near St. Goar, noted for the danger it offered to navigation and for a marvellous echo. From this originated the legend of the siren, a favorite theme of German poets. Heine has a wellknown poem on the subject, but the earliest version is to be found in Brentano's Ballad Zu Bacharach am Rheine wohnt eine Zauberin, written in 1800. The rock is now pierced by a railway tunnel. Lorenz, ADolf (1854), Austrian surgeon, was born in Silesia. After a distinguished career as a student at Vienna University, he graduated in 1880, and subsequently became professor of surgery there. In 1895 Professor Lorenz published a


treatise on Dislocation of the Hip, and his method received the approbation of the Berlin Medical Congress the same year. He visited the U. S. in 1902, and urther demonstrated his method of “bloodless' reduction. The operation with which his name is associated consists—(1) in forcible rupture of such parts as resist reduction under an anaesthetic; and (2) in fixing and retaining the limb in proper position in a plaster case for several months. The term “bloodless' has been applied to this method, since, the skin being unbroken, there is no external haemorrhage. But the amount of blood shed into the tissues may be limited only by their capacity, and the damage done to delicate structures, nerves, muscles, and bloodvessels is often severe.

Lorenzo Marques. See LouRENgo MARQUEs. Loreto. (1.) City, prov. An

cona, the Marches, Italy, 14 m. S.E. of Ancona, and about 3 m. from the Adriatic. It owes its origin to a famous chapel of the Virgin, the Santa Casa, over which a magnificent church has been erected. The shrine is still a famous place of pilgrimage. Pop. 1900) 5,000. (2.) Interior dep. J.E. Peru, S. America, bounded on the N. by Ecuador, and E. by Brazil and łoś. It is traversed from N. to s. by the Ucayali and Huallaga, affluents of the Marañon. The department is thickly wooded. The principal exports are rubber inf salt. Gold is abundant. Area, 288,456 sq. m. Pop. estimated at , 100,000. capital is Moyobamba. Pop. (1895) 10,000. Lorica, or SANTA CRUz DE LoRICA, tm. and seapt., Bolivar, Colombia, S. America, on the Sinu; has active shipping trade. Pop. 7,000. Lorient, seapt. and fortified naval arsenal, dep. Morbihan, France, on the s. coast of Brittany, at the mouth of Scorff and Blavet Rs., 63 m. N.w.. of St. Nazaire, and with an extensive and well-protected harbor. There is a floating dock for vessels up to 600 tons burden and drawing 15 ft. of water. There are two graving-docks. The dockyard is used for the construction and equipment of men-of-war, and is one of the finest in France. The imports are mainly shipbuilding materials, iron, and coal; the exports are wheat, wines, sardines. The town was founded in 1670 by the French East India Company, and on the dissolution of the company in 1770 it became

[blocks in formation]


Scotland, and came to the U. S. in 1856 with a theatrical company. While acting in Ky. he became a Baptist convert, went to Georgetown College, *; and in 1859 was ordained a Baptist minister. He held charges in Ky.,, N. Y., and in Boston, Mass., where, in 1873, he became pastor of Tre: mont Temple. He was pastor of a Chicago church 1879 to 1890, returning to Tremont Temple in 1891. In 1902 he became pastor of a New York, Baptist church His books include Isms, Old a New (1882); Studies in Social Life (1886); Christianity in the XIXth Century (1900); Modern Crisis in Religion (1904). Lorimer, GEorge HoRACE §. American author, son of eorge C. Lorimer, was born in Louisville, Ky., and took courses at Colby, University and at Yale. In 1899 he became editor of the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post. His . Letters from a Selfmade Merchant to his Son (1902 and Old Gorgon Graham (1904 give a vivid realization of the harsh and relentless methods sometimes used by a successful American business man of the time.

Lorimer, JAMEs (1818–90), Scottish jurist and author, born at Aberdalgie, Perthshire, was

educated at the Universities of Edinburgh, Berlin, and Bonn. In 1865 he #. professor of public and international law in Edinburgh, and was one of the founders of the Institute of Ínter. national Law (1873). His work Institutes of the Law of Nations, was published in 1883–4. See notice by Professor Flint in The Juridical Review (April, 1890). Lorimer, WILLIAM (1861), was born in England. In 1866 he came to Chicago; worked at sign painting; later in the stock yards, and as a street car conductor. He became a real estate dealer and contractor, entered politics, and in 1892 he headed the Blaine movement in Chicago. In 1892 he was elected clerk of the Superior Court, and in 1895 was elected to the 54th Congress where he has since remained exceptin one term. In 1909 he was electe U. S. Senator from Illinois. Loring, Ellis GRAY (1803–58), American lawyer and reformer rn in Boston. He attende Harvard College but did not raduate, and afterward studied aw. He was one of the founders of the Anti-Slavery Society in 1832. Loring, WILLIAM WING (1818– 86), American soldier. born in Wilmington, N. C. His parents removed to Florida during his childhood. While a mere boy he ran away from home ...and volunteered in the Seminole War, He studied law, returned to Florida, and was a member of the WOL. VII.-Jan. '10.

[ocr errors]

legislature. At the beginning of the Mexican War he became major of a regiment of mounted rifles, and under Gen. Scott participated in all the battles of the Southern *Pago He lost his left arm at Chapultepec, and was brevetted lieutenantcolonel and colonel. He remained in the army, became lieutenant-colonel in 1848 and colonel in 1856. He served on the frontier, took part in the Utah expedi: tion in 1858, and in 1859 visited Europe and #. He opposed secession, but followed his state, and while in command of the deartment of New Mexico resigned say .13, 1861. . He became brigadier-general in the Confederate Army and major-general in February, 1862. He was present during the siege of Vicksburg, served around Atlanta and surrendered with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. After an unsuccessful experience in business in New York he accepted, in 1869, a commission as general of o to organize the army of the Khedive of Egypt. In 1879 he retired as eneral of division with the two ighest orders of the Turkish emire. He published A Confederate oldier in Egypt (1883). Loriquets are parrots nearly allied to the lories, but differing from them in their smaller, size and their elongated and pointed tail feathers. See Lory. Loris (probably from Dutch loeris, ‘a clown '), or Slow LEMUR, names applied to three Asiatic lemurs remarkable for the

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

Los Anded

the eyes are exceptionally large, and as the name indicates, the body is more lightly built and the limbs longer. The diet does not differ from that of other lemurs. All are the subject of dread and uaint superstitions among the Malays and Chinese. See E. Ingersoll's Life of Mammals 1906). Loris-Melikoff, MIKHAIL TARIELovitch (1825 – 88), Russian statesman and general, born at Tiflis. He was made a count for his brilliant exploits during the Russo-Turkish War (1877 – 8). Later he so distinguished himself as governor-general of Kharkov (1879) that he was recalled to St. Petersburg to co with the Nihilist movement (1880). Alexander II., approving of his conciliatory policy, made him minister of the interior. On the Czar's assassination (1881) he resigned. Loriti, HEINRICH. See GLAREANU.S. Lorraine, or LotRARINGIA, was a province of France situated on its north-eastern frontier, and included such important towns as Metz and Thionville. It was included in . Charles the Great's empire, and on the dissolution of that empire passed through a series of vicissitudes, being subsequently created into a German duchy. In 1871, at the close of the Franco-German War, the greater part of Lorraine, including Metz and Thionville, was annexed to Germany. See ALsACE-LoRRAINE. See also Hassall's Periods of European His

tory . (1901), ...and. Lavisse, et Rambaud’s Histoire Générale (1892).

Lorraine, C L A UD E. See CLAUDE LORRAINE. Lorris, GUILLAUME DE (c. 1215c. 1240), French troubadour, was the author of the first part of the celebrated Roman de la Rose. The bulk and latter part of the poem, which is very inferior to the work of Lorris, was from the pen of Jean de Meung. Lory, a name given to certain members of the parrot family Loriidae, which is confined to the Australasian region. The purplecapped lory (Lorius domicella) of Ceram and Amboyna is an example. Like its allies, it is a honey-sucker, and has the tongue furnished with a kind of brush. It is about a foot in length, and is gorgeously colored. The ground color is scarlet, with a gold throat: band; the wings are blue and green, and the head capped with purplish black. It is easily domesticated. See PARROT. Los Andes, or SANTA Rosa De Los ANDEs, State of Vene: zuela, on the northern flank of the cordillera of Merida. The Los Angeles


valleys are fertile, and produce cocoa, coffee, sugar, and, on the higher slopes, wheat and other cereals. Forests extend up to 10,000 ft., above which are the bleak paramos, where only grasses grow. Hot springs are numerous. Area, 14,719 sq. m. Pop. 336,200. Los Angeles. (1.) City, Cal. co. seat of Los Angeles co., an the second city of the state in population, on the Los Angeles R. 15 m. from the Pacific Ocean an 350 m. s.E. of San Francisco. . It is the metropolis of the S. part of the state and the chief railroad centre, being on the A., T. and S. Fe, the S. Pac., and the San Ped., L. Ang. and Salt L. R. Rs., and on steamship lines to San Francisco. The city has a general altitude of 300 ft. above the sea. The beauty of the region, with its orange groves and the Sierra Madre immediately to the N. of the city, is justly famous. The port of the city is San Pedro, at the mouth of the Los Angeles R. The greater part of the shi ping trade is handled by the railroads. The chief articles of export are citrus fruits, petroleum gold and silver, sugar, dresse meats, hay, H. ried fruits, borax, nuts, ans, cement, etc. Wine also is shipped in considerable quantities. s Angeles is the seat of the University of Southern California (M. E.), a state normal school, occiden. tal College (Presb.), St. Vincent's College §. C.), two female colleges and two business colleges. The prominent buildings include the Federal building, city hall, court house, cathedral, opera house, Blanchard Art Gallery, and public library. The building used as headquarters by General Frémont has a historic interest, as have also the Plaza church and the houses of the early , settlers. . There are fine botánical gardens and many parks, including Griffith Park, a hilly area of 3,000 acres on the N. side of the city. The mild and equable climate has made Los Angeles a favorite health resort. Santa Catalina Island, Redondo Beach, and Santa Monica are places of resort in the district. Los Angeles was the first city in the U.S. to be lighted with electricity. The street car system comprises. 200 miles of track, exclusive of several suburban lines. The first settlement was made in 1781 by Spanish soldiers, who called the place Neustra Señora La Reina de los Angeles. Under Mexican rule Los Angeles alternated with Monterey as the capital of Cali: fornia. In 1846, it was occupied by the U. S. forces. For the first century of its history Los Angeles was only a small pueblo Wol. VII.-Jan. "10.

[ocr errors][merged small]

carloads. Pop. (1880) 11, 183; Qi.) 50,395; (1900) 102,479; school census (1906) 238,419;

estimated (1909) 305,000. (2.) § Fo province Bio-Bio, Centras Chile, between Laja and Bio Bio Rs. Pop. (1896) 7,868. Los Islands, group of volcanic islands (Factory, Tamara, Ruma) w, coast of Africa, 75 m. N.W. o Freetown. They were occupied by the British in 1826, and ceded to France by the Anglo-French Agreement, 1904. Pop. 1,422. Lossing, BENSoN John (1813– 91), American author, was born at Beekman, N. Y., and was successively, farmboy, watchmaker, journalist, wood-engraver, artist, and historian. His chief works, illustrated by himself, were Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution 1850–52), and Pictorial Fieldok of the Civil War (1866–9). Among his other works were T Life and Times of Philip Schuyler (1860), numerous school histories, a Cyclopædia o §§§ #.; of New York City (1884 and The Empire State (1887).

Lost Property. In law, property is considered lost only when the owner has involuntarily and accidentally parted with its possession. If a person intentionally deposits an article in a certain lace into take it again ut does not, the F.P. is not lost but mislaid. For example, a pocketbook left upon the counter of a store is not lost property and the rule that the finder o lost property has a right to its possession against all the world except the owner, does not o But if the pocketbook has been accidentally dropped upon the floor, the finder may retain it as against the storekeeper and all others except the true owner, as the latter has lost it and not mislaid it; and if in such case the finder should lose it, he ma maintain an action to recover it ainst any one holding it, except the true owner. In the case of mislaid property the occupant of the premises becomes the custodian for the owner. Where a person finds property and knows the true owner, or could discover him with reasonable


diligence, but nevertheless keeps it intending to convert it to his own use and deprive the owner of it, he is guilty of larceny in most urisdictions. In some states, owever, if the finder does not know who is the owner, and there is no name or other means of discovering him on the property, he is not obliged to go to any trouble to find the owner. A finder is bound to at least take some care of the goods, but not as much care as an ordinary bailee. He must not *}. allow them to be destroyed. In most states a finder is entitled to recover any expenses he may have incurred in the preservation of the property and if a specific reward is offer he has a lien to that amount on the goods, and may hold them until the owner pays it to him. If, however, the amount is not named the finder has no lien. A finder may sell P. goods if they would otherwise deteriorate and become valueless, and retain the K". until the owner claims it. finder may require an owner to prove himself to be such with reasonable certainty before, he is obliged or even warranted in delivering up possession. See BAILMENT; Conversion; LARCENY. Lost Tribes, THE. A considerable proportion of the inhabitants of N. Palestine were carried into captivity to Assyria during the reign of Pekah (2 Kings 15:29), and the monuments inform us that no fewer than 27,290 persons were taken to Media and Mesopotamia after, the fall of Samaria, 721 B.C. (2 Kings 17: 6). ...The kingdom of Judah was similarly dealt with by Babylon (587 B.C.). But while Scripture narrates, the return of the captives of Judah, it is silent regarding the fate of the exiled natives of the northern kingdom, so that the ten tribes comprising it simply disappear from history. Many inquirers have busied themselves with fantastic speculations as to what became of the expatriated people—e.g. they have been found in the North American Indians, the inhabitants of Great Britain and the United States—the Anglo-Celtic peoples, and the Japanese. The naturai assumption is that they were absorbed by the peoples among whom they were, settled. See Lord, Kingsborough's Antiquities of Merico (1830–48), Mallery's Israelite and Indian in the Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science for 1889, and PhiloIsrael, An Inquiry establishing the Identity of the British Nation with the Lost Tribes (5th ed., 1899). Lot. (1.) Department, S.W. France, bounded on the N. by Corrèze, on w. by Dordogne,

[subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

1. State Normal Sohool, oallenbeck, Home. 3. Broadway from the Court House. (Copyright, 1899, Detroit Photographic Co.) 4. Old Mission Church. (Copyright, 1897, Detroit Photographic cô.5" 5. Court House.


Lot on s. by Aveyron. The surface is very varied. The river Lot with its tributary the Célé, and the river Dordogne, drain the department to the Gironde. The river valleys are very fertile, yielding wheat, oats, barley, rye, and maize. Tobacco, hemp, and fruits are grown. About six per cent. of the department is under vineyards. The manufactures include flax-spinning, tanning, and the manufacture of coarse cloths. There are three arrondissements —Cahors (cap.), Figeac, and Gourdon. Area, 2,018 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 226,720. (2.) River, France, rises in the mountains of Lozère, and flows w. through the departments of Lozère, Aveyron, Lot, and . Lot-et-Garonne, . and falls into the Garonne at Aiguillon. Length, about 300 m., of which 194 are navigable. Lot, a character of Hebrew patriarchal times, the grandson of Terah, and the nephew of Abraham, with whom his history as related in Genesis is largely connected. The two left Haran together, proceeded to Canaan, journeyed to Egypt, returned, and afterward separated, Lot choosing a settlement near Sodom. While living there Lot was captured by the four kings, but was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14). Being forewarned of the imminent destruction of Sodom, he escaped with his family – his wife, however, being turned into a pillar of salt as the penalty of looking back. Lot was regarded as the ancestor of the Moabites and Ammonites (Gen. 19). Scholars consider the narrative a fusion of different traditions, and our information as to the real Lot is scanty. Lot-et-Garonne, dep., S. W. France. The department is traversed from s.E. to N.w.. by the Garonne, and from E. to w. by the Lot, a tributary of the Garonne. The department is formed mainly of parts of Guienne and Gascony, and is very fertile. The soil is highly cultivated, and grapes, wheat, maize, barley, potatoes, tobacco, hemp, and plums are grown. Iron deposits are

numerous. There, are four arrondissements — Agen , (can.), Marmande, Nérac, and ille

neuve-sur-Lot. Area, 2,078 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 278,740. Lothaire I. (795–855), emperor of the Holy Roman empire, eldest son of Louis the Pious, on whose death (840) he claimed the title. Though opposed and defeated at Fontenay (841) by his brothers, the treaty of Verdun (843) secured to him Italy and some provinces of France. . He gave his name to Lotharingia (Lorraine). Lothaire II., THE SAxon (1075– 1137), emperor of the Holy

[ocr errors]

Roman empire, became duke of Saxony through his wife, and king of Germany by election. See Bryce's Holy Roman Empire. Lothians, THE, dist. of Scotland, includes the counties of Haddington, Edinburgh, and Linlithgow, named respectively East, Mid, and West Lothian. From 547 to 1018 the district formed E. of the kingdom of NorthumT1a. Lothrop, Amy. See WARNER, ANNA BARTLETT. Lothrop, HARRIET MULFoRD 1844), American author, was born Stone) in New Haven, Conn. he was educated in private seminaries. Over the pseudonym, ‘Margaret Sidney,” she became a very successful writer for girls, particularly with Five Little Peppers and How they Grew ‘. which was succeeded by eight other ‘Pepper' books. She was married (1881) to Daniel Lothrop, founder of the Polios firm of D. Lothrop & o. Mr. and Mrs. Lothrop subsequently bought and made their summer residence at ‘The Wayside,” Hawthorne's former home at Concord, Mass. Loti, PIERRE, pseudonym of Louis MARIE JULIEN IAud (1850), French novelist, born at Rochefort : entered the French navy (1867), and became a lieutenant (1881). In 1879 he produced his first tale, Agiyadé, a story of the Bosporus; and in rapid succession followed Le Mariage de Loti (1880); Le Roman d'un Spahi (1881), a powerful study of a soldier in Africa; Mon Frère Yves (1883); Le cheur d'Islande (1886), the most popular of his books; Madame Chrysanthème (1887) ; Propos d'Eril (1887); Japonneries d’Automne (1889); Le Roman d'un Enfant (1890); Le Livre de la Pitié et de la Mort (1891); Fantême d'Orient (1892); Le bāsert (1894); La Galilée (1895); Ramuntcho {{...}} L'Inde sous les Anglais. (1903). ...Pierre Loti's Fol. was swift and assured. is books are lacking in much that goes to make up a plot, but as an impressionist he is eminently successful. . His language is wholly unstudied. Pierre Loti was admitted to the French Academy in 1891. Lotions are aqueous solutions of medicinal substances. Many are in use, but for their specific compositions the United States Pharmacopoeia must be consulted. Lotophagi, crLOTUS-EATERs, in ancient Greek legend, a people met with by Odysseus in his wanderings. They ate the fruit and drank the juice of a plant which had the property of causing a man to lose all desire to return to his own land. In historical times the Greeks became acquainted with tribes on the


north coast of Africa, near the Syrtis Minor, whose chief food was a plant which they called the lotus; and they therefore placed the Lotophagi of the Odyssey on that coast. See Homer's Odyssey, Herodotus, and Polybius; also Tennyson's Lotos-eaters. Lots, CASTING, a mode of divination in general use in both ancient and modern times. It was used extensively among the Hebrews, though we do not know the means employed, and was regarded as a legitimate mode of ascertaining the Divine will (cf. Prov. 16:33—‘The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord'). Thus, it was used to discover a criminal—e.g. Achan (Josh. 7 : 14), Jonah (1:7); or the right man for an office—e.g. Saul (1 Sam. 10: 20 f.), Matthias (Acts 1:26). The division of territory among the tribes was also determined by casting lots (Num. 33: 54), whence the use of the term lot to indicate a possession, both literally and figuratively (Josh. 15: 1; Ps. 16:5); likewise the choice between the goat offered to Yahweh and the so-called scapegoat. See Azazel, URIM AND THUMMIM, and the Hebraische Archäologie of Benzinger and of Nowack. Lotta. See CRABTREE, CHARLotte. Lottery. A lottery, or ‘a dis

tribution of , prizes by lot , or chance,” although, like other games of chance, permitted by the

common law, has been declared illegal, by statute in most of the United States and in England. In the latter country it is forbidden by a great number of acts from 1698 onwards, the most important of them being the Gaming Act, 1802, which designates as an illegal transaction the sale of tickets for a lottery in Great Britain or a foreign country. Both those who keep lotteries and those who subscribe to them are liable to Holi. the former being also iable to conviction as ‘rogues and vagabonds.” In order to constitute a lottery under statutes in the United States, the distribution of prizes must depend upon chance; for if there is a real element of skill imported into the transaction, it is not a lottery. Thus, where a dealer offered a prize, to be drawn by lot, to the person who should make the nearest estimate of the weight of certain goods, the scheme was held not to be a lottery. Also, in order to constitute a lottery, a scheme for the distribution of prizes or #: must require the fog with something of value y the persons who may draw the prize. Therefore, a dealer ma

give a ticket gratuitously to eac

of his customers, provide for the

« السابقةمتابعة »