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drawing of numbers corresponding to those on the tickets by chance and give a prize to the holder of the "lucky’ number, and not violate a statute prohibiting lotteries. It is immaterial whether the lottery is of a public or private character, or whether its object is purely charitable or otherwise. Thus, a club o: and a church raffle are both illegal. The so-called ‘missing word’ competitions have also been held to be illegal. Most of the states have statutes prohibiting lotteries and other forms of gaming, and the Federal laws now prohibit the sending of mail containing matter relating to the carrying on of a lottery, such as tickets, advertisements, etc. This statute effectually checked the powerful Louisiana lottery, and has almost driven all other io. in the United States out of business. See GAMBLING. Lotto, LoRENzo (c. 1480– c. 1556), Italian painter, born at Venice. Among his paintings, which are practically all concerned with religious subjects, are the Betrothal of St._Cathcrime, now at Munich; Christ's Farewell to his Mother, in the museum at Berlin; and a Holy Family, in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence. See Berenson's Lorenzo Lotto (1895). Lotus, a genus of plants of wide geographical distribution, order Leguminosae. Most of the species have four or five foliate leaves, and produce their flowers in umbels or axillary peduncles. The cultivated “bird's foot trefoil' (q.v.) is the best known of this genus. The name lotus' is also applied to other plants, as to Diospyros Lotos of Southern Europe. The sacred lotus of Egypt is either Nymphaea Lotus, or the blueflowered N. caerulea. The sacred bean or lotus of Asia, and especially of India, China and Japan, is Nelumbo Indica, whose great, umbrella-like leaves, and gorgeous pink blooms, surmounting tall stems, are familiar in cultivation; our own yellow lotus, found in the Middle and Southern States is similar, with a few floating leaves, and cream-colored blossoms. Lotze, RUDOLF HERMANN (1817–81), whose name is perhaps the most important in philosophy since Hegel, was born at Bautzen in Saxony; educated at the Gymnasium in Zittau and the University of Leipzig, his course of studies including medicine as well as philosophy. . He was appointed to a professorship at Leipzig (1842), then called to Göttingen (1844) as successor to Herbart, which post he left (1881) to occupy a similar chair in Berlin, where he died, soon after entering upon his duties.

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On the subjects to which his studies were mainly devoted—medicine or biology and philosophy— he wrote largely. The great problem which lies on the border line between them, that of the relations of body and mind, forms the theme of his best-known work on the former subject, his Medizinische Psychologie (1852). His chief philosophical writings are of later date. The most comprehensive of them is the Mikrokosmos (1856-64), in which his whole system of thought was set forth in a more popular form than that of his academic treatises. He began a more formal exposition of his ‘system of philosophy' with a work on Logik (1874), followed by a second work on Metaphysik (1879). The third part, which was to have dealt with ethics, aesthetics, and philosophy of religion, was never finished. He also wrote for a series of histories of the sciences a volume entitled Geschichte der Aesthetik in Deutschland (1868), in which his views on art are embodied. In philosophy Lotze represents a reaction against the speculative movement which culminated in Hegel. One of Lotze's favorite themes was the mechanical view of nature. But his insistence on the mechanical aspect of things did not prevent him from recognizing that mechanism is only the means by which the higher ends of spiritual existence and activity are realized. His philosophy was a reaction against the unduly abstract and logical character of Hegelian idealism, which seemed to sacrifice all the warmth of individual life and feeling, all the peculiar value of concrete processes and things, to the rigid and formal evolution of a great conceptual scheme. Lotze insists on the worth of personality, on the place of feeling, or, in general, on the superiority of content to mere form. An excellent short account of Lotze is contained in a paper in Wallace's Lectures and Essays on Natural Theology (1898); Jones's Philosophy of Lotze (1895) is the first part of an academic criticism. See also Hartmann's Lotze's Philosophie (1888); Vorbrodt's Principien der Ethik und Religions philosophie Lotges (1891); and Moore, The Ethical Aspect of Lotze's Metaphysics (1901). Loubet, EMILE (1838), president of the French republic; born in the village of Marsanne; studied as a lawyer in Paris, and joined the bar at Montélimar, of which town he was elected mayor (1870). He was returned to the Chamber of Deputies for Montélimar (1876): joined the Tirard cabinet as minister for public

Louis IX,

works (1887); and entered the Senate (1885), of which he was chosen president (1895), and again in 1898. In the interval he had been chairman of the finance committee in the Senate (1890), prime minister (1892), and chairman of the customs committee (1893). In 1899 he was elected president of the French republic, in succession to Faure. Several events of great international importance distinguished his tenure of this high office. He received the Czar of Russia in Paris, and journeyed to St. Petersburg to return the visit. In une, 1903, he entertained King dward v11., who, a month later, welcomed M. Loubet in London —the first occasion on which the head of the French state had yisited London for nearly half a century. . Later in the year the king of Italy was the guest of the president in Paris. King Edward again visited him in April, 1995, and the king of Spain in May-June of the same year. The president made state visits to Madrid and Lisbon in October, 1905. M. Loubet succeeded in bringing about a more friendly feeling between France and Britain than had existed for several generations. His term as president expired in February, 1906. Loudon, GIDEoN ERNEST. See LAUDoN. Loudon, John CLAUDIUs (1783– 1843), Scottish landscape gardener and horticultural writer, born at Cambuslang in Lanarkshire. . He made a , thorough study of various methods of agriculture and horticulture, British and European, and embodied the results in the Encyclopædia of Gardening (1822), Encyclopædia of Agriculture (1825), and Encyclopædia of Plants (1829). Loudon's chief work, the Arboreturn et Fruticetum Britannicum, was a financial failure, involving him in heavy debt. See Life prefaced to his Self-Instruction for Gardeners (1844). Loughborough, munic. bor. in Leicestershire, England, on 1. bk. of the Soar, 12 m. N.N.w.. of Leicester. . Manufactures hosiery, locomotives, machinery, tramcars, and electric plant. The church of All Saints has a fine 16thcentury tower. Pop., (1901) 21,508. See Dimock Fletcher's Historical Handbook to Loughborough (1881), and his Parish Register of Loughborough (1873). Louis. See LUDwig. . . Louis IX. (1215-70), king of France from 1226 to 1270, better known as Saint Louis, may be regarded as the highest type of ruler produced by the Roman Catholic and feudal world of the middle ages. He was a ruler of earncst, religious character, and

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Louis XIV.

doubtless approved by the king. If Louis XIII. had not given a general approval to these objects Richelieu could not have pursued them ; but it is impossible to trace his personal influence on the policy of France. Richelieu’s policy was opposed by every member of the royal family except the king... On several occasions it was believed that the king would be forced to abandon his minister. The two most critical occasions were November, 1630, and in 1642. The first is known as the Day of Dupes.",. The queen induced the king to dismiss some of Richelieu's agents, and it was believed that the cardinal minister must himself fall. But he recovered his ascendency, and the queen-mother and his brother, Gaston of Orleans, had to fly from France. On the second Qccasion the king was much influenced by two young courtiers, De Thou and Cinq-Mars. Richelieu, however, discovered, their trea: sonable intrigues with Spain, and had them executed. The king declared once more his complete confidence in his great minister, but both died soon afterwards. See Malingre’s Histoire de Louis XIII. (1646), Bazin's Histoire de France sous Louis XIII. (1837), Zeller's Etudes critiques sur le Régne de Louis XIII. (1879–80), and Perkins's Richelieu and the Growth of French Power (1900). Louis XIV. (1638–1715), ki

of France—the ‘Grand Monarch, as he was almost officially called —was the late-born son of uis XIII. His reign saw the splendor and strength of the French monarchy reach and pass its zenith. It falls naturally into three periods: (1) From his accession (1643) to the death of Mazarin (1661)—during this period he reigned but did not rule; (2) from 1661 to 1685—this was the period of his greatest pres: tige and power, both at home and abroad; (3) from 1685 to his death (1715)—the political and military situation became decidedly unfavorable to France, and the king's

opularity was much diminished. 1) During the first period of his reign, France was really governed by his mother, Anne of Austria, and the Italian Cardinal Mazarin, to whom she was F.". married. (The Cardinal

ad received only minor orders. 2) On the death of Mazarin j.

ouis XIV. assumed the reins o government. The first years of his personal rule were occupied in an , attempt-presided , over by Colbert—to improve the finançial system of France, and to foster the growth of industry by an elaborate protective system. Then France became involved in a long series of wars. Those falling within the second period are the War of Devolution (1667)

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Madame de Maintenon, and by .

the persecution of the Huguenots and the *... The withdrawal of protection from the Protestants of France by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) was the worst blunder as well as the greatest crime of the reign. See Voltaire's Siècle_de Louis XIV. (1751), James's The Life and Times of Louis XIV. (1838), Chotard's Louis XIV. (1890), Saint-Amand's La Cour de Louis XIV. (Eng. trans. 1894), Hassall's Louis §: and the Zenith of the French Monarchy (1895), Bourgeois, France under Louis XIV, trans. from the French (1897), Pardoes' Louis the Fourteenth (1902), and Haggard's Louis XIV. in Court and Camp (1904). Louis XV. (1710–74), king of France, the great-grandson of his predecessor, Louis XIV., was brought to the throne by a series of deaths in the royal family which were "o. attributed to the Duke of Orleans, who became regent. After the death of Orleans the chief minister was Fleury, and he ruled France in the king's name down to his death, in 1743. Louis xv., except during a few years after his majority, was indolent, sensual, and suspicious, without any sense of duty or talent for affairs. He was ruled by his mistresses, of whom the most famous were Madame de Pompadour and Madame du Barry. His court was more immoral than that of Louis XIV., and was not redeemed by wit, or dignity, or grace. Abroad, France engaged in two great wars. The war of the Austrian Succession (1741-8) brought some striking successes to the French arms; but in the Seven Years' war (1756–63) which followed, France was crushingly defeated by Frederick, the Great, and lost to England both Canada and India. At home, meanwhile, a vigorous opposition was rising up. The Parliament of Paris resisted the taxation edicts of the king; the church suffered a severe blow in the suppression of the Jesuit order (1764); the whole tone of literature was becoming, revolutionary, and the corruption, and extravagance of the reign did much to provoke the great outbreak of the revolution. See Voltaire's Histoire du Siècle de Louis XV (1768–70), Carlyle's French Revo

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lution (1837), Carré's La France sur Louis XV. (1891), SaintAmand's La Cour de Louis xv. 1894; Eng. trans.), and Perkins's rance under Louis XV. (1897). Louis XVI. (1754–93), king of France, the grandson of Louis xv., was left with the terrible legacy of Louis xv.'s misgovernment. His first act was to appoint a reforming ministry, containing Malesherbes and the great Turgot. For less than two years Turgot was allowed to work at his scheme of reforms, the adoption of which might have averted the revolution; but he was overthrown through the opposition of the queen, Marie Antoinette. Turgot was succeeded by Necker, Calonne, and Loménie de Brienne; but no further attempts at a thorough-going reformation of the system of government were made. The situation was further complicated by the outbreak of the war with England on behalf of the colonies of N. America (1778). The war was a very glorious one for France, who gave great assistance, to the colonies in their struggle for independence. But the expenses of the war still further damaged the finances of France, and the republican example of . America proved contagious. The king played no very important, part in the events that preceded the revolution, but it was largely on his own responsibility that Necker was recalled (1788) and the StatesGeneral summoned. Louis xvi. was weak of will, and constantly under the influence of his wife or his brother. His ... policy was consequently vacillating and fatal. In October, 1789, he was compelled to leave Versailles and take up his residence in Paris, and was thenceforward a prisoner in the hands of the revolutionists. The king and ueen escaped from, the palace §. 1791), and tried to join the army' on the frontier; but they were caught at Varennes, and were brought back to Paris. . In September, 1791, he accepted the new constitution; but the ardent revolutionists believed that the deposition of the king was the only road to national salvation. On Aug. 10, 1792, the palace of the Tuileries was attacked, and the king forced to take refuge with the Assembly. The monarchy was immediately afterwards suspended, and the convention, was called together. The abolition of the monarchy, was not deemed sufficient. The king was brought to trial, found oft, of a conspiracy against the nation, and uillotined on Jan. 21, 1793. See roz's Histoire du Règne de Louis XVI. (1839–42); Thiers's Histoire de la Révolution Française (1824– 27); Jobez's La France sous Louis

Louis Alexander of Battenberg

XVI. (1877–93); Nicolardot's Journal de Louis XVI. (1873); Somiau's Louis XVI. et la Révolution (1893). Louis XVII. (Louis CHARLEs) (1785–95), titular king of France, was the second son of Louis xvi. He never reigned, but was made a prisoner in the o where he was separated from his mother and given over to the charge of a shoemaker named Simon, who treated him, with the utmost brutality, and as a result of this ill-usage and neglect. Louis is said to have died in the Temple loe 8, 1795. The obscurity of s fate permitted various imFo to lay claim to his ineritance; but though some of them still have their strong supporters, the facts of his death seem beyond doubt.. Among those who have claimed the title the, lost Dauphin, was Eleazar Williams, a missionary in the United States, who preached and labored, among , the Indians of New York and Wisconsin for more than thirty years. His resemblance to the Bourbons was most striking, and Williams himself seems to have had a firm belief in his right to the throne of France. An interesting historical novel founded on the supposition that Louis XVII. had been taken from the Temple, and brought to the U.S., where he grew up as Eleazar Williams, is Mary Hartwell Çatherwood's Lazarre (1901). See Hanson, The Lost Prince (1854), Stevens's The Lost Dauphin (1887), Evans's The Story of Louis xvi.I. (1893), and Weldon's Louis xvi.I. of France (1895). Louis XVIII. (1755–1824), king of France, brother of Louis xvi. had played during the early part of his brother's reign an os. rôle in resisting the reforming measures of Turgot and Calonne. Upon the outbreak of the revolution he .# to reach Brussels, and passed the years down to 1814 in exile. But in 1807, after the treaty of Tilsit, he took refuge in England; and in 1814, when Napoleon was sent to Elba, he was proclaimed king, and entered Paris. His reactionary measures did much to É.”. the wa for Napoleon's last attempt. #. was restored to the throne after Waterloo, and his government at first engaged in reactionary and repressive measures. But the obvious discontent of France made a change necessary, and for some years Louis XVIII. vacillated between the two opposing parties. See De Beauchamp's Vie de Louis XVIII. (1825), and Saint-Amand's La Cour de Louis XVIII. (1891). Louis Alexander of Battenberg, PRINCE (1854), British naval officer, eldest son of Prince Alexander of Hesse, was born at Gratz, Louisburg

Austria. He was naturalized as a British subject and entered the o Navy as a cadet in 1868, and as a lieutenant served in the Egyptian war of 1882, receiving the medal and the Khedive’s star. He was director of naval intelligence from 1902–4. In 1905 as rear-admiral in command of the second cruiser squadron, he visited the American coast, arriving at New York on Nov. 11th, j exchanging hospitalities with the American fleet and local authorities. Louisburg, th: on the S.E. coast of the island of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. It commands the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. While the island of Cape Breton remained French, Louisburg was an important seaport and a fortress rendered almost impregnable by the construction of vast works, but it is now little more than a fishing village. . In 1745 it was invested and taken (surrendering on June 17th) by a force from New England under Col. William Pepperell seconded É. a British, squadron under ommodore Warren, but it was restored to, France three, years later by the treaty of Aix-laChapelle. In 1758 it was reduced by Amherst and Boscawen, remaining poly in the possession of England. In 1904 a memorial fund was started to preserve the remains of the fortress and to commemorate those who fell before its walls. Louisburg has a magnificent harbor, which is never frozen over, and is utilized for the winter export of coal, the §. being connected by rail with ydney, the capital of Cape Breton. Pop. (Tödi) i,583. See Louisburg in 1745 (Éng. trans. by Professor Wrong), and Bourinot's Memorials of the Island of Cape Breton (1892). Louis-d'Or, a French gold coin, first struck by Louis XIII., (1640), and used continuously till 1795. Its value varied from 10 francs (1640) to 24 francs (o, Louise, QUEEN OF PRUSSIA. See LUISE. Louisiade Archipelago, group of islands, Oceania, at the southeastern extremity of British New Guinea. The largest islands of the group are, St. Aignan and Southeast., Alluvial gold has been found, but reef-mining has not been developed to any extent. The islands were discovered by Torres in 1606, and taken by the British in 1888. The inhabitants are of Papuan and Malayan type. Louisiana (named in honor of Louis XIv. of France), one of the South Central states of the United States, bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, and lying between latitudes 29° and 33° N. and longitudes 89° and 94° W. It is bounded on the N. by Arkansas

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and . Mississippi, on the E. by Mississippi and the Gulf, on the S. by the Gulf, and on the w. by Texas. The Mississippi and Pearl rivers each mark parts of its eastern boundary, and the Sabine river part of its western boundary. With extreme dimensions of 280 miles by 275 miles, it has a total area of 48,706 sq. m., including 3,397 sq. m. of water. Topography.--The surface is quite level and undiversified by hills or mountains. The altitudes range from two feet above sealevel for low water at New Orleans and other points along the Mississippi river, to . about 375 feet at certain points in De Soto, Bienville, and Claiborne parishes, the general level being *. than 100 feet. The lower part of the state for 60 miles inland, and particularly that portion thrust "out into the Gulf by the lower course of the Mississippi, is very low and marshy. . This region, together with the flood plains of the rivers, which vary in width from 10 to 60 miles, comprises about two-fifths of the total area. Owing to the gentleness of , the slope and the consequent check in the river currents, the immense deposits of silt have elevated the river beds above their flood, plains. Overflow is checked by some 1,500 miles of embankments or levees along the various rivers. Rivers and lakes are numerous. In 1875 Capt. J. B. Eads began the construction of jetties along the lower Mississippi for the purpose of narrowing its channel. The result is that the river now clears its own channel to a depth of thirty feet, thus admitting oceanoing vessels to the port of New §n. The Red river, the principal stream after the Mississippi, into which it flows, is navigable for steamboats through the greater part of its course within the state. Other of the larger streams are the Black river, tributary to the Red, and formed by the juncture of the Washita (Ouachita), with the Boeuf and several other bayous, the Pearl, the Sabine, and the Calcasieu. The bayous are very numerous, most of them are naviable, and all are of advantage in #j. of surplus water in times of flood. #. numerous lakes are for the most part unfilled portions of the costal plain or cut off or expanded sections o river courses. The entire state was originally covered with forests of pine, cypress, cottonwood, white oak, and other hardwoods, except the prairie region of the extreme south-west corner in Calcasieu, Vermilion, and Cameron parishes. Climate and Soil.—The mean temperature at New Orleans is 50° in January and 83° in July,

Louisiana with a minimum of 7° and a maximum of 102°. At Shreve

port the mean temperature is 45° in January, and 83° in July, with extremes of —5° and 107°. This serves to show the wider range of the temperature of the inland portion as compared with the Gulf region. The climate is mild, almost tropical, and not subject to violent changes or marked extremes. The mean annual precipitation of 48 inches at ShreveÉ. and 60 inches at New Oreans is quite evenly distributed throughout the year. The soils are almost throughout the state characterized by remarkable fertility. . This is especially true of the calcareous marls and disintegrated limestones of the prairie region and of the extensive alluvial §§ of the broad river bottoms. The soils of the north-east are red sandy clavs of good quality. The ić. soil comprises an area aggregatin over 13,000 sq. m. The coasta marshes comprising about 7,500 sq. m. are of #. value for cultiVation. Geology.—The geological strata of the state overlap each other in successive layers, sloping toward the Gulf. he oldest strata are the Cretaceous, which outcrop o at points in the north-central and , north-eastern parts. . The overlying strata in the north-east and central parts belong to the Miocene and Pliocene series of the Tertiary period, while those of the delta region belong to the Pleistocene and Recent series of the Quarternary period. Mineral Resources.—The mineral deposits of the state are not very extensive and they have not been , largely developed until recently. *}}. production of rock salt was not important until 1903, when 568,936 barrels were mined. The output , was increased to 1,095,850 bbls. in 1904. The state produces almost all of the native supply of sulphur in the United States. Previous to 1900 the product had amounted to only a few thousand tons annually, but extensive developments increased the output to about 200,000 tons in 1904. There are extensive beds of clay, and the value of clay products increased from $507,000 in 1900 to $1,011,000 in 1904. The increase in the production of petroleum since the extensive operations in Texas is quite noteworthy. The output in 1902, the first 3. of importance, was 548,617 rels. This was increased to 6,611,419 bbls. in 1904. The oil is found mostly near Jennings and Welsh in Calcasieu parish, which borders on the Texas field, but partly also in Caddo parish in the north-west corner. Forests.-Louisiana is one of the most heavily timbered states

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