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was not published by William Woodfall, the editor. The Maruess of Lansdowne told Sir ichard Phillips that he knew Junius, and promised to end the controversy, by writing a pamphlet; but he died without hav, ing done so. Pitt assured Lord §§. of his personal knowledge of Junius, and that Francis was not he. In Francis's presence Lord Grenville said that he knew the man, and that he would never tell. Junius had written, three letters to George Grenville, and declared himself an attached follower. He wrote in like manner to Chatham. A pamphlet appeared two months after his letters were collected, with the title, Poems Compiled by Junius. . It was noticed in the Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1772. A copy has not been found in any public library. unius could write verses. On March 24, 1758, he sent sonne lines entitled Harry and Nan, which Woodfall did not print, but of which he kept the manuscript: He did print, others entitled The Titans, which were nearly as coarse. George Woodfall's conclusion is still, as, apposite as, it was before his death in 1844. The one thing wanting is not supposition as to the o of Junius, but ‘proof through facts which are indisputable.’ His manuscripts are in the British Museum. See Coventry's Critical Inquiry into the Letters of Junius (1825); Jacques's History of Junius and his Works (1843); Britton's The Authorship of the Letters of Junius Elucidated (1848); Taylor's Junius Identified (1816); The Handwriting of unius Practically Investigated . (1873); Brockhaus's De Briefe des Junius; and . Francis's. Junius Revealed by his Surviving Grandson \1894). Junk, the name of the native Chinese vessel. It is a clumsy craft, with very, high forecastle and poop, and P. masts carrying square sails of matting, and is slow and awkward to handle. Junks are often of large size, their tonnage sometimes reaching 1,000 tons. Junker, , WILHELM, Johann Ço African explorer, was born at Moscow, of German parents. The chief scene of his discoveries was the region stretching between the upper waters of the Nile and the Wellé. In addition to the great services, which he rendered to geography, he also made valuable contributions to the sciences of ethnology, and natural history. The results of his travels were achieved “without any show of force, and without a single violent death.” He wrote Reisen in Afrika (1889–91; Eng. trans, 1890–92). e Hevesi's Wilhelm Junker (1896).

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of 120 m. (Barnard), and an albedo of 0.45. . Its orbit, traversed in a period of 1,592 days, has a mean radius of 248 million miles, an eccentricity of 0.26, and is inclined 13° to the plane of the ecliptic. Juno, the chief goddess of ancient Rome, was identified with the Greek Hera. As a Roman goddess Juno is the counterpart of Jupiter; thus she was regarded as the queen of heaven. §. Was also the especial protectress of the female sex, and was worshipped under a great variety of epithets–Virginalis, goddess of maidens; Matronalis, of matrons;

Chinese Junk, for Cargo and Passengers, Swatow.

came president of Washington §§ Lexington, Va., but resigned, on the outbreak of the Civil War. His last years were passed at Philadelphia. . He was opposed to the abolitionist movement, but was not in favor of secession. He published, among other books, Treatise on Justification (1839), Lecture, on the Trophecies (1844), Political Fallacies (1862), he Tabernacle o . See Life, by his brother, avid X. Junkin so Junnar, fortified tn., in Poona dist., Bombay, India, 48 m. N. of Poona. Pop.'(1901)'9,675. Juno, the third asteroid, discovered by Harding at Lilienthal, Sept. 2, 1804. It has a diameter

Natalis, of the birthday (women offered sacrifices to Juno on their birthdays); Pronu and Juga or Jugalis, as watching over marji Lucina, as presiding over châbirth; and in general as Opigena or Sospita, giving help and safety. She , also was the guardian of the finances of the state; and as Juno Moneta had a temple which contained the mint at Rome. See HERA and JUPITER. Junot, ANDoCHE, DUC D'ABRANTEs (1771–1813), French gen: eral, born at Bussy-le-Grand (Côte d'Or); served under Napoleon in Italy, o accompanying him to t (1798). In 1804 i. ann p dor to



§. but left Lisbon to join Napoleon in Germany. Placed in command of an army for the invasion of Portugal (1807), his brilliant manoeuvres, culminating in a successful dash upon Lisbon won for him the o Portugal, and the title of Duc d'Abrantes; , but after a time he was forced by Wellington to leave the country. Junot, was appointed governor of Illyria but took part in the invasion o Russia. He ended his life in a fit of insanity. Junot, LAURETTE DE SAINTMARTIN - PERMoN, DUCHEsse D’ABRANTEs (1784–1838), wife of the above, distinguished herself by her, social brilliance and remarkable extravagance. As ambassadress to Lisbon, and during the Spanish campaign of 1807, she entertained with splendor, and success, while in Paris, her house was the centre of a cultured and distinguished circle. She published Mémoires (1831–5), which became widely known. See Turquan's La Générale Junot, Duchesse d'Abrantes (1901). Junta, the name given in Spain to any body of men united toether for administrative or po#. purposes, whether it be an official or a spontaneous and unofficial so A capital in: stance is the famous junta of 1808, elected to carry out the defence of the country against Napoleon. The word, corrupted into junto, and always used with a tinge of contempt and disapproval, is found in English history—e.g. the Whig junto under William III. and Queen Anne. During the late Cuban insurrection a so-called junta was maintained in the United States with headquarters in N. Y. city, to assist the revolutionists by the provision of funds and arms, as well as by arousing the public, sentiment of the American people generally. T. Estrada Palma, who was the recognized head of this body, became the first president of &b. after its independence. Jupiter, the chief god of ancient Rome. He was the son of Saturn and Rhea, and brother and husband of Juno. The first syllable of his name corresponds with the Greek Zeus and the Sanskrit Dyaus (“light’), and Jupiter thus means “the light-father; hence he was yo. as the od of rain, storms, thunder, and ightning, under the titles of Pluvius, Tonans, Fulgurator, and Fulminator. As the greatest of the gods he was known as Optimus Maximus—“best and greatest.” He was held to be the especial guardian of Rome, and as such bore, the titles Imperator, Victor, Invictus, Stator o; ator, and was solemnly invoked by the consuls on entering office;

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by internal heat. The disc is exceedingly brilliant (albedo = 0.62) but not appreciably selfluminous. Its diversification with dusky equatorial belts, and, with spots various in *|† and durability intimates that, the disc represents a cloud-envelope. Its most remarkable feature is a red patch measuring 30,000 by 7,000 miles, which became conspicuous in 1879, and is still faintly visitle.” Some of the markings on Jupiter rotate in about 9 h. 50 m., others in 9 h. 55 m., those near the equator giving, on the whole, the shortest periods. The axis of rotation deviates from perpendicularity to the orbital plane by only


3°. The planet revolves round the sun in a period of 11.86 years at a mean distance of 483 million miles, in an ellipse of which the eccentricity is 0.04825, and the inclination to the plane of the ecliptic 1° 19'. When in opposition about. October 6, being then at , perihelion, it is 42 million miles nearer to the earth than at aphelion opoios in April, and shines with five or six times the lustre of Sirius. Jupiter has seven satellites— the four outer ones discovered by Galileo in January, 1610, an inner minute one by o at Lick in September, 1892, and two faint exterior attendants by Perrine in 1904-5. The five interior bodies revolve in orbits yery slightly eccentric and nearly, coincident with the plane of the planet's equator, at distances from its centre of severally 112,500 261,000, 415,000, 664,000, an 1,167,000 mises, the correspondoff periods being 11 h.,573 m., 1 d. 18 h. 274 m., 3 d. 13 h. 14 m., 7 d. 3.h. 42% m., and 16 d. 16.h.32 m. Their rotations are probabl or certainly isochronous with their revolutions. Their transits across Jupiter's disc are attended by curious phenomena of light and shade. The dynamical relations of the system are such as to preclude its members from being all together on the same side o the primary; but it occasionally happens that all are either occulted, eclipsed, or in transit simultane: ously, when Jupiter is seen moonless. His “comet-family’ consists of thirty-two known members, probably introduced into the solar system by his influence.

Jupiter Ammon. See AMMON. Jura, isl., Inner Hebrides Argyllshire, Scotland, separated

from Islay by the Sound of Islay from the mainland by the sound of Jura, and from Scarba by the dangerous strait of Corrievrekin. Length, 28 m.; width, from ? to 8} m. The area is 143 sq. m. On the w. side it is rugged, and on the E. is clothed with vegetation. The Paps of Jura reach 2,571 ft., 2,477 ft., and 2,412 ft. respectively. Most of the island consists of deer forests. Pop. (1901) 560. Jura, dep. (area 1,951 sq. m.), France, bounded on the E. by Switzerland, is divided into three regions—(1) a mountainous region in the s. and E.; (2) the vine region in the N.; and (3) a small lain to the w. The drainage is mainly s.w.. to the Rhone by means of the Doubs and the Ain. There are large forests. Grain and potatoes are cultivated, the vine, flourishes, cattle are pastured in the mountain region and Gruyère cheese is a noted manufacture. Rock salt is mined. Watchmaking and turning are



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(5,519 ft.), and La Dôle (5,505 ft.). Caves are frequent, and the rivers often flow underground for considerable distances. - - Jurassic System, the division of geological strata following the Triassic and immediately preceding the Cretaceous. The system derives its name from the Jura Mountains in Switzerland, which are largely built up of rocks of this group. In America ... the Jurassic strata are developed on a comparatively small scale. Their presence has not been definitely established in the eastern part, but they are known to occur in Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico and Arizona and on the Pacific coast. Owing to the fact that they cannot always be differentiated from the Triassic, the two systems are in America generally grouped together as the Jura

England, and a tract of these
rocks surrounds the Paris basin.
The association of animal types
is that which is characteristic
the Mesozoic epochs. Amoon-
ites abounded in the warm sea
waters, there being a rapid succes-
sion of genera j species of this
group. Belemnites also swarmed
in those seas. Great banks of
coral limestone were built up in
England and in France. Mol-
luscs of all kinds are abundantl
preserved in the limestones. Echi-
noids, star-fishes, crustaceans, cri-
noids, and brachiopods, though
perhaps less important, were also
numerous. Among the plants
cycads seem to have predomi-
nated. The most important are
Mantellia, otozamites, bennett-
ites, and zamites. . Many varie-
ties of ferns and of gymnosperms
are also known #.o. Jurassaic

crocodiles are found also in the
Jurassic, but the snakes first made
their appearance at a later period.
The most valuable mineral de-
K. found in the Jurassic of
merica are the , gold-quartz
veins, known as the “mother-
lode,”, of California. , In, Eng-
land the products obtained from
these rocks include the fine
freestones of Portland and Bath,
and the Cleveland ironstone.
The remarkable deposits of litho-
#. stone near Solenhofen,
avaria, are of Jurassic age.
Consult: Scott's Introduction to
Geology (1902); Geikie's Text-
Book of Geology (1904).
Jurien de la Graviere, JEAN
PIERRE EDMond (1812–92),
French admiral, born at Brest;
chiefly noted as the author of
Guerres Maritimes (8th ed. 1883);
La Marine d' Aujourd’hui (1872);



Les Marines du XVe. et XVIe. Siècle (1878); La Marine des Anciens (1880); Doria et Barberousse (1886); Les Origines de la Marine et la Tactique Naturelle (1892). Jurieu, PIERRE (1637–1713) French Protestant theologian and controversialist, born at Mer in Loir-et-Cher; became professor of theology at Sedan (1674). For the concluding part of his life he labored as pastor of . the Walloon church at Rotterdam. His polemics with Arnauld, Fénelon, Bossuet, Bayle, and others in defence of Protestantism were able, but often aggressively fierce. He was a convinced theorist on the o: of the Apocalypse. Among his works are Lettres Pastorales Addressées aux Fidèles de France (1686–7), Hist. du Calvinisme (1682), and Hist. Critique des Dogmes et des Cultes (1704-5), See Magiun's Notice sur Jurieu (1804). Juriev. See YURYEv. Jurisdiction. The extent or scope of the authority of a state, or, within a state, of its tribunals. NATIONAL JURISDICTION is limited (1) to the actual territory of the state, including the public waters thereof and the high seas to a distance of three miles from the shore; oil.” ships of war and the mercantile marine of the state wherever they may be on the high eas; (3) to ambassadors and other diplomatic, agents while in the state to which they are accredited; (4) in some cases, by treaty with foreign powers, to its citizens or subjects while in the territory of stic wers. By international law a state may exercise a limited but somewhat indefinite jurisdiction in hostile territory Fo occupied by its orces in time of war and a jurisdiction still more indefinite in territories over which it exercises

a limited authority as a protectorate or the like, The diverse relations in which the British

government stands to its colonial

jossessions in India and the Malay States furnish a great variety of forms of jurisdiction. The federation of states in a central government, as in the United States and the modern German Empire, produces a division and sometimes a conflict of jurisdiction between the several states comprised in the federation and the central authority. This division of jurisdiction and the limits to be ässigned to that of the states and of the nation respectively are determined, by the constitution as interpreted by the courts. The federal government of the United States is one of limited powers, the several states having reserved to themselves all jurisdiction not specifically or by necessary implication conferred upon the federal gov

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ernment by the Constitution. National jurisdiction, as above outlined, is with few exceptions territorial in character, i.e., limited to the territory of the state and extending to every person, whatever his nationality or allegiance, within its bounds and to every act performed therein. This is a strictly modern concep; tion of jurisdiction, however, and a wide departure from the theory which formerly, prevailed in Europe and which still obtains in some portions of the Orient, that the jurisdiction of a state is personal and extends to every one of its subjects wherever he may be, but not to the subjects of other states, though they be, for the time, within its , boundaries. The authority which the Po

exercises over the clergy of the Roman church in all parts of the world is an excellent example of personal jurisdiction and is paralleled only by the control which the Sultan of Turkey continues to exercise over all the followers of the Prophet. THE JURISDICTION of THE Courts may be coextensive with that of the state or it may be limited to a portion of its area or to a particular class of subjects or of persons. . Sometimes the scope of the judicial authority is determined by the fundamental law, sometimes it is experimentally ascertained in the course of a court’s development, but in the great majority of modern cases it is specifically defined by statute. However determined, the limits of jurisdiction are absolute and any act of a tribunal, which contravenes or exceeds those limits is null and void. Such an act may be wholly disregarded by those whom it affects or it may in a proper case be set aside by a court having jurisdiction. In order that its determination of a matter may be binding, a court must have jurisdiction both of the subject matter and of the person against whom its process is directed: that is to say, the subject must be one with which it is empowered to deal and the defendant must be served with its process within the territorial limits within which the court is authorized to exercise its jurisdiction. court may have an exclusive jurisdiction, i.e., it may be the $nly tribunal in which a certain class of actions may be brought; or it may enjoy a concurrent jurisdiction, in whole, or in part, with one or more other tribunals. A court is said to have original jurisdiction when it is authorized to try cases in the first instance, and an appellate jurisdiction when it is authorized to hear and determine appeals. Not infrequently one and , the same court, may exercise both original and appellate jurisdic

sued in Germany and other


tion. . The term jurisdiction is also frequently, employed by lawyers to describe the territory in which a certain court exercises jurisdiction, and more *}. to denote a domestic or foreign State. Jurisprudence. The science of law. e term is commonly employed by scientific legal writers to denote general or comparative jurisprudence, in which legal ideas £ommon to all systems of law are analyzed, compared and classified. It may however, with equal proriety be applied to a particular egal system, as that of the Roman law or the common law of England and the United States, where reference is had not to the body of legal rules and principles comiF.' in the system but to the egal ideas which it expresses and their relation to one another. Thus a systematic exposition of the leading principles of a system, with a study of their origin, the processes by which they are developed, the social conditions b which they are shaped and their arrangement or classification in accordance with general legal principles constitutes the jurisprudence of that system. A study of jurisprudence, whether general or local, comprehends, therefore an inquiry into the nature and functions of law in organized society, an analysis of legal rights and obligations, a consideration of the various agencies by which the law is administered and developed, including the organization, and functions of courts of justice, and, finally, an orderly arrangement of the leading principles of the law with reference to the rights and obligations which it defines, protects and enforces. The use of the term jurisprudence to describe the rules administered by a particular tribunal or the entire body of law of a given jurisdiction Las in the expressions equity jurisprudence,” “jurisrudence of New York’—is conemned by the best authorities. The study of jurisprudence, in the proper sense of the term, has been much more extensively purontinental states under the influence of later Roman law, than in the countries owning allegiance to the common law, only one legal writer of first, rate importance—the late John Austin– having "so in England, and none in America. Jury. A body of men entrusted by law with the duty of determining disputed questions of fact. In a legal system like that of England and the United States, in which the people at large participate to a considerable degree in the administration of justice, juries perform a variety of important functions. The grand

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