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Louisiana

in the Union, the total area of timber lands exceeding 28,000 sq. m. The pine , forests, locate chiefly in the south-western and the north-eastern parts of the state, and including both the longleafed and the short-leafed varieties, cover an area aggregating fully 18,000 sq. m. or 37 per cent. of the total area. The swamp cypress and the live-oak, which abound along the Gulf coast, are important timber resources. Among the numerous other varieties may mentioned several varieties of oak, the cedar, willow, locust, cottonwood, hickory, black yout ,magnolia, sweet gum, and assl. Fisheries. – Louisiana ranks next to Florida among the Gulf states in the value of fisheries. The latest official reports (1902) show the total value of all catches for the year to have been $858,314, an increase of $155,000 over 1897, the date of the latest previous report. The number of men emloyed was 5,027. The oyster sheries (value in 1902 $493,227) are the most valuable of any South Atlantic or Gulf states. Other important catches are catfish (value, $63,024), shrimp value, $131,715), fresh trout §: $49,071). In the same year 39,968 alligators, with hides valued at $23,132, were killed. Agriculture.-With , a , fertile soil, a tropical sun, and abundant and well - distributed rainfall, Louisiana is well adapted to agriculture. In 1900 38 per cent. of the total area was included in farms. . The proportion of improved farm land increased from 29 per cent. in 1860 to 42 per cent. in . 1900. The lantation system which prevailed {...}. 1860 has gradually, though not completely, #." way to smaller farms. his transformation has been accompanied by an increase in the number of rented farms. From 1880 to 1900 the number of farms increased from 48,292 to 115,969. The average number of acres in a farm .# was 536 in 1860, was only 171 in 1880, and only 95.4 in 1900. Nevertheless there were at the latter date 2,738 farms exceeding 500 acres each in extent. The increase in the number of renters is due to the increase in the number of independent negro farmers. In 1900 one-half of the total number of farms were operated by negro farmers, but the acreage of such farms was only 21.2 per cent. of the total farm area. Only 42 per cent. of the number of farms were operated by owners, while 33 per cent. were rented on shares. The principal crops are cotton, corn, rice, and sugar-cane. The cotton acreage at successive dates has been as follows: 1880,

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864,789; 1890, 1,270,885; 1900, 1,376,254; 1905, 1,561,774. The crop since 1900 has averaged annually over 800,000 bales, giving Louisiana seventh place among cotton - producing states. The value of the crop, including cotton-seed, fluctuates markedly; the maximum was attained in 1903, $55,000,000; the value in 1905 was $30,800,000. In recent years the boll-weevil has made inroads into the state from Texas. The State Crop Pest Commission is attempting to discover means of checking its ravages and is havio at least noteworthy , success. he corn acreage has increased quite steadily from 837,540 acres in 1890 to 1,343,750 in 1900 and to 1,424,562 in 1905. Until 1902 Louisiana had been the chief producer of the native supply of rice. In 1905 it still É. in acreage (237,900) and in amount of product (6,137,820 bushels), though the value of the crop ($5,462,600) was surpassed by that of Texas. This crop was formerly , raised chiefly in the delta region, but since 1897 the chief area has been the prairie region of the south-west. Here irrigation is effected by means of canals run along the ridges, to which water is pumped from bayous and , wells. This plan has resulted in a very rapids increase in the acreage, which was only 84,400 in 1890. Louisiana is the only state producing a large quantity of cane-sugar, it ranking next to Hawaii among United States, possessions. The average annual product from 1901 to 1906 was over 325,000 long tons. The presence of large farms is now accounted for chiefly by the heavy expenditures for ma§. necessitated by the successful cultivation of sugar-cane. Stock - Raising. —Stock-raising is not an important industry. On an. 1, 1906, the numbers of arm animals were as follows: Horses, 219,682; mules, 160,962; dairy cows, 186,287; other cattle 481,075; sheep, 180,135; an swine, 649,307. The only marked change in , recent years is a decisive , and steady increase, in the numbers of horses and mules. From 1890 to 1906 the number of horses increased 73, per cent. and the number of mules 83 per cent. The total value of farm animals was $43,046,472. Manufactures.—The manufacturing interests of Louisiana have developed almost entirely since 1880. In that year the capital invested was $11,462,000, the number of wage-earners 12,167, and the value of products only $24,205,000. By 1890 there was an increase in the figures respectively of 203 per cent., 133 per cent., and 139 per cent. The

Louisiana

census , of 1900, showed 4,350 establishments, with 42,210 wageearners, an aggregate capital of $113,084,294, and products valued at $121,181,683. Of these establishments, 1,826, having 40,878 wage-earners and products valued at $111,397,919, were of the same class as those' included in the census of 1905, when the number of establishments reported was 2,091, the number of wage-earners 55,859, and the

value of the products $186,379,592. The , leading, industries and

the value of their products, in 1905 are as follows: Refining of off. and molasses, $73,786,659; lumber and timber products, $35,192,374; manufacture of cotton'seed oil and cake, $13,187,608; rice, cleaning and polishing, $10,718,311; and the manufac. ture of bags other than paper, $4,076,226. The value of re. fined sugar and molasses was only $12,604,000 in 1890; it increased to $47,892,000 in 1900. The manufacture of heavy paper from the refuse cane fibre, with a small addition of jute or manila, is important. . The value of the lumber and timber products increased from $5,745,194 in 1890 to $17,408,513 in 1900. Twothirds, of the value is supplied by yellow pine and almost all the remainder by cypress. The value of cotton-seed oil and cake increased from $1,573,626 in 1890 to $7,026,452 in 1900. The state ranks first in the cleaning and polishing of rice, the increase in value from 1900 to 1905 being 87 per cent. The product of the manufacture of bags, mostly from burlaps, for holding cotton-seed increased in value from $669,945 in 1890 to $3,443,468 in 1900. Among other industries may be mentioned the manufacture of foundry and machine-shop, products, printing and publishing, manufacture of mast liquors, fertilizers, and ice, and the can§§ of , oysters. New Orleans is the chief centre of manufacturing, being credited in 1905 with products valued at $84,604,006, or 45 per cent. of the total for the state. Transportation and Commerce. —Railway construction, began very late owing to the abundant water facilities. The mileage at successive dates has been as follows: 1860, 335; 1880, 652; isg0, 1,740; 1900, 3,801, jan, i. 1906, 3,837. The principal lines are the Southern Pacific, the Texas and Pacific, the Kansas City Southern, and the Queen and Crescent Route. There is a state commission of three members, having authority to fix the rates on both rail and water routes and to Hoyen unjust disCrimination. he state is no

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doubt the best favored among the states as regards transportation by , water. Almost every part of the state is accessible to river steamboats. The port of New Orleans ranks third among United States ports in the total value of imports and exports of foreign and domestic merchandise being *P*. only by New York an Boston. #e value of its exports for the year ending June 30, 1906, was $150,479,326, an amount exceeded only by New York and Galveston. Banks. – Reports for June, 1906, showed 35 national banks in the state, with loans amounting to $37,088,096; approved reserve, $5,870,605; capital, $7,330,000; outstanding ... circulation, $3,979,450; and individual deposits, $29,591,632. In 1905 there were 135 state banks, with loans of $46,529,227; cash, $3,510,289; capital, $8,689,035; and deposits, $48,543,814. - - - Finance.--The constitution provides that the General Assembly shall have no power to contract debt on behalf of the state, or to issue bonds, except for the purpose of repelling invasion, or suppressing insurrection. . The state tax for all purposes is limited to 6 mills, and the taxes of civil divisions are limited to 10 mills, except occasional special taxes for schools and the erection of public buildings. A o, tax of one dollar . all male citizens of ages 21 to 60 years is a prerequisite to voting, and its proceeds go entirely to the support of local schools. The state treasury showed a balance Jan. 1, 1905, of $886,201; ...Fo during the year aggregated $4,912,398; expenditures, $4,562,621; leaving a balance Jan. 1, 1906, $1,235,978. The principal items of receipts were: the general fund, $1,325,822; current school fund, $748,613; interest tax fund, $712,401; and general engineer fund, $361,090. On March 1, 1906, the outstandin interest-bearing debt aggregate $11,108,300. This debt was originally incurred for the most part between 1865 and 1870, for the urpose mainly of constructin F. and railways. By an acto 1874 the debt of over $20,000,000 was converted at 60 per cent. into consolidated bonds, which aggreated $12,378,000. In addition to the above state debt, the outstanding bonds of the levee districts on March 1, 1906, amounted to $4,401,700. The total assessed valuation of taxable property in 1905 was $396,821, 157, almost 44 per cent. of which was credited to the city of New Orleans. Education.—Educational supervision is in charge of a State Board of Education, consisting of the governor, the attorney-general, the

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superintendent of public education, and one member from each of the seven congressional districts of the state, appointed by the floo. for four years. his rd appoints for each parish a Board of School Directors, which appoints a parish superintendent, etc. Separate schools are maintained for white and for colored children. Rapid advance is now being made toward efficient instruction, and adequate facilities the conditions having improve considerably since 1900. The census of 1900 showed the proportion of illiterate among the whites ten years of age and upward to be 17.3 per cent., and among the colored 61 per cent. The report for 1905 places the population of ages 6 to 18 as, white 241,906, colored 217,690. Of these 142,729 white and 67,387 colored were enrolled in public schools. The percentage of the enrolled in attendance was for whites 71, and for colored 69. There were at the same time 285 white and 119 colored private schools with an attendance aggregating respectively 41,001 and 7,658. There were 3,515 white teachers, of whom 2,959 were female, and 1,165 colored teachers, of whom 726 were female. The average length of the year for white schools was 140 days, and for colored 91 days. The average monthly salaries was for white males $61.67, females $41; and for colored males $29.55, females $26.77. The total receipts for school purposes amounted to $2,218,912, an increase of almost 60 per cent. over 1901. The disbursements aggregated $2,169,001 of which $1,441,898 was for teachers' salaries. The constitution of 1898 declared the state debt to the permanent free school fund to be $1,130,867; bearing 4 per cent. interest. - Instruction and , training of teachers is provided in institutes held in almost every parish for one week annually; in, some twenty summer normal schools, accessible to all, and lasting four weeks; and in the State Normal School at Natchitoches, . The state provides for high. education for whites in the State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College at Baton Rouge; the Tulane University of Louisiana at New Orleans; the Industrial Institute at Ruston; and the Southwestern Industrial Institute at Lafayette. Among the denominational colleges are: Jefferson College (Roman Catholic), at Convent; Centenary College (M. E., South), at ackson; and the College of the mmaculate Conception (Roman Catholic), at New Orleans. For colored students the state maintains the Southern University at New Orleans. There are also a

Louisiana

number of denominational schools for colored students, among which are Leland University (Baptist, at New Orleans); ew rleans University (Methodist Episcopal); and Straight University (Congregational). Charitable and Penal Institutions.—There is a State Board of Charities, and Corrections, consisting of the governor and six persons appointed by him. Qf the institutions o by the state the Institute for the #. and the Institute for the Deaf an Dumb founded respectively in 1851 and 1852, are located at Baton Rouge. The other charitable institutions are as follows: Insane Asylum, at Jackson; Insane Asylum, at Pineville; Charity Hospital, at New Orleans; Charity Hospital, at Shreveport; Soldiers' Home, at New Orleans. Money was “going. in 1906 to found a Reform School for Boys. The State Penitentiary, costing for annual maintenance over $200,000, is at Baton Rouge. Until 1898 convicts were leased; since then they have been employed by the state chiefly on penal farms, but also on public works and manufactures. . Population.--When made an independent colony in 1711, Louisiana had a population of about 400. . A century later (1810) the RoP. o: 76,566. \t subsequent dates the population has 1820, 153,407; 1870, 726,915; 1890, 1,118,587; 1900, 1,381,625; 1905 (federai est), 1,513,145. The foreign born in 1900 numbered 52,903, and the negroes 650,804, the state ranking sixth in the number of negroes. The early settlers were largely French, and their descendants constitute a considerable proportion of the present population. The principal cities with their Folion in 1900 are: New Orleans, 287,104; Shreveport, 16,013; Baton Rouge, the capital, 11,269. A local estimate of the population of New Orleans in 1906 was 350,000. , Shreveport and , Baton Rouge have grown much in the last few years. Government.—The present and seventh constitution was adopted in 1898, and amended in 1900, 1902, and 1904. Amendments approved by two-thirds of all members of both houses of the legislature and ratified by a majority vote at a popular election, come a part of the constitution. Every male citizen (with the usual exceptions) resident in the state two years, in the parish one year and in the precinct six months is entitled to vote, on condition that he either show ability to read and write by filling out a registration blank, or show that he owns property assessed at not less than

en as follows: 1850, 517,762;

Louisiana

$300, on which the taxes have been paid. But any person entitled to vote on January 1, 1867, and their sons and grandsons, who were at least twenty-one years old at the adoption of the present constitution, as well as any foreigner naturalized prior to January 1, 1898, need not possess the above educational or property qualifica; tions. Upon questions submitted to the taxpayers, as such, of any political 'subdivision, women taxpayers may vote, without registration. The principal executive officers, the governor, lieutenant-governor, auditor, treasurer, secretary of state, and superintendent of ublic instruction, are chosen for our years. Members of both houses of the legislature are also elected for terms of four years; The number of senators is limited to 41 and of representatives to 116; Sessions are biennial and limited to 60 days, and members receive $5 per day and mileage. udicial power is vested in a Supreme Court of five justices appointed by the governor for terms of 12 years; in a Court of Appeals; in district courts, one for each of the 20 to 29 districts of the state, the judges being elected for nine years; and in justices of the peace. There are also some special courts for New Orleans. History.—The early explorers of Louisiana were the Spaniards under the leadership of Pineda in 1519, Narvaez in 1529, and De Soto in 1541. In 1682 La Salle, having sailed down the Mississippi river, took possession of the territory in the name of the king of France, Louis XIV. Two years later he attempted to found a colony, bringing over , four ships and 280 men, who, losing their way, landed at Matagorda Bay and soon perished. In 1699 Pierre le. Moyne d'Iberville and his brother. Jean Baptiste le Moyne de Bienville founded the first settlement at Biloxi on the coast of what is now the state of Mississippi. By 1711, when it was made an independent colony, Louisiana had five olomo aggregating 400 persons. e #. *e. Antoine Crozat received from the French government the exclusive right of trade and mining in the territory, for

fifteen years. He failed, and in 1718, John Law, head of the Company of the West and pro

moter of the notorious Mississippi Scheme, received a twenty-five }. grant of the exclusive priviege of trading, farming, the taxes and coining money. His inflated Ro: failed two years later.

ew Orleans, founded in 1718, was made the capital in 1722. The territory, which embraced a vast area with undefined limits, became a royal province in 1731.

by a convention on

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By a secret treaty in 1762 France ceded the region west of the Mississippi river and the city of New Orleans to Spain, and the following year by the Treaty of Paris ceded to England the portion east of the river except New Orleans. The , boundless territory which had fallen, to Spain continued to be called Louisiana. A revolt in New Orleans in 1768 against Spanish rule was mercilessly crushed. Not long after the close of the Revolutionary War, agitation for the free navigation of the No. river was begun by the inhabitants of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, owing to the rowing importance of trade. he matter was not finally settled until 1803, when the territory of Louisiana was purchased by the United States, from , Napoleon, who had acquired it from Spain by a secret treaty in 1800. (See Louisian A PURCHAs E.) In 1804 the region comprised in the present state of Louisiana west of the Mississippi was organized as the Territory of Orleans. . The remainder, called the Louisiana Territory, embraced the present states of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota west of the Mississippi, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas except the southwest corner, most of Oklahoma, and all of Wyoming, Montana, and Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains. On April 30, 1812, the Territory of Orleans, increased by the region east of the Mississippi river, was admitted as a state under the name of Louisiana, and at the same time the name of Louisiana Territory was changed to Missouri Territory. In the War of 1812 New Orleans was the scene of important military operations. In 1845, a new constitution removed the property qualification of voters and made the governor elective by the people. he constitution of 1852 made judges, elective by popular vote. In that year, the capital was moved from New Orleans to Baton Rouge. An ordinance of secession was passed an. 26, 1861. In the spring of 1862 - New Orleans was captured by Union forces and occupied until the close of the Civil War. A constitution adopted by a Unionist convention in 1864 emancipated the slaves at once. The Reconstruction period witnessed a sericus race riot in New Orleans and the terrorization of negroes , and Republicans throughout the state. With the enfranchisement of the negroes by the constitution of 1868 and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment military occupation ceased. There followed election contests, rival governments supported by state or Federal troops,

Louisiana Purchase

and bloodshed, until 1876, when President Hayes refused further Federal intervention in politics, and the state passed into the hands of the Democrats, who have since remained in power. About this time the construction of huge levees along the Mississippi and of jetties at its mouth was begun by the Federal Government. In 1884 the centennial of the first export shipment of cotton was celebrated at New Orleans. In 1891 the Louisiana Lottery Company sought a renewal of its charter, but was defeated after a bitter contest. Determined efforts on the part of the whites to prevent negroes from voting led to numerous racial conflicts from 1894 to 1898, when a new constitution practically disfranchised negroes. Louisiana has suffered from repeated visitations of yellow fever. The epidemic of 1905 is noteworthy for the successful fight made on the basis of the now scientifically demonstrated theory, that the disease is spread by the mosquito, stegomyid fasciata. Louisiana, city, Pike co., Mo., 75 m. N.w.. of St. Louis, on the Mississippi R., and on the Chi: and Alt. and the Chi., Burl. and Quin. R. Rs. . The place is noted for its extensive nurseries. The chief manufactures are shoes, tobacco, wagons, foundry and machine shop products, etc. Čement rock is found in the dis. trict. There is a Carnegie Library here. The town was laid out in 1818 and incorporated in 1848. Pop. (1900) 5,131. Louisiana Purchase, the ter

ritory purchased by the United States from France in 1803. The “Louisiana’ thus urchased,

which had been ceded by France to Spain in 1762 and had been retroceded by Spain to France in 1800, was about one million ...'. miles in area, and included what is now Louisiana (excepting the portion, E. of the Mississippi, but including New Orleans), Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota w. of the Mississippi, N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Nebraska, nearly the , whole of Kansas, the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado E. of the Rocky Mountains, and most of Oklahoma. For this territory the U. S. paid directly and indirectly $15,000,000, not including interest payments. The treaty of [". chase was negotiated for the U. S. by Robert § Livingston and ames Monroe, and for France y, the Marquis de Barbé-Marbois; Napoleon, owing, to . the European situation at the time, being far from reluctant to part with Louisiana, and Pres. Jefferson being eager to secure . it primarily for the purpose of giving the U. S. absolute freedom in the

Louisiana Purchase Exposition

navigation of the Mississippi river. Indeed, few men at the time realized the j importance of the acquisition, an

the o: of the purchase, was criticized bitterly by a considerable minority of Americans, Jefferson himself, a rigid strict constructionist in theory, regarding, it as unconstitutional and .# an amendment which would retroactively cover the transaction. Such an amendment was never adopted, and the effect of the purchase, as regards the interpretation of the Constitution, was unquestionably to strengthen the position of the “liberal constructionists,” by emphasizing the doctrine of ‘implied powers.” In 1804–6 Lewis and Clark, sent out by Pres. Jefferson, made their memorable exploring expedition

through the territory of the Louisiana Purchase. See the article UNITED STATEs. Consult

Henry Adams, History of the United States (18o (9 vols. 1889–91); McMaster, History of the People of the United States (6 vol. 1883–1905); and special works on the Louisiana Purchase, none of them adequate, by Herman §. Hosmer (1902), Howard (1902), Hitchcock (1903), and Winship and Wallace (1903).

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. An international world's fair held in St. Louis, Mo., from April 30 to December 1, 1904, for the purpose of commemorating the centenary anniversary of the purchase of Louisiana Territory by the United States from France. A Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company was incor

rated on May 2, 1901, with

avid R. Francis as president, which organization secured national legislation authorizing the Exposition and funds aggregating $25,000,000, of which $5,000,000 was from the United States. site was chosen within the city limits of St. Louis and included 1,300 acres in Forest Park. The principal exhibition buildings were grouped in the shape of a fan, the separating avenues forming the #. and consisted of the following named buildings: Historical, Art Palace, Electricity, Varied Industries, Machinery, op. Education and Social Economy, Manufactures, Liberal Arts, Mines and Metallurgy, Agriculture, Horticulture, . Forestry, Fish and Game, Administration, Government Building, and many state, territorial, and foreign buildings. The scheme of sculptural decoration designed to symbolize the history, local color, and allegory of the flouisiana Territory by representing the wild animals; the Indians, the discoverers and pioneers, and the advanced vans was adopted and about 250 groups and 1,000 single figures were

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made and placed on the grounds. The amusement features were extensive, and were grouped along the Street of Concessions to which the name of Pike was given. The most conspicuous of these were the Philippine exhibit and the group of African pigmies. A Congress of Arts and Sciences was held during the week beginning September 19, at which papers were presented in 24 departments of knowledge grouped under seven divisions. A special flag, commemorative coins, and a series, of postage so were created in recognition of the Exposition. The exhibits were viewed by a jury of awards, who made 40,160 awards distributed as grand prizes, gold, silver, or bronze medals, and diplomas. The total recorded admissions were 19,694,855, of which 12,804,616 were paid. The total disbursements were $31,586,331, against , which the receipts from concessions, admissions, etc., were $11,952,254, so that all expenses were met and a small dividend returned to the stockholders. The World's Fair Bulletin, devoted to the interests of the . sition, was published monthly from November, 1899, to December, 1904. Louisiana State University AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL College. A state institution at Baton Rouge, La., founded in 1855 as the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy, and opened in 1860 near Alexandria with Col. W. T. Sherman as superintendent. It was closed for two years durin the war and after the burning o the college building in 1869 was removed to Baton Rouge. The ño, College was established in 1873, temporarily *Poo in New Orleans, and merged with the university in 1877. The buildings and grounds of the military garrison at Baton Rouge were iven to the university by the §d States government. There are eight courses of study:Agricultural, mechanical, civil engineering, general science, Latin science, literary, commercial, and sugar, with graduate courses covering one year. The discipline is military. In 1905 the university had 430 students, 27 instructors, and a library of 23,000 volumes. Louis Philippe (1773–1850), king of the French, the son of # #. ‘Egalité, who was executed during the revolution {...} was born in , the Palais Royal, Paris. As colonel in the revolutionary army he fought at Valmy and Jemappes. But in 1793 he left the army, and visited England and from 1796 to 1800 was in the U. S. He returned to France in 1814, and under Louis xvi.m. and Čharles X. was regarded as the leader of the Liberal party.

Louisville

Upon the abdication of Charles x, he was made lo. of the kingdom, and a week later the two Chambers declared him “king of the French.” He took the oath to the new charter, and Horo to govern on liberal ines. But in 1835, after the danerous attempt of Fieschi on #. the laws of September were passed, controlling the press and the methods of political trials. In 1836 Louis Napoleon tried to stir up a rising among the troops at Strassburg, but failed, and was sent to America, whence he made his way, to England. In 1840 he landed at Boulogne, and made an unsuccessful attempt to organize an insurrection; on his capture he was condemned to imprisonment for life. In the same year the remains of Napoleon were brought from St. Helena, and were buried in Paris. The revival of the imperial tradition was a heavy blow against the stability of Louis # pe's essentially commercial and §ei. régime. In 1843 the radical socialist party was founded by Louis Blanc, and thus, the government of flouis Philippe was attacked from two sides. The friendly relation existing between Britain and France, ratified by the visit of Queen Victoria and the prince consort to Paris, was the king's chief support. In 1847 the extension of the franchise was demanded from many sides, and in , 1848 the long-prepared forces broke out into revolution. Guizot, the chief minister, resigned. Thiers refused to form a ministry, except on the understanding that reform would be granted. The king thereupon abdicated and fled to England. See Wright's The Life and Times of Louis Philippe o , Dumas's Histoire de la ie Politique et Privée de Louis Philippe (1852), and Rouvion's Histoire du Åegne Louis Philippe (1861). Louisville, city, Ky., co. seat of Jefferson co., and the largest city of the state, 110 m. s.w.. of Cincinnati, on the Ohio R., and on the B. and O. S. W., the Ill. Cent., the Ches. and O., the Cle., Cin., Chi. and St. L., the Pitts., Cin. Chi. and St. L., the Louisv. and Nash., the Chi., Indianap. and Louisv., and five other R. Rs. The city has a frontage of about 8 miles on the river, is built on a level plain, and is about 60 ft. above low-water mark. The Ohio R. here falls 26 ft. in two miles. A canal connects the river above and below the falls, but during high water the river boats ass directly over the falls. Three ridges, connect the city with points in Indiana (two of them with Jeffersonville). Louisville is noted for its wide streets, fine shade trees, and handsome resi

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