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VIEWS OF LOUISVILLE.

1. Court House. 2. View in Central Park. 3. City Hall. 4. Confederate Monument. 5. Louisville Jockey Club Race-Course, scene of the ‘Kentucky Derby.” 6. Union Station. 7. U. S. Custom House and Post-Office.

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Louisville dences. It possesses three beautiful parks, Iroquois Park on the

s., Cherokee Park on the E., and Shawnee Park on the w. Cave Hill Cemetery lies on the E. margin of the city. ... There are two race tracks, the ‘Kentucky Derby.” being held here in May. Prominent monuments are the Jefferson statue, the Confederate monument, and the statue of Daniel Boone. The chief buildings are the city hall, the court house, the government building, an immense armory, with a drill hall 250 ft. by 270 ft., and a public library. here are also an art gallery and a museum. The University of Louisville occupies a handsome building. Other educational institutions are the Hospital College of Medicine, Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville Medical College, Jefferson School of Law, Kentucky School of Medicine, Kentucky University (medical op!, , Central University (medicas dept.), and the iouisville College of Dentistry. The hospitals and philanthropic institutions are the Norton Memorial Infirmary, Louisville City Hospital, St. Joseph's, Infirmary, Jewish Free Hospital, St. An: thony's Hospital, St. Mary and Elizabeth Infirmary, Children's Free Hospital, Kentucky Institute for the Blind, and the U.S. Marine Hospital. Louisville is one of the principal ateways to the Southwest and the chief market of the lower Ohio. It is the largest leaf tobacco market in the world and has also an important trade in the manufactured article. According to the Federal census of manufactures, in 1905 there were 842 industrial establishments with a combined capital of $79,998,733 and products worth $83,204,125. The value of the chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff manufactured in that year was $11,635,367; of other tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes, $1,225,347. The industry of second, importance is meat packing, with products in 1905 valued at $5,178,457. Other items were clothing,34,484,694; flour and grist mill products, $4,373,890; distilled liquors, $3,878,004; leather, $3,075,140; foundry and machine shop products, $2,964,897. Other important manufactures are wagons, farm implements, axe handles, o, supplies, iron pipe, rrels, boxes, organs, cement, soap, jeans, and corduroy goods. Louisville was laid out in 1779. The first inhabitants were about twenty, families, that started out with the expedition of George Rogers Clark and were left behind with supplies on an island opposite the site of the city. The place was named in honor of the king of

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France, Louis xvi., the ally of the Americans. It was incorporated in 1780. During the Civil War Louisville , was Unionist in sympathy, and in 1862 it was threatened with a Confederate attack. A tornado in 1890 swept through the city levelling everything in a path from 600–800 ft. in width, and causing the death of 75 people and the destruction of property worth $3,000,000. Pop. (1900) 204,731; est. (1903) 215,402. See Johnston, Memorial History of Louisville (1896); Powell, Historic Towns of the Southern States (1900); Casseday, Louisville o Loulé, th:, dist. Faro, Portugal, 10 m. N.w.of Faro; trades in o: and esparto grass, and manufactures porcelain and leather. There are copper mines in the vicinity. Pop. (1900) 22,511. Lounsbury, THoMAs RAYNESFoRD (1838), American English scholar, was born at Ovid, N.Y., and graduated (1859) at Yale. He soon began work as a writer for the New American Cyclopaedia, was a Union officer from 1862 to the close of the Civil War, and, after three years of teaching and study in New York city, was appointed instructor in Ejio. in the Yale Sheffield Scientific School in 1870. The following year he became professor of nglish literature in the same institution, retiring in 1906. His Studies in Chaucer (3 vols., 1891) is a master}. of scholarship, and his ames Fenimore Cooper (1882) in the “American Men of Letters’ series is generally considered the best biography in that series. His other works include History of the English Language (1879), Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist (1901), and The Standard of Pronunciation in English (1904). Lourdes, th:, dep. HautesPyrénées, France, on r. bk._of Gave de Pau, 90 m. S.E., of Bayonne; is, one of the chief places àf Catholic pilgrimage. . Its fame dates from is58, when the Virgin Mary is reported to have appeared to a girl of thirteen, Bernadette Soubirous. The famous sprin rising from the spot is coś with miraculous powers, and a church was built in 1889 for the accommodation of pilgrims, of whom about 500,000 visit the go annually. Pop. (1901) 8,708. e the Annales de Lourdes, Zola's, Lourdes (1894), and Gué's Histoire de Notre Dame de Lourdes (1896). Lourenço or Lorenzo Marues. (1.). Most southerly of the three districts of Portuguese E. Africa. Watered by the Lundé and Limpopo, it comprises five sub-districts, including the rich gold-yielding territory of Manica. (2.) Capital of above district, at the mouth of the Espirito Santo or English R., in the N.w.. o

Louvre

Delagoa Bay; was founded (1544) as a Portuguese factory. A railway runs 57 m. within the colony, and thence 290 m. of line to Pretoria, giving a railway route to Johannesburg 80 m. shorter than that from Durban. An agreement (1901), regulates the commercial relations and the transit of goods by this railway between the Portuguese and the British possessions. A telegraph line connects Lourenço Marques with the Transvaal system; n outlet to bar gold from Johannesburg, Lourenço Marques is also being utilized as a coaling port. Im§. (1904), $5,848,650; exports, 588,365; transit trade, $16,052,050. Pop. (1903) 6,370, of whom 3,319 were whites. Louse. See LICE. Lousewort. See PEDICULARIs. Louth. (1.) Maritime co., Leinster, the smallest in Ireland, lying between Carlingford Lough and the mouth of the Boyne. The rivers include Boyne (on s. border), Dee, Glyde, and others flowing to the Irish Sea. Agriculture is the principal emo: ment; Carlingford Bay is famous for oysters; and linen is manufactured. Dundaik is the county town. Area, 316 *4. m. o: (1901), 65,820. (2.) Town, Lindsey division, Lincolnshire, England, 15 m. , E.S.E. of Grimsby: The town is chiefly an agricultural centre, with iron-founding, manufacture of agricultural implements, and other industries. #. Louth navigation canal (constructed 18th century) connects with the Humber. Area, 2,651 ac. Pop. (1901) 9,518. Louvain, or Low EN, th:, Bel§"; B. Brabant, 18 m. E. by N. of Brussels. It is famous for its university, founded in 1426, now attended by some 1,600 students. Manufactures beer, lace, starch, and tobacco. Its town hall (one of the finest on the Continent) and the church of St. Gertrude, both of the 15th century, are the chief features of the town. É. (1900) 42,070. See Van der Linden's Histoire de Louvain (1892). Louviers, oth., dep. Eure, France, on riv. Eure, 17 m. S.E. of Rouen; has a very fine Gothic cathedral dating from the 13th century. Manufactures cloth, machinery, and leather. Pop. (1901) 10,219. Louvois, FRANÇois MICHEL LE TELLIER, MARQUIs DE (1641–91), war minister under Louis XIv., was the first to organize a standing army for France. He set on foot systems of commissariat and hospitals, and established the Hôtel des Invalides in Paris (1674). See Rousset's L’Histoire de Louvois (1862–3). Louvre, or Iouver (Fr. l'ouvert ‘the opening'), an ornamental Louvre

outlet for smoke on the roof of a building, usually in the shape of a turret or a lantern. Louvres are now generally used for ventilation, and overlapping sloping boards are so fixed in the opening that air is admitted between them and rain excluded. Similarly, in a belfry, louvre-boards serve to direct the sound downwards. Louvre, THE,. a. magnificent ile of buildings facing the Seine in Paris; formerly a royal palace, now a museum of art treasures, has been known under its present name since the time of PhilippeAuguste (1204). Succeeding kings of *. made additions and reconstructions. Two of the existing façades were the work of Pierre Lascot, the architect of Francis I., while the eastern wing was designed by Claude Pérrault for Louis XIV. The revolution of 1789 found the palace still unfinished, the republican government (1793) converting it into a national museum, while Napoleon continued their work of reconstruction. Not till after the revolution of 1848 was the building completed and connected with the Tuileries. In 1900 two new galleries were added, and it is now the most extensive museum in Europe, containing the richest collection of pictures, statues, antiquities, gems, and other objects of art in the world. On the round floor is to be seen the amous Venus of Milo (discovered 1820), the Pallas of Velletri, and other priceless statues. In the Salon Carré are masterpieces of aintin o Raphael, Titian, eonardo da Vinci, Giorgione, Correggio, Paul Veronese, Tintoretto, ubens, and others. Next to the French school, the Italian is best represented; but there are examples of most of the great , artists, of Europe in the galleries, and of late years a considerable number of works by British artists have been acuired. See Potter's The Art of the Louvre (1904). Lovage (Levisticum o is a European perennial plant, order Umbelliferae, of strong odor, which is occasionally used as a salad-plant; the aromatic and stimulant seeds and roots enter into confectionery and medicines. It bears pinkish-white flowers in umbels of many rays and pinnately-divided leaves. Lovat, SIM o N F R As ER, Twelfth LoRD (?1667–1747), Scottish Jacobite intriguer, was descended from a Peeblesshire family, one of whom obtained the fort of Lovat. Inverness-shire. By the will of his cousin the tenth Lord Lovat (who died in 1696), the Lovat estates were made over to Fraser—his father, who had a life rent of them, assuming the

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Lovage. 1, Flower; 2, fruit; 3, section of half fruit. ..". in this, he seized instead her mother, whom he

compelled to submit to a marriage ceremony. For this he and his father were condemned to be executed (1698), but they eluded capture; and in 1700, Fraser, who now, his father being dead, claimed to be Lord Lovat, endeavored to...secure a pardon from King William. He obtained indemnity for his political of. fences, but for his outrage on the Dowager Lady Lovat he was outlawed § 17, 1701). Compelled to flee to France, he there endeavored to win the confi. dence of the Jacobites, by , becoming a convert to Catholicism. At the request of the clan he resolved to return home (1713). Though arrested in London, he was liberated on heavy bail, and, by siding with the government in the insurrection of 1715, secured full pardon and also the life rent of his estates. In 1730 his claims to the Lovat dignities and honors were sanctioned by the Court of Sessions; and in 1733, Mackenzie, the husband of the Lovat heiress, resigned his claims to the honors and estates for a sum of money. Becoming, incautious in , his intrigues with the Jacobites, he was deprived by the government of all his official dignities. Vengeance, therefore, made him eager

Love for the success of the “Youn Chevalier' in 1745. After Cul

loden he sought concealment, but was taken Poio brought to London, and after, a trial by his peers condemned and beeaded on Tower Hill. See Lovat's Memoirs (1797), Hill Burton's so of Simon, Žord Lovat §§ raser's Chiefs of Grant 1883), and Major Fraser's Manuscript (edit. by Ferguson, 1888). . Love. The emotion enters into various states, either as an element or as the substance— arental love, fraternal love, the ove of the sexes, benevolence, pity, gratitude, sorrow, admiration, esteem, aesthetic emotion, religious emotion, and many yarieties of these. Tender emotion may extend to the animal world, and in a strict sense may have significance for the inanimate, as in the love of particular places, countries, homes, etc. Love in its most characteristic forms is the concentration of tender feeling on a person and in the love of the sexes. Of the emotion as a mental state, distinguishable elements are: desire for presence of the person loved; and pleasure in such presence; depression at F.;; onging for and focussing of whole imagination on the memory of the absent one. In the case of maternal love most of these features are pronounced; in love of the sexes they, normally accompany the establishment of sexual maturity. This is the period of ideals, and is characterized by an enormous expansion of emotional and intellectual interests. The mating instinct becomes active. Maternal and paternal loye are natural sequels of the mating instinct. The exression of tender feeling in all its forms involves, in varying degrees, the whole vasomotor system, in particular the lachrymal lands, tears being associated oth with joy and sorrow. From the evolution standpoint, the tender emotion accords generally with Darwin's theory. (§. EMOTIONS.). All the emotional preliminaries of mating—love and courtship—have analogues in the lower animal world, and it is easy to assign selection value to most of them; but the full , explanation of love for one only person is yet to seek: The concrete § chology of love is best studied in the great poets and novelists of all nations. As, indicating phases and varieties, the following are typical artistic expressions: Shelley, ndian Serenade; Landor, Rose Aylmer; Milton, Lycidas; , Tennyson, In, Memoriam and Locksley Hall; Swinburne, Triumph of Time; Melodith, Modern Love; Keats, The Eve of St. Agnes; Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet. See Bain's

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1. The Louvre, from the Place du Carrousel. 2. Gallery of Paintings. (Photo by Frith.) 3. Gallery of the Venus of Muo. (Photo by Frith.) 4. Gallery of Apollo.

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Love-bird

The Emotions and the Will (1859), and Mental and Moral Science (1868); Höffding's Die Psychologie in Umrissen (1892); Mercier's Sanity and Insanity (1890); KrafftEbing's Psychopathia Sexualis (new }; trans. 1899); and Darwin’s escent of Man (1871), Finck, Romantic Love and Personal Beauty (1887). See EMoTIONS. Love-bird, a name applied to small parrots belonging to two different genera. The true lovebirds (genus Agapornis), are inhabitants of Africa, while the #. love-birds of the genus sittacula inhabit South and Central America. The members of both genera are remarkable for the great affection which appears to exist between males and females, and for their habit of sitting huddled close together; but the statement that if one of a air should die, its mate will also ie from grief, is denied by naturalists. xamples of African lovebirds regularly sold in bird-stores everywhere are Agapornis roseicollis of S. Africa and A. cana of Madagascar. See PARROT. Lovedale, an educational and mission station, Cape Colony, 30 m. w.N.w.. of King William's Town. Founded by Scottish missionaries in 1841, it has since been liberally supported by the Free §. nit Free) Church of cotland. Love-feasts. See AGAPAE. Love-in-a-mist, FENNEL Flower, and DEVIL-IN-THE-BUSH are species belonging to the genus §j. of the Ranunculaceae. They are hardy annual plants chiefly natives, of the south of Europe, with divided leaves. The flowers are mostly blue or, white in color, and are surrounded by mossy involucres. Love-in-idleness, one of the old English popular names, of the Joy or heartsease (Viola tricolor). Loveira, or LoBEIRA, VASCO DE. See AMADIs of GAUL. Lovejoy, ELIJAH PARISH 1802–37), American Abolitionist, rn at Albion, Me. He graduated at Waterville College (now Colby University) in 1826, in the next year, taught school in St. Louis, and edited a Whig paper in 1829. He began the study of theology at Princeton in 1832 and was ordained in 1833. He assumed the editorship of the St. Louis Observer the same year and soon began to take strong ground against slavery. From fear...of violence he removed to Alton, Ill., in 1836, and began the publication of a Fo The press was wrecked three times but was set up again, and a guard of twenty men prepared to , defend ... it. Another mob attacked the building on Nov. 7, 1837, and one of the

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assailants was killed. , Lovejoy, hoping to prevent the burning of the building, showed himself and was shot, receiving a mortal wound. The incident did much to inflame the public mind. See Memoir, by his brothers (1838); Tanner, Martyrdom of Lovejoy }.}; and Garrison, William loyd Garrison (1885). Lovejoy, Owen (1811–64), America. Abolitionist, brother of Elijah P. (q.v.), also , born , at Albion, Me. He was educated at Bowdoin College, studied theology, removed to Alton, Ill., and was present at the death of his brother. In 1838 he became pastor of a o Church at Princeton, Ill., and o such meetings were forbidden by law, made many anti-slavery addresses in various towns. He was elected to the legislature in 1854, and resigned his pulpit. In 1856 he was elected to Congress and was a frequent participant in the debates until his death. Lovelace, FRANCIS (c. 1618–c. 1675), British colonial governor the son of Baron Lovelace, o Hurley, Berkshire. . For his adherence to the royal cause in the Civil War was appointed governor of New York to succeed Sir Richard Nicolls o and arrived in 1668. e attempted faithfully to carry out his instructions, and became so unpopular, that when the Dutch fleet apared before the city in 1673, the inhabitants surrendered at once. He returned to England and nothing further is known of his life. Lovelace, RICHARD (1618–58), English poet and Cavalier, was born at Bethersden, and educated at Charterhouse and at Gloucester Hall, Oxford, where he wrote a *} The Scholar, and a to: edy, he Soldier, both lost. e shone at court, but preferred warfare. In 1645 he took arms on behalf of the king; and in 1646 he was fighting for France against Spain, and was wounded at Dunkirk. On his return he was imprisoned at Aldersgate, and occupied his captivity, with preparing his poems for the press. His Lucasta (1649) was probably Lucy Sacheverell, who is said to have married another on a false report of his death at Dunkirk. is brother published Posthume Poems of Richard Lovelace (1659); and an edition by Hazlitt, Collected Poems, appeared in 1864. Love-lies-bleeding, a popular name for the flowering plant Amaranthus caudatus, ologio to the order Amaranthaceae. It is a common annual garden plant, bearing a drooping crowded inflorescence in the form of a spike often several feet long. Lovell, JAMES first-1810. American, patriot, the son of John (q.v.), born in Boston, Mass.

Lover

He graduated at Harvard in 1756 and assisted his father in teaching. In 1771 he delivered the first anniversary oration on the Boston Massacre, and after the battle of Bunker Hill, was carried a prisoner to Halifax. He was, exchanged in 1776, and sat in the Continental Congress, Dec., 1776, to 1782, where he favored Gen. Gates against Schuyler, and also in his attempt to supersede Washington. He was receiver of taxes at Boston in 1784–88, collector of the port for nearly two years, and then naval officer until his death. . Lovell, JoHN (1710–78), American educator, was born in Boston, Mass., and graduated (1728) at Harvard. He was assistant master of the ton Latin School from 1729 to 1734, when he succeeded Dr. Nathaniel Williams as head master. He was noted as a scholar and disciplinarian, but was genial in his manner. He sided with the loyalists in the Revolution, dismissing his puils. and departing with the ritish troops in March, 1776, for Halifax, where he died. Besides publishing several pamphlets on political and theological subjects, , he contributed essays to the Pietas et Gratulatio (176i). Lovell, MANSFIELD (c. 1822– 84), American soldier, born in Washington, C., the greatgrandson, of James (q.v.). He graduated at West Point in 1842, was assigned to the artillery, and served during the Mexican War as aide, to Gen. John A. Quitman. He was brevetted captain for gallantry at Chapultepec, and then was engaged upon the frontier. He resigned from the army, in 1854 to take part in an expedition to free Cuba from Spain. In 1858 he became superintendent of street improvements and deputy street commissioner of New York city. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate Army and became major-general Oct. 9, 1861. He commanded at New Orleans, and after the surrender of the city April 25, 1862, joined Gen. Beauregard at Corinth. On the death of Gen. Leonidas Polk he succeeded him as commander of his corps. At the end of the war he engaged in planting in Georgia, but soon Canne assistant engineer in the work of removing the obstructions at Hell Gate, in the East River, N. Y. Lover, SAMUEL (1797–1868) Irish novelist, ballad-writer, and ainter, born and , educated, in ublin; at first devoted himself chiefly to painting, becoming (1828), a member of the Royal #. Academy. From 1835 he was a popular miniature

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