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death, two months later. By many of his associates he was believed to have been the victim of circumstances. McCalla, Bow MAN HENDRY §: ..." , American naval of. cer, was born at Camden, N.J., and was graduated (1864) at Annapolis. He saw service in the Civil War, and passed through the grades in the navy, being commissioned commander in 1884. He was advanced in rank for ‘distinguished *. during the Spanish-American War, as commander of the cruiser Marblehead in the North Atlantic Squadron, and subsequently of a division of six cruisers in the Philippines. At the time of the Boxer uprising in China, in 1900, he participated in the attempt to rescue the foreign legations in Peking. He was made rear-admiral in 1905, and retired in 1906. MacCarthy, DENIS FLORENCE (1817–82), Irish poet, born in Dublin. He wrote poems for the Nation and the Irish Catholic Magazine 1845). In 1864 he settled in London, but died at Blackrock, near Dublin. Works: Poems (collected 1850 and 1884); Ode on the Centenary, of Thomas Moore (1880); Translations–from the Spanish of Calderon–Justina &; ); Love 1861); Mysteries of Corpus Christi 1867). M’Carthy, JustiN (1830), Irish novelist, journalist, historian, an legislator, was born in Cork. He was reporter for the London Morn

ing Stir (1860), subsequently editor .

1864–8). He came to the United tates in 1868, and spent three years travelling, and lecturing, duri ing which time he was a member of the editorial staff of the New York foot and also contributed largely to the leading magazines. Since 1870 he has n leader writer on the London Daily News. He revisited the United States in 1886. He was for seventeen years a member of the Irish Parliament, for the last six of which (1890–6) he was chairman of the Home Rule #. Of novels he has published nearly, a score--e.g., , Dear Lady Disdain (1875), The Dictator (1893) —four in collaboration with Mrs. Campbell-Praed, and a volume of essays, Con A more (1868). He has also written lives of Sir Robert Peel {: , Gladstone (1898), Leo XIII. 1895), and A History of Our Own Times (1882–97 and 1905), his chief work; also A. History of the Four Georges and William IV. (1884–1901), Epoch of Reform . (1874), Modern England (1899), and Rome in Ireland (1904). See his own Reminiscences (1899). M’Carthy, JustiN Hustly (1860), dramatist, novelist, and historian, son of Justin McCarthy (q.v.), was educated at University College, London. He has travelled much in Europe, Egypt, Palestine, and the United States. He was a

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member of the English Parliament from 1884 to 1892. His publications include A History of England under Gladstone (1885); Sketches of Irish History (1887); translations of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, and The Thousand and One Days: Seyeral plays, o; them I Were King and The Proud Prince which were presented in the United States by . E. H. Sothern; and a number of novels, of which The Dryad § and file Flower of France (1906) are the most recent. McCaskey, WILLIAM SPENCER (1843), American soldier, was born in Lancaster county, Pa., and was educated in the Lancaster public schools. He responded to the first call of volunteers for the Civil War (1861), and served throughout, the war, in the Army of the Cumberland and under Sherman on his marches to the sea. He entered the regular army, and during the §o War served in uba and the Philippines as major and lieutenant-colonel of the Twentieth United States Infantry. He was promoted to the rank of colonel (1900), , brigadier-general o and major-general (1907). He retired in October, 1907. MacCauley, CLAY (1843), American clergyman and writer, was born in ambersburg, Pa. He served as lieutenant of volunteers in the Civil War, and was for a short time in Libby Prison. He was graduated at Princeton in 1864, at the Theological Seminary of the Northwest (now McCormick Theological Seminary) in 1867, and at Heidelberg University in 1873. He was ordained in the Unitarian ministry in 1868, and filled pastorates in Waltham, Mass., and Washington, D. C., from 1869 to 1881. He was director of the Unitarian Mission in Japan (1890–9, and since 1909); president and professor of philosohy and historic theology in the šič. for Advanced oil. Tokyo (1891–9); and lecturer on Japan (1904-9). He acted as delegate from Japan to the Internanational Geographical Congress % and to the International ölogical Congress (1906). In 1909 o: was decorated with the H.P. Order of the Rising Sun. e has written Christianity in History (1891); Japanese Literature (1 o Present Religious Condition #! apan (1902); Introductory ourse in Japanese (1905); Unitarian Mission to Japan (1909). MacChesney, CLARA TAGGART, American genre painter, was born in Brownsville, Cal. She studied in San Francisco, in Paris under Courtois and Girardot, and in New York under Mowbray and Beckwith. Her representation of children is graceful, and she excels in water-color work. She received medals at Chicago. in 1893, New York in 1894, Paris in 1900, Buffalo in 1901, and St. Louis in 1904,


Macchiavelli. See MACHIAVELLI. McClellan, GEORGE BRINTON (1826–85), American soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pa. He graduate from the U. S. Military Academy in 1846; served in the Mexican War, and for gallant and meritorious conduct was brevetted first lieutenant at Contreras and Churubusco, and captain at Molino del Rey and Chapultepec. He was commissioned captain in 1855, and the same year was detailed to watch military operations in the Crimea. In 1857 he resigned from the army. In 1857–8 he was chief engineer, and in 1858–60 vice-president, of the Illinois Central Railroad; in 1860 he became president of the St. Touis and Cincinnati Railroad. At the beginning of the Civil War he was commissioned major-general of volunteers in Ohio, and in May, 1861, was placed in command of the Department of the Ohio, with the of major-general of regulars. He carri on a campaign in Western Virginia, and by victories at Rich Mountain and elsewhere cleared that region of Confederates. Having by this exploit confirmed the already Ho! opinion entertained of him by General Scott, he was summoned to Washington, was ut in command of the Army of the otomac, and in November (1861) was appointed general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. General McClellan at once brought his splendid organizing qualities to the task of creating a real army. In March, 1862, after the President had long vainly urged him to make a forward movement, he transferred the Army of the Potomac to Hampton Roads and began what is known as the “Peninsula Campaign’ against Richmond. Instead of masking the Confederate fortifications at Yorktown or taking them by assault, , he devoted, a month of valuable time to a regular siege of the town, and by the time the Confederates evacuated the place, and he was ready to advance, the main Confederate army was, so well prepared that, after terrible .# and some successes, he was compelled to retreat. During most of this time his relations with the Government, at Washington had been strained. In August he was practically relieved of his command, which was assumed by Halleck, but after the defeat of Pope in the second Bull Run campaign he was again put in charge of the Army of the Potomac, and in September fought the battles of South Mountain and Antietam (Sept. 16–17, 1862) and compelled Lee to withdraw from Maryland. . He did not, however, follow up his success as the President believed he should have done; he was again relieved of command. On Nov. 8, 1864, he resigned from the army.


Although General McClellan had been more successful as an organizer than as a fighter, he was a great favorite with his troops and with a K. of the Northern people. In

ugust, 1864, he was nominated for the Presidency by the Democrats, but was overwhelmingly defeated in the election, receiving only 21 electoral votes out of 233. From 1865 to 1868 he travelled in Europe; from 1870 to 1872 was chief engineer of the department of docks in New York City; and from 1877 to 1881 was governor of New Jersey. His published works include: A Manual of Bayonet Exercise (1852); Government of: of Pacific Railroad Surveys (1854); Report on the Organization and Campaigns of the joigo McClellan’s Own Story (1887). Ševeral biographies of him have been -written, notably that by Michie (1901).

McClellan, GEORGE BRINTON (1865), American legislator and executive, was born in Dresden, Saxony, where his father, General George. B. McClellan (q.v.), was then living. He graduated at Princeton University in 1886, and took up newspaper work in New York & - e" was treasurer of the New York and Brooklyn oil; (1889–92), and president of the board of aldermen (1893). From 1895 to 1903 he served in Congress and in the latter year was elected mayor of New York City on the Tammany ticket. He served two terms, from 1904, to 1908. He is fo regarded as having given the city a fair administration. Some of his appointments were excellent, while others were severely criti

ciseol. Mr. McClellan was made honorary chancellor of Union College, (1906) and Stafford Little Lecturer on public affairs at Princeton (1908). He has written The Oligarchy of Venice (1904). McClernand, EDward JoHN 1848), American soldier, son of ohn A. McClernand (q.v.), was rn in Jacksonville, Ill. e Was graduated at the United States Military Academy (1870), and in that ear entered the army as second ieutenant. He served under Custer in the Indian wars, and in 1894 received the Medal of Honor (q.v.). At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, he was appointed adjutant-general of the Fifth Army Co (1898), and served in the Philippines, where he was acting military governor from 1900 to jo He was o: §4. apanese army in Japan and Man3. (1905); and .."commanded the First United States Cavalry since 1906, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and colonel (1908). McClernand, John ALExANDER (1812–1900), American litician and soldier, was born in Breckenridge co., Ky., and was taken to Illinois when very young. He was

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admitted to the bar in 1832, volunteered for the Black Hawk War the same year, but resumed the practice of law at Shawneetown in is 33. He became editor of a newspaper in 1835, was a member of the legislature, 1836–42, and of Co 1843–51. In 1851 he removed to Jacksonville, Ill., and in 1859 reentered Congress. At the outbreak of the Civil War, his position as a ‘War Democrat' in Congress led to his appointment as brigadier-general of volunteers. At the capture of Fort Donelson he commanded theo: of the line, and was promoted to major-general of volunteers in March, 1862. He commanded a division at Shiloh (Apr. 6-7, 1862), and took part in the Vicksburg campaign. Friction arose between him and General Grant, and in July, 1863, he was relieved of his command, the 13th Corps, and ordered to Springfield. He joi. from the army in 1864, resumed the practice of law, and in 1870 became a circuit judge. Macclesfield, town in Cheshire, England, 12 m. S.S.E. of Stockport. Chief silk-manufacturing centre in o producing brocades, plain and fancy silks and satins, rib nS, gimps, and fringes. Pop. 36,000. "Clintock, SIR FRANCIS LEOPold (1819–1907), British admiral and Arctic explorer, born in Dundalk, Ireland. He served in four Arctic expeditions. The second 1850) found traces of Franklin; the third (1852), relieved the M’Clure expedition; the fourth (1857) ascertained the fate of Franklin. In 1859 he published The Fate of Sir John Franklin. In 1861 he was employed in the survey of a route for a North Atlantic toh. and was commander of the North American and West Indian station from 1879 to 1882. Consult Markham's Life (1909). cClintock, John (1814–70) American Methodist Episcopal clergyman and theologian, born in Philadelphia, was #. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1835. For ten years after his or— dination he was professor of mathematics, Greek and Latin in Dickinson College. In 1848 he became editor of the Methodist Quarterly Review, and in 1856 was Pool. a delegate to the Wesleyan Methodist Conference in England and to the Evangelical Alliance in Berlin. During the Civil War he was in charge of the American Chapel in Paris, where he did much to help the Ünion cause in 1867 he bo came president of Drew Theological Seminary. His books include a translation of Neander's Life of Christ (1847), and Sketches of Emiment Methodist Ministers (1863). In connection with Dr. James Strong he prepared several volumes of the Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, a task to which he devoted many years.


McCloskey, JoHN (1810–85), American Roman Catholic prelate, was born in Brooklyn. He was educated at Mount St. Mary's College Emmittsburg, Md.; was ordaine in 1834; and after three years' study in Rome and Paris became pastor of St. ło Church in New York. In 1841 he was made the first president of St. John's College, .#. N. Y. In 1844 he was appoint coadjutor to Bisho Hughes of New York, and in 184 the first bishop of the new diocese of Albany. After seventeen fruitful ears in Albany, during which he uilt the cathedral there and founded the theological seminary in Troy, he succeeded go Hughes as archbishop of New York. In 1875 he was created a cardinal. He was noted for his effective preaching, rare executive ability, and administrative energy. McClung (THöMAs) LEE §§§ American railroad official and U. S. Treasurer, was born in Knoxville, Tenn. He was graduated at Yale (1892), and after a year's travel entered the railroad business §o: in which he was interested for ten §"F.". as paymaster of the t. Paul and Duluth Railroad Co., then as assistant to second viceresident and assistant freight traf#. manager of the Southern Railway Co. . In 1904 he left the railroad business to become treasurer of Yale University. In 1909, he was made Treasurer of the United States. McClure, ALEXANDER KELLY (1828–1909), American journalist and legislator, was born in Perry county, Pa. In 1846 he became editor of the Mifflin Sentinel, and edited the Chambersburg Repository in 1850–6, and again in 1862–4. He was admitted to the bar in 1856; sat in the State legislature in 1857–8; and was State senator in 1859, and again in 1872. In 1855 he was a member of the convention which o the Republican Party in Pennsylvania; in 1856 was a member of the first national convention of the Po advocating the nomination of Lincoln for President; and in 1872 was chairman of the State delegation to the national convention that nominated Horace Greeley for President. From 1873 to 1901 he exercised great influence as editor-in-chief of the Philadelphia Times. From 1904 until his death he was prothonotary of the supreme court of Pennsylvania. He published The South (1886); Abraham Lincoln and Men of War Times (1892); Recollections of Half a Century (1902); Our Presidents and How We Make Them (1902). McClure, SAMUEL SIDNEY (1857), American P. was born of Scotch-Irish parentage, in County Antrim, Ireland. As a boy he came with his parents to the United States, who settled in Illinois. He graduated at Knox ColMcComb

l in 1882. In 1884 he established in New York City the McClure Syndicate, to buy manuscripts of authors and sell them for simultaneous publication in several newspapers. In 1893 he founded McClure's Magazine, and in 1899 with John H. Phillips, organize the publishing house of McClure, Phi #; & Co. In 1906 he bought Mr. Phillips' interest in the house. McComb, ci sissippi, on the is Cent. R. m. N. of New Orleans. It is the trade centre of a cotton-growing section, and has cotton and lumber mills, and machine shops. Corn, potatoes, and sugar cane are also grown. Pop. (1910) 6,237. McComb, SAMUEL (1864) American clergyman, was born in Londonderry, Ireland. He received a university education, and was ordained a Presbyterian minister. After holding pastorates in England, Ireland, and New York, he was professor of ecclesiastical history in Queen's University, §§. ton, Canada, from 1889 to 1904. In 1906 he became associate director of what is R}. known as ‘the Emanuel ovement” (see PsycHotHERAPY) in Emanuel P. E. hurch, Boston;. . Co-author of Religion and Medicine (1907). MacCook, jo Nebraska, coun§ seat of Red Willow co., on the epublican R., and the Chi., Burl. and Quin. RR. 90 m. W.S.W. of Kearney. It has railroad shops, and is a shipping point for livestock and agricultural produce. Pop. 2,500. cCook, ALExANDER McDowell (1831-1903), American soldier, born in Columbiana county, O. He ol. at West Point in 1852, and was assigned to the Third Infantry. In 1857 he served against the Apache Indians; in 1858–61 was assistant instructor at West Point. At the beginning, of the Civil War he was *U. colonel of the First Ohio Volunteers, and behaved with distinction at the first battle of Bull Run. He became major-general of volunteers (1862), taking *: in the operations in Kentucky and Tennessee. At the end of the war he resumed his in the regular army, reached the rank of ma or-general in 1894, and was reti in 1895. He represented the United States at the coronation of the Czar of Russia in 1896, and in 1898–9 was a member of the commission that investigated the conduct of the War Department during the Spanish War. McCook, ANSON George (1835), American soldier and legislator, was born in Steubenville, For several years after 1854 he lived in California, but returned to Ohio and entered the Civil War as captain in the Second Ohio Infantry. He served in the Army of the Cumberland and in the Atlanta gam: paign; was commissioned colonel

Vol. VII.-Jan. '11.

Pike county, Mis:


and brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. In 1866–72 he was assessor of internal revenue at Steubenville. He removed to New York City in 1873, and in 1877–83 was a member of Congress. He was secretary of the U.S. Senate in 1884–93, and chamberlaim of New York City in 1895–7. McCook, HENRY CHRISTOPHER (1837), American theologian and entomologist, was born at New Lisbon, O.; graduated from Jefferson College in 1859. During the Civil War he served as chaplain in the Forty-first Illinois Volunteers. From 1870 to 1903 he was pastor of the Tabernacle Presbyterian church in Philadelphia, then pastor emeritus. During the Spanish-American War he founded the National Relief Commission. He was president the American Entomological Society and of the American Presbyterian . Historical Association. Among his books, are American Spiders and Their Work; Tenants of an Old Farm; Women Friends of Jesus; Gospel in Nature; Ecclesiastical Problems; Latimers; Martial Graves of our Fallen Heroes in Santiago; Nature's Craftsmen; Ant Communities. McCord, GeoRGE HERBERT (1848–1909), American painter, was born in New York o: He was educated at the Quackenbos Collegiate School and the New York and Hudson River Institute, and studied art in England, Scotland, Canada, Holland, and France. He received medals at the New Orleans and the St. Louis Expositions, and the Shaw prize of the SalmaÉ. Club, New York City, for lack and white drawing (1901). His landscapes and marine paintings, chiefly of scenes in Florida and on the northeast coast, are in the leading public and private collections of the United States. Mac C or m a c, SIR WILLIAM §. Irish surgeon, was born in Dublin. He was consultin surgeon in Belfast Royal #. surgeon-in-chief to the AngloAmerican ambulance during the Franco-German War (1870–1), and consulting surgeon to the French Hospital, London. He was an authority on gunshot wounds. . He saw active service in Cape Colony and Natal (1899–1900), and in 1901 was appointed sergeant-surgeon to the king. Publications: Antiseptic Surgery. (1880); Hernia (1886); Surgical Operations (1885–9). cCormick, CYRUs HALL(1809– 84), American inventor, was born at Walnut Grove, Va. He received a common-school education. He began his career as an inventor when just of age, and in 1831 constructed his first reaping-machine, which he patented in 1834, and fre: quently improved. In 1847 he removed to Chicago, and established there the works now known as the McCormick Harvesting Machine


Company. His inventions played an o: part in the agricultural development of the United States. He also contributed to the founding of the Presbyterian Semi;3% the Northwest, now McCormick Theological Seminary (q.v.). McCormick, Robert SANDERson (1849), American diplomat, was born in o: county Va., and educated in Chicago and at the University of Virginia. From 1889 to 1892 he was secretary of legation in London, and in 1893 represented the Columbian ExFolio in Great Britain. In 1902 e was appointed ambassador to Austria-Hunga from 1902 to 1905 he was ambassador to Russia, and from 1905 to 1907 ambassador to France. McCormick, SAMUEL BLACK (1858), American lawyer, clergyman, and educator, was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Washington and Jefferson, College in 1880, and taught there from 1881 to 1882. He was admitted to the bar in 1882, and for the next five years ractised law in Pittsburg and enver. __In 1890 he graduated from the Western Theological Seminary. He was pastor in Presbyterian churches until 1897, when he became president of Coe College, Iowa. Since 1904 he has been chancellor of the University of Pittsburg (formerly Western University of Pennsylvania). McCormickTheological Seminary, a .*.*. divinity school in Chicago, Ill., originated in 1829 as the Theological Department of Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. In 1840 it was removed to New Albany, Ind., and in 1859 to Chicago, where it was re-established as the foresbyterian Theological Seminary of the Northwest. In 1886 it received the present title in recognition of the o and endowment given by Cyrus, H. McCormick o he Seminary is open to students of all denominations who have had a regular course of college study. The course of study covers t years, with a prescribed course supplemented b electives in all the three years. It grants the B.D. degree to college graduates who in addition to completing the diploma course take the required number of additional hours and present, a satisfactory thesis. ... The Seminary, occupies five buildings for institutional purposes, and has homes for all the members of its faculty. The library contains upward of 34,000 volumes. In 1910 there were 12 instructors and 153 students. The roductive funds amounted to $1,00,000, and the income to $72,000. McCosh, JAMEs (1811–94) Scottish–American philosopher and educator, was born in Carskeoch, Ayrshire. He attended the universities of Glasgow and EdinMcCracken

burgh, and in 1835 became minister at 4 rbroath, removing (1838) to Brechin, and helping to organize the Free Church o §§ At Brechin he published his Method of the Divine Government (1850) which won him the professorship o logic and metaphysics at Queen's College, Belfast. During the sixteen years of his service at Queen's College he gained wide recognition as a writer on metaphysics. In 1868 he was called to the presidency of Princeton College, in the United States. He resigned from the presidency in 1888, but retained his go. of philosophy until 1890. During his presidency the college was completely reorganized. Twelve new buildings were erected. President McCosh introduced gymnastics, a modified elective system, and post-graduate and non-resident courses; and established the schools of science, philosophy, and art, as well as many prizes and fellowships. His writings include Examination of J. S. Mill's Philosophy (1866); Scottish Philosoph §. Agnosticism of Hume and Huxley (1884); Realistic hio, (1887); Psychology of the olive Powers 1887); irst and Fundamental ruths (1889); ... g. of Reality (1894). Čonsult Sloane's Life (1896). McCracken, HENRY MITCHELL (1840), American educator, was born in Oxford, O. He was graduated (1857) at Miami University and studied theology at the United Presbyterian Theo o Semina at Xenia, O., and at Princeton. . He was pastor of Čolumbus and Toledo Presbyterian churches from 1863 to 1881, when he was elected chancellor of Western University of Pennsylvania, now, University, of Pittsburg. In 1884 he became vicechancellor and professor of philosophy. at New York University, succeeding to the chancellorship in 1891. During his administration new buildings were erected on University Heights, and several of the schools removed to that situation, Dr. McCracken having secured a large proportion of the funds needed for this pu He organized the School of Ped §: the first of its kind. He resigned in 1910. Among his writings ...re Lives of Leaders of the Church Universal(1879); ScotchIrish, in America, (1884); John Calvin (1888); A Metropolitan University (1892); Educational Progress in the United States (sğ. Hall of Fame (1901). McCracken, John HENRY {{...} American educator, son of enry M. McCracken (q.v.), was born in Rochester, Vt. He was graduated from New York University § studied at the Union Theological Seminary (1894–5), and received the degree of PH.D. from the University of Halle (1899). He was instructor and professor of philosophy 'at New York University Vol. VII.-Jan. '11.

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(1896–9), president of Westminster College, Mo. (1899–1903), and professor of politics at New York University from 1903 until 1910, when, on his father's resignation, he became acting chancellor. McCrady, EDwARD (1833– 1903), American historian, born in Charleston, S. C. He graduated at the College of Charleston, and was admitted to the bar in 1855. At the outbreak of the Civil War he entered the Confederate service as captain, and was subsequently promoted to lieutenant-colonel. He was wounded at the second battle of Bull Run, , and was later , so severely injured by an accident that he retired from active service, but had charge of an instruction camp with the rank of major-general o State troops. From 1880 to 1890 he was a member of the legislature. He wrote History of South Carolina under Proprietary Government ; to Royal Government 1899); in the Revolution (2 vols., 901–2). McCrary, GEORGE WASHINGToN (1835–90), American legislator, was born at Evansville, Ind. He was admitted to the Iowa bar in 1856, and practised law at Keokuk. He was in the Iowa legislature in 1857; State senator from 1861 to 1865; U. S. Congressman from 1869 to 1877; Secretary of War from 1877 to 1879. He was the prime mover in arranging for the appointment of the Electoral Commission of 1877, and drafted the law under which the United States judiciary was reorganized. cCrea, JAMES (1848), American railroad official, was born in Philadelphia. From 1865 to 1871 he worked as rodman and assistant engineer on various railroads in Pennsylvania. . In 1871 he entered the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and was assistant engineer and division superintendent till 1882; from 1882 to 1907, manager, general manager, and vicepresident of the Pennsylvania lines west of Pittsburg; director since ło 1899. In jin. 1907, he came president of the Pennsylvania Railroad So He is also president of the Pennsylvania Co., P. C. C. & St. L. §§ Co., Phila., Balt., and Wash. R.R. Co., Northern Central §§ Co., West {. and Seashore RR. Co., and umberland Valley Ry. Co. McCrea, JANE (1753–77), American girl, whose tragic deat has become historical. She was born at Bedminster (now Lamington), N. J. At her father's deat she went to live with her brother near Fort Edward, N. Y. Her betrothed, David Jones, a Loyalist officer in Burgoyne's army, sent Duluth, a half-breed, to conduct her within the British lines, where they were to married. While Duluth was waiting for her near her home, she and a friend were cap


tured by a Wyandotte chief named Wolf. This chief and Duluth Tool as to which should conuct her, and Wolf killed her. See Stone's Ballads and Poems (1893). McCreary, JAMEs BENNETT (1838), American legislator, was born in Madison county, Ky. He was graduated at Centre CŞege in 1857, and in law at Cumberland University in 1859. He served in the Confederate army during the Civil War. He was a member of the State assembly, 1869–73, and speaker, 1871–3; governor of Kentucky, 1875–9; member of Conress, 1885–97; and was U. S. enator from 1903 to 1909. He was a delegate to the International Monetary Conference at Brussels in 1891. McCulloch, BEN §§ American scout and soldier, born in Rutherford county, Tenn. He joined o Crockett's expedition to aid the Texans in their struggle

for independence. He sat in the Texas Congress in 1839, and was engaged against Indians and Mexicans. en Texas joined the

Union he was a member of the first jo. and became majorgeneral of militia. With a company of rangers he joined General Taylor in the Mexican War, and afterward did scouting duty under General Scott. After a short residence in California he returned to Texas, and in 1853 was made U. S. marshal. In 1857 he was appointed a commissioner to , investigate the Mormon disputes in Utah. In 1861 he became a brigadier-general in the Confederate o anol was assigned to Indian Territory. He marched to the relief of Governor Jackson of Missouri, and, with the troops under General Sterlin Price, defeated the forces of Gene Nathaniel o at Wilson's Creek (Aug. 10, 1861). He refused, in the absence of orders, to pursue the Federals. He was killed at Pea Ridge by a sharpshooter. See Johnson and Buel's Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (1884). McCulloch, HUGH (1808–95), American financier, born in what is now Kennebunkport, Me... He studied at Thornton Academy, Saco, and in 1824 entered Bowdoin College, but did not graduate. From 1826 to 1829 he taught school, and then read law in Boston. In 1833 he removed to Fort Wayne Ind., where he practised law, an in 1836 became a director in the State Bank of Indiana. His success in carrying the bank through the crisis of 1837 established his reputation as an able and conservative financier, and in 1856 he became president of the new Bank of the State of Indiana. He retained this o until May, 1863, when, at the solicitation of Salmon P. Chase, .*. of the Treasury he accepted the newly create office of comptroller of the -cur

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rency. The national banking system, as proposed in 1862, had not met his approval; but the changes introduced by the act of 1863, together with clearer recognition of the gravity of the financial situation produced by the war, led him to change his view. In March, 1865, he succeeded William P. Fessenden as Secretary of the Treasury, an office which he held until the expiration of Johnson's Presidency in March, 1869. His principal tasks as Secretary were the raising of funds for the payment of the Union army on its disbandment, and the management of the numerous bond and note issues put out during the war. In his annual reports—documents of the first importance in the history of American finance—he urged the reduction of the debt, the retirement of the legal tender notes, and the early resumption of specie Fo: In less than two years e succeeded in converting into a funded debt nearly $1,000,000,000 of short-term bonds. In 1870 McCulloch went to England, where from 1871 to 1878 he was a member of the English branch of Jay Cooke & Co., the New York bankers. In October, 1884, he again became Secretary of the Treasury, but retired the following March. He died at his country place in Maryland, near Washington, May 24, 1895. Bowdoin College conferred upon him in 1863 the degree of M.A., and in 1889 the degree of LL.D. Besides his annual reports and official correspondence, he wrote frequently for periodicals, mainly on financial topics. His Men and Measures of Half a Century (1889) is an interesting book of reminiscences. M“Culloch, John RAMsAY (1789–1864), Scottish statistician and political economist, was born in Whithorn, Wigtownshire. He delivered lectures in London (1824), afterward embodied in Principles of Political Economy (1825), a standard work of the day. M'Culloch was an ardent disciple of Ricardo and Adam Smith, whose works he edited. McCulloch vs. Maryland. See SUPREME Court DECISIONs, FAMOUs. McCullough, John Edward (1837–85), American tragedian, was born at Blakes, Londonderry, Ireland. When sixteen years old he came to the United States, and in 1857 appeared at the Arch Street Theatre, Philadelphia. In 1866–68 he acted with Edwin Forrest, modelling himself upon that actor and playing the parts

Vol. VII.-Oct. 11

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Forrest had made famous. He had a repertory of thirty characters, chiefly of the heroic type, of which the most famous was Virginius, a remarkable embodiment of poetic exaltation and power. Owing to lack of early education he fell short of his ambition, which was to succeed Forrest and to rival Edwin Booth; but his Lear, Othello, Spartacus, Laertes, Iago, Hamlet, Coriolanus, and Richelieu found a host of admirers, while his Virginius was acknowledged a masterpiece. McCumber, Porter JAMEs (1858), American legislator, was born in Crete, Ill., and was taken to Rochester, Minn., the same year. He received a public school education, and was graduated in law at the University of Michigan in 1880. He settled in Wahpeton, N. D., in 1881; was a member of the Territorial legislature in 1895 and 1897; State's attorney, Richmond county, 1896–7; and U. S. Senator from 1899 to 1911. He was re-elected in 1911. Mac Cunn, HAMISH (1868), Scottish musical composer, was born in Greenock. In 1886 his overture, Land of the Mountain and the Flood, was produced at the Crystal Palace. He was professor of harmony (1888–94) at the Royal Academy of Music, and conductor (1892) of the Hampstead Conservatoire Orchestral Society. His chief works are the operas Jeanie Deans (1894) and Diarmid (libretto by Marquis of Lorne; 1896), and the cantatas Lord Ullin's Daughter and Queen Hynde of Caledon; besides numerous overtures, songs, part songs, Scottish dances, and pieces for 'cello and pianoforte.


(1847), Canadian Orientalist, was born in Chatham, New Brunswick. He was educated at the University of New Brunswick and at the Princeton (N. J.) Theological Seminary, where he became instructor in Semitic languages (1873–82), and Stone lecturer (1885–86). After studying at Göttingen and Leipzig he became professor of Oriental languages at the University of Toronto. He edited the Psalms and Hosea and wrote the commentary on Haggai for the American edition of Lange's Commentary (1872–4). His books include Aryo-Semitic Speech (1881); History, Prophecy, and the Monuments (1894–1901); Life and Works of the Rev. D. J. MacDonnell (1897). McCurdy, RICHARD ALDRICH (1835), American life insurance official, was born in New York


City, and was graduated from Harvard University in 1855. He studied law, and in 1860 was appointed attorney for the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, becoming vice-president in 1865 and president in 1885. As a result of the insurance investigation of 1905, he resigned his office. He has also been president of the International Bell Telephone Company, and a director in several corporations. McCutcheon, GEORGE BARR (1866), American novelist, brother of John T. McCutcheon (q.v.), was born in Tippecanoe County, In d., and was educated at Purdue University. He became reporter on the Lafayette Journal in 1889, and editor of the Lafayette Courier in 1893. His principal works are Graustark (1901); Brewster's Millions (1903); Jane Cable (1906); The Man from Brodney's (1908); Truxton King (1909); Alternative (1909); Rose in the Ring (1910); Butterfly Man (1910); Husbands of Edith (1911); What's-His-Name (1911); Mary Midthorne (1911). McCutcheon, John TINNEY (1870), American cartoonist, brother of George B. McCutcheon (q.v.), was born near South Raub, Ind. He was graduated at Purdue University in 1889, and studied art under Prof. Ernest Knaufft. From 1889 to 1901 he contributed cartoons to the Chicago Record (later the Chicago Record-Herald), making tours of Asia and Africa, and serving at the front as war correspondent during the SpanishAmerican and Boer Wars. Since 1903 he has been on the staff of the Chicago Tribune, making another trip to Africa in 1909–10. Many of his cartoons have been published in book form. McDaniel, HENRY DICKERSON (1837), American legislator, was born in Monroe, Ga., and was graduated at Mercer University in 1856. He was a member of the Secession Convention, later entering the Confederate service as first lieutenant and being promoted to major. He was a member of the Georgia constitutional convention (1865), and of the Georgia legislature (1873–83), and governor of the State (1883–86). Since 1878 he has been a director of the Georgia Railroad and Banking Company, and of other industrial enterprises. He is chairman of the board of trustees of the University of Georgia. MacDonald, borough, Washington county, Pa. 15 miles southwest of Pittsburg, on the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago

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