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and St. Louis Railroad. It is the centre of extensive oil fields and coal mines. Pop. (1910) 2,543. Macdonald, SIR CLAUDE MAxwell (1852), British soldier and diplomatist, served in Egypt (1882) and in the Suakin expedition (1884–5), and was wounded at Tamai. From 1896–1900 he was minister at Peking, and commanded the legation quarters when besieged by the Boxers (1900). He was then appointed British minister to Japan, and in 1905 first ambassador to that country. Mac d on a 1 d, ET I E N N E JACQUES Jos EPH ALEXANDRE (1765–1840), Duke of Taranto and marshal of France, was born in Sancerre (Cher). Crossing the Waal on the ice, he captured the Dutch fleet—a feat unique in history (1794–5). He saved the situation in Italy, fighting Suvarov for three days till relieved by Moreau (1799). In 1800 he swept the Austrians before him in the Splügen, but in 1804–9 was in disgrace through defending Moreau. However, he broke the Austrian centre at Wagram (1809), for which he was made marshal and duke. Defeated by Blücher on the Katzbach (1813), he fought grandly at Leipzig. Macdonald, Flora (1722– 90), Scottish heroine, was born in Milton, South Uist. At Benbecula, Hebrides (1746), when Charles Edward arrived after Culloden, she obtained a passport for herself, man-servant, ‘Betty Burke, an Irish spinning-maid' (i.e., the prince), and landed the Pretender at Kilbride, near Monkstadt, whence he gained Portree and Raasay House, eventually escaping to Brittany from Borradale. For this she was imprisoned in the Tower of London, but was pardoned (1747). After her return to Scotland in 1750 she married Allan Macdonald, and with him emigrated to America in 1774, settling in Fayetteville, N. C. During the Revolutionary War her husband served as an officer in the British army, and she returned alone to Scotland, but was later rejoined by her husband. Consult Life by Macgregor and by Jolly. Macdonald, GEORGE (1824– 1905), Scottish novelist and poet, was born in Huntly, Aberdeenshire. After a sojourn in London his weak health constrained him to settle at Bordighera in Italy. He lectured in the United States in 1872–3. Among his published works are Poems (1857) and Phantastes (1858). His knowledge of the north of Scotland is conspicuous in the novels David

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Elginbrod (1862); Alec Forbes of Howglen (1865); Robert Falconer (1868); Malcolm (1875); The Marquis of Lossie (1877). Others are Annals of a Quiet Neighborhood (1866); Guild Court (1867); Wilfred Cumber me de (1871); St. George and St. Michael (1875); Thomas Wingfold, Curate (1876). The author's dogmatism occasionally intensifies the intrinsic interest of his problem, as in Lilith (1895). Macdonald, SIR H E C T OR ARCHIBAld (1852–1903), British soldier, was born in Ross-shire, Scotland. Enlisting as a private, he served in the Afghan War (1879–80), and was promoted from the ranks. In 1881 he served in the Boer War, and fought at Majuba Hill. Between 1885 and 1898 he took part in most of the Egyptian Sudan campaigns, being present at the battles of Toski, Tokar, Abu Hamed, Atbara, and Omdurman, in the last of which he especially distinguished himself. After the death of General Wauchope at Magersfontein (Dec. 11, 1899), Macdonald was given the command of the Highland Brigade. He was engaged in the operations that led to the capture of Cronje and his force at Paardeberg (1900). He commanded the Southern and Belgaum district, India (1901), and in 1902 was transferred to Ceylon. He subsequently committed suicide in Paris. MacDonald, JAMEs Wilson Alexander (1824–1908), American sculptor, was born in Steubenville, O., and studied in it. Louis and New York. He came before the public with two ideal works, Joan of Arc and Italia. Among his statues are those of Edward Bates, in Forest Park, St. Louis (1876), of Fitz-Greene Halleck, in Central Park, New York City, and of General Custer, at West Point. He made busts of Washington, from Houdon's original, for Prospect Park, Brooklyn, and elsewhere, and of Bryant, Cooper, and Thurlow Weed. He also lectured and wrote upon art. Macdonald, SiR John AlexAND E R (1815–91), Canadian statesman, was born in Glasgow, and was taken to Canada in 1820. He entered the Canadian House of Assembly in 1844, and in 1856 became leader of the Conservative Party and Premier. He was an advocate of the federation of the British North American colonies, and triumphed in 1867, when the Dominion of Canada was created, he being its first Premier. He held office till 1873, and came back into power in 1878 as a protectionist,


and remained in power till his death. He was one of the commissioners appointed by Great Britain to settle the Alabama claims and other matters of dispute between Great Britain and the United States, and was one of the signers of the Treaty of Washington (1871). Consult Pope's Life. McDonald, John B. (1844– 1911), American contractor, was born in Ireland, and was brought to New York as a boy. He received his education in the public schools of that city, where he also developed his business as a railroad contractor and builder. Among his most important constructions are the railroad tunnels and viaduct of the New York Central Railroad in New York City; the West Shore Railroad from Weehawken to Buffalo; the Illinois Central Railroad from Elgin to Wisconsin; the Trenton cut-off on the Pennsylvania; the extension of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Baltimore to Philadelphia; the Jerome Park Reservoir; the tunnel of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad under the city of Baltimore; and particularly that part of the New York subway which was finished in 1904. MacDonald, William (1863), American scholar, was born in Providence, R. I. He was graduated at the New England Conservatory of Music in 1884, and in 1884–90 was dean of the department of music in the University of Kansas. In 1892 he graduated at Harvard, and received his doctor's degree from Union College in 1895. He taught in the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, in Bowdoin College, and since 1901 has been professor of history in Brown University. He has edited several volumes of documents illustrating American history, also Burke on Conciliation (1903); Parkman's Oregon Trail (1911); and has written History and Government of Maine (1902); Jacksonian Democracy (1905); History of the United States (with T. W. Higginson, 1905). Mac d on el 1, AL EXAN DER (1762–1840), Canadian Roman Catholic prelate, was born in the Glengarry Highlands, Inverness, Scotland. He pursued his religious studies at the Scots College in Valladolid, Spain, where he was ordained priest in 1787. He returned to the Highlands and engaged in missionary work. In 1804 he obtained the assignment of a large tract of land in Glengarry, Upper Canada, to members of the Clan Macdonell. Removing with them to CanMcDonnell

ada, he supervised their settlement in their new home, organized a regiment for the defence of the frontier in the War of 1812, and became vicar apostolic of Upper Canada in 1819. The following year he was consecrated bishop in Quebec. He established himself at Kingston, and devoted the remainder of his life to extending the Roman Catholic Church in Upper Canada, erecting forty-eight churches in that province. McDonnell, CHARLEs EDward (1854), American Roman Catholic bishop, was born in New York City. He was educated at St. Francis Xavier's College, New York, and at the American College in Rome. He was ordained priest in 1878, and after holding charges in New York City became secretary to Cardinal McCloskey (1884–5), and to Archbishop Corrigan (1885–92). . . In 1892 he was consecrated bishop of Brooklyn. He is honorary president of the International Catholic Truth Society. McDonogh, Jo HN (1779– 1850), American merchant and philanthropist, was born in Baltimore. He entered commercial life and removed to New Orleans, where he became wealthy. In 1825 he put into effect a scheme of paying his slaves for extra time, which enabled them to buy their freedom and migrate to Africa. At his death his fortune, which after litigation amounted to about $1,400,000, was left equally to the cities of Baltimore and New Orleans. The proceeds were used to establish a farm school near Baltimore and to build school houses in New Orleans. Consult Allan's Life. McDonough, THOMAS (1783– 1825), American naval officer, was born in New Castle county, Del. He entered the navy as midshipman in 1800, and in 1803 sailed on the ill-fated Philadelphia. Fortunately he was left at Gibraltar in charge of a captured Moorish vessel, and thus escaped capture when the Philadelphia went aground in the harbor of Tripoli. McDonough was one of the party which recaptured and burned that vessel (Feb. 16, 1804). He became lieutenant in 1804 and commander in 1813. During the War of 1812 he served first on the Constitution, but in September, 1812, was given command of the fleet on Lake Champlain. On Sept. 11, 1814, in Plattsburg Bay, his fleet of 14 vessels, with 86 guns and about 850 men, shattered a British fleet consisting of 16 vessels, with 95 guns and about 1,000 men, under

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Capt. George Downie. As a reward, Congress voted him the commission of captain (then the highest rank in the navy) and a gold medal. Vermont gave him an estate overlooking the scene of the battle. Mac Dougal, DANIEL TREMBLY (1865), American botanist, was born in Liberty, Ind. He was graduated (1890) at DePauw University, continuing his studies at Tübingen and Leipzig. During 1891–2 he engaged in exlorations in Arizona and Idaho or the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and from 1893 to 1899 he was successively instructor and assistant professor of plant physiology in the University of Minnesota. In 1899 he became assistant director of the New York Botanical Garden, and in 1905 director of the department of botanical research in the Carnegie Institution at Washington, D. C. He has been noted for his investigations of the physiology, heredity, and evolution of plants. Among his contributions to science are Experimental Plant Physiology (1894); Nature and Work of Plants (1900); Botanical Features of North American Deserts (1908); Water Balance of Succulent Plants (1910); Conditions of Parasitism in Plants (1910); Alterations in Heredity Induced by Ovarial Treatments (1911); Organic Response (1911). Mc Doug a 1 1, AL Ex A.N DER (1731–86), American soldier, was born on the island of Islay, Scotland. He removed to New York with his father in 1755, and the next year commanded privateering vessels preying on French commerce in the French and Indian War. Afterward he became a prominent merchant. While the Assembly was wavering in its opposition to the crown, he wrote an address entitled “A Son of Liberty to the Betrayed Inhabitants of the Colony,' for which he was imprisoned twenty-three weeks. On July 6, 1774, he presided at the “meeting in the fields," which resulted in the election of delegates to the first Continental Congress. He entered the Revolutionary army as colonel, was promoted to majorgeneral in 1777, and did much fighting. He was a delegate from New York to the Continental Congress in 1781–82, and again in 1784–85. He was a member of the State senate in 1783 and at the time of his death. MacDougall, WALTER HUGH (1858), American artist, was born in Newark, N.J., and received no regular schooling. In 1876 he began work as an artist, and was


among the first to prepare cartoons for the daily papers. He is the author of The Hidden City (1886); No. II. (1890); History of Christopher Columbus (1892). McDougall, WILLIAM (1822– 1905), Canadian statesman, was born in Toronto. He was educated at Victoria College, Coburg; studied law, and was admitted to the bar as an attorney in 1847. From 1848 to 1859 he engaged in journalism. He served in the Canadian Parliament from 1858 to 1882, with interruptions; was provincial secretary in 1864; minister of public works in 1867; commissioner to London for the acquisition of the Northwest Territory in 1868, and held places on other important commissions. He was appointed Queen's counsel in 1881, and the following year returned to the practice of the law at Ottawa. He was Canadian representative at the New York exhibition of 1853. MacDowell, Edward ALExANDER (1861–1908), American composer and pianist, was born in New York City. After piano lessons from Buitrago, Desvernine, and Teresa Carreno, he went to the Paris Conservatory (1876–9), where he had Savard as his teacher of theory and Marmontel for the piano, while afterward he studied composition under Raff and Heymann in Frankfort. In 1881 he became head of the piano department at the Darmstadt Conservatory. He returned to the United States in 1888, and settled in Boston, where he taught with success, and augmented his musical reputation by composing and playing in concerts. In 1896 he was appointed professor of music at Columbia University, from which position he resigned in 1904 to devote himself to composition. He was director of the Mendelssohn Glee Club (1896– 8); president of the American Society of Musicians and Composers (1897–8); and vice-president of the Institute of Arts and Letters (1904–5). In 1905, illness resulted in hopeless mental trouble that compelled him to give up all work. In 1908 a collection of Verses was issued, consisting of the introductory mottoes to his instrumental music. A MacDowell pageant was given in 1910 at the composer's former home in Peterborough, N. H. As a concert performer MacDowell was admirable, especially in the interpretation of his own works, but the composer soon overshadowed the pianist. His compositions include four sonatas of importance, four symphonic McDowell

poems for orchestra, two orchestral suites, one of which, the Indian Suite, is based upon the music of the Sioux, two piano concertos, forty-two songs, and a large number of pianoforte pieces, among them Woodland Sketches, Forest Idylls, Sea Pieces, all groups of short pieces exquisite in melody and grace. His music, as a whole, is impressionistic in method, and displays the poetic qualities of fervor, richness, and delicacy of imagination which were his heritage from his Celtic forebears; and a depth of feeling which is prevented by a wholesome restraint and directness of style from degenerating into sentimentality. He ranks at the head of American composers. Consult Gilman's Edward MacDowell (1906). McDowell, IRVIN (1818–85), American soldier, was born in Columbus, O. He attended the College of Troyes, France, and in 1838 graduated at the U. S. Military Academy. Entering the army as a second lieutenant of artillery, he attained the rank of first lieutenant in 1842. He served in the Mexican War, and received the brevet of captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Buena Vista. When the Civil War came he was employed for a time in organizing and mustering in troops; was commissioned brigadier-general of regulars on May 14, 1861, and was put in command of the Army of the Potomac on May 27. With this army, in obedience to the wishes of the President, he began in the middle of July the first “On to Richmond' march. The Confederate forces were encountered at Manassas, more popularly known as Bull Run. For a time the Union troops drove the enemy back; but the arrival of reinforcements sent by General Johnston turned probable defeat for the Confederate Army into victory. (See BUll RUN, FIRST BATTLE OF.) General McDowell was succeeded by General McClellan, but continued in command of a division. In March, 1862, he was given the First Corps, which was later transformed into the Army of the o He commanded the Third Corps of the Army of Virginia at the battles of Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock Station, and Manassas. In 1864 he was relieved of his command. He thereupon demanded a court of inquiry, which found that certain charges made against him were baseless. In 1863 he served as president of the court to inquire into alleged cotton frauds; and in 1864-5 was in command of

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the Department of the Pacific. His distinguished services at the battle of Cedar Mountain gained for him the brevet rank of majorgeneral in the regular army (1865). He was promoted majorgeneral in 1872, and retired in 1882. McDowell, WILLIAM FRAser (1858), bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was born in Millersburg, O. He received the degree of A.B. from Ohio Wesleyan University (1879), and that of s.T.B. from Boston University (1882), being ordained in the same year. After acting as pastor of various churches in Ohio from 1882 to 1890, he served as chancellor of the University of Denver (1890–9), and was elected bishop in 1904. In 1910 he was Cole lecturer at Vanderbilt University. He has been president of the board of trustees of Northwestern University since 1906, and was president of the Religious Education Association in 1905–6. In 1910 and 1911 he visited India, Malaysia, the Philippines, China, Korea, and J *P*. Macduff, thane or earl of Fife, who, according to tradition, succeeded in defeating Macbeth at the battle of Lumphanan (1057), and assisted in placing Malcolm Canmore on the throne. Consult Shakespeare's Macbeth. McDuffie, GEORGE (1790– 1851), American legislator, was born in Columbia county, Ga. He moved to Augusta, where he attracted the attention of John C. Calhoun. In 1811 he entered the junior class of South Carolina College, from which he was graduated with first honors in 1813. He was admitted to the bar in 1814; practised at Edgefield. S. C.; was a member of the legislature in 1818; and from 1821 to 1834 a member of Congress. He was the champion of Nullification (q.v.), and wrote the “Address to the People of the United States' issued by the Null ification convention. He was governor of South Carolina (1834–6) and U. S. Senator (1843–6). His speeches in Congress were marked by grace and lucidity. Mace, formerly a weapon of war, in use in Europe as late as the sixteenth century, consisting of a staff about 5 feet long, with a heavy knob at the end. It is now used as a symbol of authority by certain judges, magistrates, and high official persons in England, such as the Lord Chancellor and the Speaker of the British House of Commons. The mace is also the symbol of authority of the Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives.


Mace, the large branched aril of the nutmeg, is of a deep orange or scarlet color, and of a fleshy consistence when fresh. It is commonly sold as a spice, in the dry state, when it takes on a dull yellowish color. It contains about 8 per cent. of oil of nutmeg and tastes somewhat like nutmeg. See NUTMEG. Macedonia, or MACEDON, a country to the north of ancient Greece. On the accession of Philip (359 B.C.) it reached down to Mount Olympus in Thessaly. The inhabitants were of Greek race, but the Greeks regarded them as an alien people. The monarchy became strong through Philip's organization of a regular standing army; and from his time until its conquest by Rome (168 b.c.), Macedonia's history is part of that of Greece (q.v.). By 800 it was peopled by Slavonic races, except on the seacoast. It was a part of the Bulgarian empire from the ninth to the eleventh century, with the capital at Ochrida; and, after a century of Servian domination, it fell into the power of the Turks in 1389. Macedonia has become notorious in recent years as the scene of revolts against Turkish rule. The Congress of Berlin (1878) made certain stipulations as to autonomous institutions for the Macedonian Christians. In 1875, the Bulgarians fomented a revolt, and their government proposed a plan of reform. In 1896. bands of irregulars were formed, and constant conflicts with the Turkish soldiery took place. In 1903, several bloody encounters occurred; in the vilayet of Monastir alone, 119 villages were destroyed, and 30,000 refugees fled from Macedonia to Bulgaria. The district was thereafter policed by a gendarmerie composed of representatives from five powers, but with little result. In December, 1905, the powers made a naval demonstration against Turkey to enforce their scheme of financial control in Macedonia. Complications arise from the rivalries among Servians, Bulgarians, Albanians, and Greeks, who are severally striving, by means of schools and propaganda, to foster a spirit of race patriotism. In 1908 the Reval programme for further reforms, backed by Great Britain, was withdrawn after the establishment of the constitutional monarchy. Western Macedonia is mountainous, and contains the three large lakes Ochrida, Presba, and Ostrovo. Eastern Macedoniaconsists cf the two valleys watered by the Vardar and Struma RivMaceio

ers. Agriculture, the chief occupation, is carried on, for the most part, by primitive instruments and methods. The products are rice, maize, wheat, wine, tobacco, opium, cotton, and fruit. Industry is little developed, but in the vilayet of Salonica there are manufactures of cotton, silk, flour, soap, bricks, oil, and tobacco. The country is rich in iron ore, ferrochrome, and magnesite, awaiting transportation facilities for their development. Since 1908, roads have been somewhat improved, and a greater land area is under cultivation. Railroads connect Salonica with Monastir, Uskub, and Adrianople. The chief cities are Salonica, Ochrida, Uskub, and Monastir. Among the great variety of races represented in the country, French is increasingly the language of culture and of commerce. An American consulate was established in Salonica in 1908 and an American Chamber of Commerce in May, 1911. Area, 45,000 square miles. Pop. about 4,000,000. See EASTERN QUESTION, NEAR. Consult Upward's East End of Europe (1908); Brailsford's Macedonia (1906); Singleton's Macedonia (1908); Aflalo's Regilding the Crescent (1911). Maceio, capital of Alagoas, Brazil, 125 miles southwest of Pernambuco, at a short distance from its port, Jaragua, on the Lagóa do Norte. It has a cathedral, government building, lyceum, and a good harbor with excellent shipyards. The principal exports are cotton, corn, hides; there are cotton and sugar mills. It is the seat of a U. S. consular agent. Pop. 40,000. McEnery, SAMUEL Douglas (1837–1910), American legislator, was born in Monroe, La. He was educated at the U. S. Naval Academy and the University of Virginia, and was graduated at the State and National Law School, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1859. He served in the Confederate army in the Civil War. He was elected lieutenant-governor of Louisiana in 1879; became governor on the death of Governor Wiltz in 1881, and was elected for the full term of 1884–88. He was associate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court in 1888– 97, and U. S. Senator from 1896 till his death. Though a Democrat, he was not in harmony with his party on the tariff question, and cast his vote with the protectionists. Macéo, ANTONIO (1848–96), Cuban patriot, was born in Santiago de Cuba. He joined the in

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surgent army as a private in 1868, but his victories at Demajuga and La Galleta showed him to be second only to Gomez as a leader. In 1878, at Baracoa and at San Ulpiana, he routed the Spaniards. He refused to sign the peace of Zanjon, and spent the next dozen years in the United States and elsewhere, seeking aid for Cuba. He landed in Cuba in March, 1895. and began operations in the province of Santiago. He twice invaded the province of Pinar del Rio, and baffled the efforts of the Spanish generals, whom he defeated in several brilliant battles. He was surprised and killed, it is thought by treachery, while crossing the ‘trocha' to, join Gomez in Havana province. Macé o, Josí (1846–96), Cuban patriot, brother of Antonio Macéo (q.v.), was born in Santiago de Cuba. He took part in the Cuban rebellion of 1868– 78, and in 1879 was sent as a prisoner to Spain. He subsequently escaped, and lived quietly at Costa Rica until the insurrection of 1895. He joined the Cuban army, and took part in several engagements. He was killed at La Lama del Gata. Macerata, town, capital of province of same name, Italy, 22 miles southwest of Ancona, between the Apennines and the sea. The town has a cathedral, provincial palace, and a university, founded in 1290, of which only the faculty of law remains. The chief manufactures are glass, pottery, chemicals. Pop. 25,000. Macerata, province, central Italy, very mountainous. It produces corn, fruit, and hemp; sheep and cattle are also raised. Area, 1,087 square miles. Pop. (est. 1910) 260,456. McEwen, WA. L TER (1860), American painter, was born in Chicago. He studied art in Munich, and later under Cormon and Robert-Fleury at Paris, which city became his permanent place of residence. For his portraits and his pictures of Dutch life he received many medals at the Salon and other exhibitions, and the Columbian and other world's fairs. He was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1896, officer in 1908, and an officer of the Order of Leopold in 1909. Macfarren, SIR GEORGE A1.ExANDER (1813–87), English musical composer and writer, was born in London. He became professor of the Royal Academy of Music (1837), and principal (1876). In 1875 he was appointed {. of music at Cambridge niversity. In 1830 he produced


his first important orchestral work, a symphony. Chevy Chase (written in one night, 1836) was produced at Leipzig by Mendelssohn (1843); May Day (cantata) in 1857, Costa conducting; Robin Hood, his greatest opera, in 1860, in which year he became blind. His first oratorio was St. John the Baptist, performed 1873. He was founder of the Handel Society (1844). He wrote on harmony and counterpoint, and a Musical History (1885). Consult Banister's Life. McFaul, JAMEs AUGUSTINE (1850), American Roman Catholic bishop, was born near Larne, County An trim, Ireland. He was educated at St. Francis Xavier's College, New York, and at Seton Hall, New Jersey, and was ordained priest in 1877. He was chancellor (1890–2), vicargeneral (1892–4), and in 1894 was consecrated bishop of the diocese of Trenton. He has taken an active part in educational and civic problems as related to the Catholic Church in the United States. MacGahan, JANUARIUS ALOYsius (1844–78), American journalist, was born in Lexington, O. He taught school for a time, and was occupied as a bookkeeper and correspondent in St. Louis until 1869. Having meanwhile studied law, he continued his studies in Brussels until the outbreak of the Franco-German War, when he was engaged as correspondent of the New York Herald, making a special success with his reports of the Commune. He also reported the Alabama proceedings at Geneva, the campaign against Khiva, and the Carlist War of 1874. In 1876 he was delegated by the London Daily News to investigate the Turkish atrocities in Bulgaria, and he reported the Russo-Turkish War that followed. He contracted typhus fever and died during the peace negotiations. He published Campaigning on the Oxus (1874); Under the Northern Lights (1876); Turkish Atrocities in Bulgaria (1876). McGee, ANITA NEwcom B (1864), American physician, was born in Washington, D. C., and was educated at private schools and in Europe. She returned to America in 1885, and married W. J. McGee (q.v.) in 1888. She studied medicine at Columbian (now George Washington) University, and graduated in 1892. She began the practice of medicine in Washington, where she was appointed attending physician to the Woman's Hospital and Dispensary (1893–6), was elected surgeon-general, librarian

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general, and vice-president-general of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1898 she organized the Daughters of the American Revolution Hospital Corps, which selected women to trained for nursing in the army hospitals during the SpanishAmerican War. From August, 1898, to the end of 1900 she was acting assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, and had charge of the army nurse corps division of the Surgeon-General's office. In 1904 she took a party of American nurses to Japan, and served successfully in the military hospitals there for six months, holding rank as supervisor of nurses in the Japanese Army. McGee, Thom As D'ARcy (1825–68), Irish-American journalist and legislator, was born in Carlingford, Ireland. He came to the United States in 1842, where he was for a short time editor of the Boston Pilot. Returning to Ireland, he was prominent in the ‘Young Ireland' movement, and was obliged to seek refuge in the United States, publishing Irish papers in New York. His views changing, he became a supporter of the crown, settled in Canada, established The New Era at Montreal, and entered the Canadian Parliament in 1858. He was president of the council in 1864–7, and after the confederation was elected to the Dominion Parliament. He was assassinated by Fenians. He published, among other books, a Popular History of Ireland (1862); Speeches and Addresses on the British American Union (1865). McGee, W J (1853), American geologist and anthropologist, was born in Dubuque county, Ia. He practised law and land surveying in 1873, and later, in 1877–81, made a topographical and geological survey of the northeastern part of Iowa, which led to a permanent appointment in the U. S. Geological Survey. He resigned from the survey in 1893 to become ethnologist-incharge of the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1894–5 he visited Tiburon Island, and made valuable studies of the natives. Resigning in 1903, he acted as chief of the anthropological department of the Universal Exposition at St. Louis until 1905. Since 1907 he has been U. S. Commissioner of Inland Waterways and an expert in the Department of Agriculture. His publications include Geology of Northeastern Iowa (1890); Geology of Chesapeake Bay (1888); Primitive Trephining in Peru (1898); Vol. VII.-Oct. '11

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The Seri Indians (1900); Primitive Numbers (1901); Outlines of Hydrology (1908); Soil Erosion (1911). He was also editor of the National Geographical Magazine for several years, and of the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. McGiffert, ARTHUR CUshMAN (1861), American educator, was born in Sauquoit, N. Y. He was graduated at Western Reserve College (1882) and at the Union Theological Seminary (1885), and studied in Europe for three years. In 1888 he was ordained a Presbyterian minister, and was appointed instructor in church history at Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, succeeding to the professorship in 1890. In 1893 he accepted the same chair at Union Theological Seminary. His works include The Church History of Eusebius (1890); A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age (1897); The Apostles' Creed (1902); Protestant Thought before Kant (1911); Martin Luther, the Man and His Work (1911). Criticism of the second work caused his withdrawal from the Presbyterian Church. He retained his professorship, and subsequently

entered the Congregational Church. McGiffin, PHILO NO R T ON

(1860–97), American naval officer, was born in Washington county, Pa., and was graduated (1882) at Annapolis. Discharged from the navy on its reduction by Congress, he was appointed professor of mathematics at the Naval College of Tien-tsin, China, in 1883, and four years later organized and became joint superintendent of the Naval College at Wei-hai-Wei. He was a volunteer officer in the ChinoJapanese War, in command of the Chen-Yuen, and performed notable services at the disastrous battle of the Yalu River (1894). McGill, JAMEs (1744–1813), Canadian benefactor, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and emigrated to Canada at an early age. He became a leading merchant of Montreal, served in the Lower Canadian parliament, and held other official positions. His principal benefaction was in connection with the McGill University, for the foundation of which he bequeathed 4, 10,000 and lands, the increase in whose value subsequently made it the wealthiest educational institution in Canada. See McGill College. McGill College and University, an institution of learning in Montreal, Canada, incorporated by royal charter in 1821, and


named for its founder, Hon. James McGill, who bequeathed land and 4, 10,000 for its establishment. The college opened in 1829 with faculties of arts and medicine, but suffered under financial and administrative difficulties until an amended charter was secured in 1852. The government of the institution is in the hands of the governors, principal, and fellows, constituting the corporation, the supreme authority being vested in the crown. represented by the GovernorGeneral of Canada as visitor. The educational work of the |..." is carried on in McGill Sollege, the Royal Victoria College for Women in Montreal, Macdonald College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, and in affiliated colleges elsewhere. There are five faculties—arts, applied science. law, medicine, and agriculture— a graduate school, a conservatorium of music, and a normal school. Women are admitted to the faculty of arts on the same terms as men, but mainly in separate classes. The courses in arts lead to the degrees of B.A., M.A., B.S.C., M.S.C., D.S.C., o.LITT., and Ph.d. In applied science the degrees of B.Sc., B.ARCH., M.Sc., and D.Sc. are conferred; in law B.C.L. and D.C.L.; in medicine M.D., C.M., and D.D.S.; and in music the degrees of MUs. BAC. and MUs.Doc. The university is itself affiliated with the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin. It had in 1911 a body of 2,294 students, a teaching staff of 295, and a library of 130,000 volumes. The grounds and buildings in 1911 were valued at $5,550,000, and the endowment was $5,640,000. The in come was $620,000. Expenditure exceeded revenue by $54,000. In July, 1911, Sir William Macdonald made to the university a gift of land on the slope of the mountain adjoining Mountroyal Park. Here a new campus and residential buildings are to be constructed. The purchase price of this land was $1,000,000, bringing the total of Sir William Macdonald's gifts to the university to $10,000,000. Mac Gillicuddy’s Reeks, mountains in County Kerry, Ire

land, on the shores of the Lakes

of Killarney. The principal peak is Carntual or Carrantuohill (3,414 feet), the loftiest in Ireland. McGillivray, Alexander (c. 1740–93), Creek chief. was born within the present limits of Alabama. His father was a Scotch trader and his mother a halfbreed (French and Indian) woman of roya stock. The son was

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