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educated at Charleston, S. C., and served a business apprenticeship at Savannah. He returned to the Indian country, acquired wealth by trading, and gained great power among the Indians, calling himself the emperor of the Creeks. He favored the English during the Revolution, and was charged with many crimes by the frontier settlers. He next entered into negotiations with the Spanish government, received a commission with the rank of colonel, and refused to treat with the American authorities. In 1790 he visited New York to consult with Washington, and was appointed agent for the United States with the rank and pay of brigadier-general. At the same time he kept up his Spanish con

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to do so, he was suspended and then excommunicated. His excommunication was removed in 1892, and he was rector of a church at Newburg, N. Y., from 1895 until his death. He was one of the founders and president (1887) of the Anti-Poverty Society. MacGrath, HAROI.D (1871), American novelist, was born in Syracuse, N. Y., and was educated in the public schools of that city. He has been engaged in journalism since 1890. Among his works are The Man on the Box (1904); The Lure of the Mask (1908); The Goose Girl (1909); A Sple n did Hazard (1910); The Carpet from Bagdad (1911). Mc Gready, JAMEs (c. 1758–

Me Henry

1851 to 1865 he visited all the countries of Europe, as well as Algeria, Tunis, the United States, and Canada. From 1865 he navigated in his Rob Roy canoe several rivers of France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden, besides travelling down the Red Sea and through part of Palestine, and wrote A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe (1868). He took an active part in promoting the schemes of Lord Shaftesbury and other philanthropic efforts. M” Gregor, Robert. See Rob ROY. McGuffey, William Holmes, (1800–73), American educator,

was born in Washington county, Pa., and was graduated (1825) at Washington College, Pa. He was a professor at Miami University

nections, playing one government against the other. His manners were polished and agreeable, and his mind well trained.

McGlynn, Edward (1837– 1900), American clergyman, was born in New York City. He was for nine years a student at the College of the Propaganda in Rome, in which city he was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1860. Returning to New York he became (1866) pastor of St. Stephen's Church, where he gained a reputation as an able administrator and eloquent preacher. His opposition to parochial schools brought him into disfavor with the clerical authorities, and when he adopted the single-tax theories of Henry George, openly advocating them in the New York mayoralty campaign of 1886, though prohibited

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1817), American evangelist, was born in Western Pennsylvania. He was licensed to preach at the age of eighteen. He studied at Hampden Sidney College, and, after holding a pastorate in North Carolina, became pastor of churches in Logan county, Ky. Here he organized the revival of 1800 in the Cumberland district, establishing an encamp ment which was the precursor of the camp meetings of later date. His methods caused a division in the Presbyterian Church, resulting in the secession of the Cumberland Presbyterians in 1810. Elder McGready, however, returned to the old organization in 1812. MacGregor, John (1825–92), Scottish traveller and philanthropist, known as ‘Rob Roy MacGregor." During the years

(1836–39), and was successively president of Cincinnati College and of Ohio University. After 1845 he was professor of moral philosophy and political economy at the University of Virginia. His Eclectic Readers and spelling books were long in vogue in American schools. Machaerod us, a formidable carnivorous animal, with canine teeth irom eight to twelve inches in length, larger than those of any other known animal. It was contemporaneous with cave men in the south of England, and it is well represented in Pleistocene strata all over America and Europe. It appears to have been about the same size as the lion. Mc Henry, JAMEs (1753– 1816), American patriot and statesman, was born in County McHenry, Fort

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Antrim, Ireland. He came to America about 1771, and studied medicine with Dr. Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia. He joined the Continental Army as assistant surgeon at the beginning of the Revolution; was taken prisoner at Fort Washington in 1776, and was not exchanged until March, 1778. He became assistant secretary to General Washington in May, 1778, and in October, 1780, was transferred to the staff of General Lafayette. In 1781–86 he was in the Maryland Senate; in 1783–86, a member of Congress; sat in the convention which framed the Federal Constitution in 1787; and from 1791–96 was again in the Maryland Senate. He was appointed Secretary of War toward the close of Washington's administration, and was continued by Adams until 1800, when his resignation was requested because of his activity in promoting, the fortunes of Alexander Hamilton. McHenry, Fort. See FORT MCHENRY. Machias, town, Maine, county seat of Washington county, 62 miles east of Bangor, and 10 miles from the ocean, on the Washington County Railroad and the Machias River. It has shipyards, lumber mills, etc., and carries on a coastwise trade, chiefly in lumber. Here is situated a United States marine hospital. Other notable edifices are the government building, court house, jail, and Porter Memorial Library. The first permanent settlement here was made in 1763, although it was the site of an English trading post for a few months in 1633. In the Revolution, Machias withstood a siege of three months in 1777. Pop. (1910) 2,089. Machiavelli, or M A C CHIAvelli, N1ccolò (1469–1527), Italian writer, was born in Florence. He entered the service of the republic in 1494, and in 1498 became secretary of the Ten. He went on a mission to Caesar Borgia. the lord of Romagna (1502–3). The victory of the Medici ty brought about his *...*śī. He was suspected of having taken part in the conspiracy of Boscoli and Caponi, and was imprisoned for a while (1513). In 1519 he gained the favor of the Medici, who conferred some minor posts on him, which he held while writing the Istorie Fiorentine. Three of Machiavelli's great works may be said to supplement each other. The Principe (1532) deals with the founding of a new state, and suggests as model the duchy of Romagna, as founded and governed by Caesar Borgia. Machiavelli's own political ideal

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was a republic such as Rome had been, and in the Discorsi sopra la Prima Deca di T. Livio (1531) he uses Livy as a peg on which to hang and by which to illustrate his own favorite theories. The Arte della Guerra (1521) upholds the idea of an armed people, and of the infantry as the main strength of the army, thus again going back to Rome and her legions as a model. The Istorie Fiorentine (1531) treats of the history of Florence from early times down to the death of Lorenzo de' Medici (1492) in a way that is neither strikingly original nor scientifically accurate. Among the works of smaller compass the Mandragola (1513) stands first as a brilliant comedy of manners (even though the manners be anything but edifying). Others (published at Florence in 1545) include the Asino d’oro (after Apuleius), the novel of Belfagor (a satire on matrimony), the Decennali (a sketch in verse of contemporary events), and the Capitoli (elegiac poems, m or a l in tone). Machiavelli's Works were rendered by Farneworth (1762), the chief prose works by Detmold (1891), and the Florentine History by Thomson (1906). His writings were issued in two volumes, with an introduction by Cust, in 1905. Consult Villari's Niccolò Machiavelli e i suoi Tempi (Eng. trans.); Foster's M a ch i a well i (1900); Stearns' Napoleon and Machiawelli (1903); Dyer's Machiavelli and the Modern State (1904); Balfour-Browne's Essays Critical and Political (1907); Morley's Critical Miscellanies (vol. iv., 1908). Machine Construction. Cast iron enters largely into the construction of machines, being the cheapest and most effective material for heavy and bulky parts, such as bed-plates and frames, for cylinders, pump casings and valve boxes, and, generally speaking, for all parts which require strength rather than toughness. Wrought iron and steel are essential for shafting, connecting and piston rods, and all parts subject to heavy tensile and transverse stresses. Those parts of the wrought castings which are subject to most wear are usually “case hardened' after finishing, which renders them tough and roof against excessive wear. rass, babbitt, or gun-metal is used for bearings and other surfaces exposed to heavy friction. Cast iron and brass receive their rough form by casting—i.e., by running the molten metal into moulds of the requisite shape. (See CASTING.) The" wroughtiron members of machinery are

Machines, Automatie

forged, small pieces by the smith, large parts under a heavy steamhammer. (See HAMMER.) The latter, or drop-forgings, are built up of successive layers of white-hot scrap iron, and welded into one homogeneous whole by reheating and continued hammering. Steel forgings are worked in a similar manner, being, however, formed from one solid ingot, instead of built up of a number of ieces. The hammering process is equally necessary in the case of steel, in order to insure the complete elimination of blow-holes, which are usually present in the ingot. After approximation to the required shape is secured by the ruder processes of casting and forging, the several parts of machines are subjected to the ‘milling' process by machine tools of precision (see Tools), by which they are brought to great accuracy of form and dimension. Gearing may be constructed by casting or forging, and finished afterward; but the finer grades are usually machine cut out of solid forgings, See GEARING; LATHE; CASE-HARDENING. Consult Rose's Complete Practical Machinist; Low and Bevis' Machine Drawing and Design. Machine Guns. See GUNs; ARTILLERY. Mac h in es, Automatic. A large number of machines may be termed automatic, in that, being set in motion, with an adequate supply of motive power, they perform a series of operations without further intervention from the man in charge. Woodworking and metal-shaping machines, for instance, turn out in a practically finished state articles of often intricate shape—the man in charge having only to place the piece of wood or metal in position, adjust and oil the machine, apply and shut off the power. In the manufacturing industries the adoption of automatic machinery has been rapid because of the enormous increase in output and reduction in number and cost of workers possible by its use. Various types of conveyors work automatically on a larger scale and through a wider series of operations. Coal conveyors, for example, sort, clean, and distribute the coal by means of a series of travelling belts and endless chains of reversible buckets, without any intermediate adjustment by hand. Weighing appliances, however, afford the most perfect examples of automatic machines, as in them no external power is required, and no supervision after the first adjustment. Automatic weighing machines separate Machinists’ Association

a continuous supply of material into a succession of equal weights, at the same time registering the number of weighings, so that an accurate record is obtained of the amount of material passed through. These machines are used to weigh many sorts of package articles, as baking powder, breakfast foods, flour, sugar, and coffee, and grain and coal in tons, at a speed of from two to twenty lots a minute, depending on the material. ...Their con: struction is simple. The material to be weighed flows into a hopper, which discharges , its contents through the bottom into the package when the weight balances a counterweight on a long-arm beam, which instantly diverts the flow of material to another hopper. Prac: tically the same principle is used in rocker washing-tanks fed by a stream of water, which fills one end of the tank until it rocks under the weight, bringing the other end under the stream, each end thus alternately filling and discharging as long as the flow of water continues. he ordinary governors used on steam engines automatically control the amount of steam admitted to the cylinders through the applica; tion of the Fol. of centrifugal force. The hydraulic ram is an automatic machine working upon the principle of the inertia of running water. Injectors for steam boilers, safety valves, thermostats for controlling, the pressure of steam in house-heating plants, and many similar contrivances are examples of the widespread application of the automatic principle to modern mechanism. Slot machines in which the deposit of a coin starts up a series of automatic movements are extensively employed in making sales of smasl articles without the attendance of a clerk. A similar principle is employed in machines for ascertaining one's weight; obtaining entertainment from music and picture machines; .# a tin-type photograph, a glass of soda or ice water, a strip of postage stamps, silver co for a gold coin, etc. In France, one may register a letter by placing the proper coin in a slot and the ‘i. in the attached mail box. The letter is duly recorded and the machine delivers a numbered receipt to the patron. The automatic principle has also been, employed in telephone service, doing away with the intervention of a central office. Automatic voting machines for recording and computing the total of votes cast, and the cash register, are other forms of automatic action. See CALCULATING MACHINEs. Machinists, International Association of, an American trade union of machinists and machine shop employees, organized in Atlanta, Ga., in 1888. Since its affiliation with the American Federation

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of Labor, in 1893, it has grown steadily in membership and influence. In October, sos)4, it absorbed the Allied Metal Mechanics and in 1910, the international Union of Elevator Constructors. It has 820, lodges. Besides granting a weekly allowance to members engaged in authorized strikes, the Association pays a death benefit, raded in amount according to ength of membership in the organization. Through, its efforts, the nine-hour day has been established, wages have been increased, and improvements, in working conditions inaugurated. A monthly magazine is published from the central headquarters in Washington, D.C McIlhenney, CHARLEs MoRGAN (1858–1904), American land. painter, was born in Phil*F. and was a student in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. He was elected an associate of the New York National Academy of Design in 1892, and received the first Hallgarten prize at the National Academy exhibition in 1893. At the World's Fair of 1893 he received two medals, and won honorary mention at the Paris Exposition of 1889. His work was somewhat sketchy, in character, but often #. in the sober portrayal of idyllic scenes. McIlvaine, CHARLEs PETTIt 1799–1873), American Protestant - opolo was born in Burlington, N.J., and was graduated (1816) at Princeton. After holding a rectorship in Georgetown, D.C., he was professor of ethics and chaplain at West Point (1825–7). He was for a short time a professor at the University of New York, and in 1832 was consecrated bishop of Ohio. He was also president of Kenyon College, and of Gambier Theological School, and served on the Sanitary Commission in the Civil War. His works include Lectures on the Evidences, of Christianity (1832), and The Truth and the Life § Mc I n to s h , BURR WILLIAM (1862), American author and artistphotographer, was born in Wellsville, Ohio. He entered Lafayette College in 1880, and Princeton University in 1882. He was a reporter on the Philadelphia News from 1884 to 1885, and made his début on the stage in the latter year. He went to Cuba during the Spanish American War §§§, as the re resentative of Leslie's Weekly. #. 1900 he opened the Burr Sfâto: studio in New York, and in 1902 started the Burr McIntosh Monthly. He acted as official photographer on the Taft ...Po expedition in 1905. Among his works are The Little I Saw of Cuba (1898); The Photographer, a musical comedy (1907). cIntosh, LACHLAN (1725– 1806), American soldier, was born near Raits, Badenoch, Scotland. His father, with 100 followers, emi

McKay

grated to Georgia in 1736, and settled at Inverness (now Darien). Lachlan was appointed brigadiergeneral in the Continental Army in I/76. In 1777 he mortally wounded his political opponent, Gov. Button Gwinnett (q.v.), in a duel. In 1778 he made a successful campaign against the western Indians; took part in the siege of Savannah, and was captured at Charleston in 1780. His later life was passed in ob

scurity. Mack, JULIAN WILLIAM (1806), American jurist, was born in San Francisco. He was educated in Cincinnati, graduated from Isarvard in 1887, and held the Parker fellowship at the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig (1887–90). He was admitted to the bar in 1890; became professor of law, in the Northwestern University in 1895, and in the University of Chicago in 1902. He served as Civil Service Commissioner, January to May, 1903; then as judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County, Ill., and of the Juvenile Court of Chicago until 1907. He became judge of the Appellate Court, First Illinois District, in 1909, and in December of that year was appointed an associate judge in the newly created Court of Commerce. Mack, KARL, BARoS von LEIBERICH (1732–1828), Austrian general, was born in Nennslingen, Franconia. He entered the Austrian army (1770), and fought against the Turks, the French. Republic, and Napoleon I. While serving under the king of Naples he took Rome (1797), but failed to hold it, and at Naples gave himself up to the French. Having escaped from Paris (1800), in 1805 he was sent by the Emperor Francis to defend the Iller. He surrendered to Napoleon, at Ulm with his, whole army, and was imprisoned, but afterward pardoned (1819). Mackay, town on Pioneer River, Queensland, 62.5 m. N.W. of Brisbane; one of the headquarters of sugar-growing. Pop. 5,000. Iackay, CHARLEs (1814–89), Scottish poet, was born in Perth. He edited the Glasgow Argus o and Illustrated London ews (1852). He lectured in the United States in 1858, and was New York correspondent for the London Times during the Civil War. In 1862 he made known the existence of the Fenian conspiracy in America. It was as a song writer that Mackay was most widely known. Cheer, Boys, Cheer! The Good Time Coming, Tubal Cain, and England Over All were his works. See Mackay's Forty Years' Recollections §§ and Through the Long I)ay 1887). He also wrote Founders of the American Republic. McKay, DoNALD (1810–80), American shipbuilder, was born in Shelburne, N. S. Removing to New York early in life, he gained his Mackay knowledge of shipbuilding in that city. e built ships in his yard at

East Boston, Mass., from 1845 to 1874, when he retired to a farm. The Great Republic, launched by him in 1853, was of 4,500 tons burden, and the largest vessel of its time. Mackay, John WILLIAM (1831– 1902), American, capitalist, known as the “Silver King,’ was born in Dublin, Ireland. e came to New York in 1840, and entered the .#. building trade. He joined the goldrush to California, and was occupied there as a miner until 1852, when he transfe his work to Nevada. It was in the Sierra Ne: vada that he and others discovered famous, ‘Bonanza’. silver mines that made him a multi-millionaire. He was a founder and long the ident of the Bank of Nevada. ith James. Gordon Bennett he in 1884 established the cable lines from the United States to England, known as the Commercial Cable or Mackay-Bennett system. aye, JAMEs STEELE (1842– 94), American dramatist, born in #alo. He studied dramatic exression in Paris under François É. and became the American exponent of his master's theories. Two of his early Fo Momaldi and Marriage (1871–3), met with scant success in New York City, but Hazel Kirke, with which he opened the Madison Square Theatre in 1880, ran for nearly a ear, and still holds its popularity. e was the first manager of the Lyceum Theatre, which he opened with his, Dakolar in 1884. ... His other Plo were: The Twins 1876); on at Last (1877); hrough the Dark (1878); Anarchy (1887, later called Paul Kauvar). MacKaye, PERCY (1875), American poet and dramatist, son of ames Steele MacKaye (q.v.), was rn in New York §. e graduated from Harvard University 1897), and travelled, in Europe §§ studying for a year, at the University o *::::::#; He taught in a private school in New § from 1900 to 1904, and since that time has been engaged in writing plays and poems, and in lecturing and writing on the drama. His plays include Canterbury Pilims (1903), performed in 1909 at thirty universities; Fenris the Wolf (1905); Jeanne d'Arc (1906); Sappho and Phaon (1907); The Scare£row (1908); Maier (1908). He has also written a prose version of ten of the Canterbury Tales, (1904); Qde on the Centenary of Abraham Lincoln (1909); Tic oga and Other Poems (1909); A. Garland to Sylvia

1910); The Playhouse a the lay, ays (1909); Anti-Matrimony (1910).

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bar in 1755, and in 1756 became assistant attorney of Sussex county. In 1757–9 he was clerk of the Assembly, and in 1762 with Caesar Rodney (q.v.) was appointed to codify the laws. From 1762 to 1779 he was a member of the Assembly; in 1765 was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress in and was influential in securing, the principle of equal representation for each province. s a judge of Common Pleas he made the ruling, that the use of unstam per, was legal. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776, and from 1778 to 1783, acting as president during a part of 1781. He voted for the Declaration of Independence, his signature havin been affixed later. He was one & the committee which drafted the Articles of Confederation, and also wrote the constitution of Belaware. Meanwhile, he had removed to Philadelphia, and , from 1777 to 1799 was chief justice of Pennsylvania. He was governor of Pennsylvania in 1799–1808. See Buchanan's Genealogy of the McKean Family (1890). McKeesport, city, Allegheny co., Pennsylvania, 10 m. southeast of Pittsburg at the junction of the Monongahela and Youghiogheny Rivers, and on the Pa., B. and O., and Pitts. and Lake Erie RRs. The steel tube works situated here are said to be the largest in the world. There are also large tin plate works, brickyards, projectile plants, glass works, blast furnaces, etc., Natural gas, which is abundant in the region, is used for fuel, and a large trade in coal and lumber is carried on. The §§ is the seat of Douglass Industrial College, and has a Carnegie Ho: McKeesport was settled in 1795 by ohn McKee, and was incorporated in 1842. Pop. (1910) 42,694. McKees Rocks, borough, Alle§ county, Pennsylvania, on the hio River, adjoining Pittsburg, on the Pitts. and L. Erie and the Pitts. Char. and Yough. RRs. Its chie manufactures are iron and steel, lumber, leather, glass, flour, chain, wire, etc. There are also large railroad shops here. It is situated in bituminous coal fields, and ships large quantities of coal and lumber. Natural gas is plentiful. Pop. (1910) 14,702. McKelway, St. CLAIR (1845), American editor, was born in Columbia, Mo. He was educated privately, but has received honorary degrees from several colleges, including Syracuse, the ori; of Missouri, and Princeton. e was admitted to the bar (1866), but never practised. He was correspondent of the New York Tribune 1863–5), associate editor , and so correspondent of the New York World § associate editor of the Brooklyn Eagle (1870–8), editor of the Albany

Mackenzie

Argus (1878–85), and editor of the Brooklyn Eagle since 1885. . He is one of the regents and vice-chancellor of the University of the State of New York, a director, of the American Social Service Association, and a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. McKendree, WILLIAM (1757– 1835), American Methodist Episcobishop, was born in King Wiliam county, Va. He served in the Revolution. He was later a schoolteacher, was licensed, to preach, and in 1788 was appointed junior preacher to Mecklenburg circuit by Bisho Asbury. He was connected wit several circuits until 1800, when he was made superintendent of the district , west of the Alleghany Mountains, where he performed notable missionary services. In 1808 he was ordained bishop at Baltimore, and served in all parts of the country until his death. See Paine's Life (1869). McKendree College, a Methodist Episcopal institution at Lebanon, Ill., founded in 1828. The College is coeducational, and has (1910–11) 12 instructors, and 190 students. There is a library of 8,000 volumes. McKenna, Joseph (1843), American jurist, was born in Philadelphia. . He went to California in 1855, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1865. He served two terms as district attorney for Solano county, and was a member of the State legislature in 1875–6. He was a Member of Congress from 1885 to 1893, when he received an appointment as United States circuit judge. In 1897, President McKinley appointed him U. S. Attorney-General. In 1898 he was a g. Associate . Justice of the upreme Court of the United States. cKenna, REGINALD, (1863), English executive, was born in London. He was educated at King's College, London, and at ... Hall, Cambridge. Becoming a barrister (1887), he practised his profession until his election to Parliament (1895). He was made Financial Secretary of the Treasury 1905), President of the Board of ducation (1907), and First Lord of the Admiralty (1908). Mackenzie, a district of the Northwest Territories, Canada, created in 1895, and extending from Athabasca and British Columbia on the south to the Arctic Ocean on the north, and from Keewatin on the east to Yukon on the west; included in 1904 in the Northwest Territories. Area, 563,200 sq. m. The region is studded with swamps and lakes. The climate is severe in winter; the summers are short and hot. There is abundance of timber, and coal, salt, and other minerals exist. Furbearing animals abound. Pop. (est. 1909) 8,000. Mackenzie, ALExANDER (1822– 92), Canadian statesman, was born Mackenzie

in Logierait, near Dunkeld, Scotland, and migrated to Canada (1842). He became in 1867 a member of the first House of Commons of the Dominion, and on the defeat of Sir John Macdonald (1873) he organized a Liberal ministry, which ; office till 1878, though Mackenzie headed the Liberal Party until 1880. He vigorously supported the union of Canada and England, and opposed the protective tariffs of the "Conservative Party. He was active in promoting the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway while Premier.

Mackenzie, SIR ALEXANDER CAMPBELL (1847), Scottish musical composer and violinist, was born in Edinburgh. . After studying and laying the violin in Germany for ve years, he received a scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music in London (1862). In 1865 he became teacher, and organist in his native city. To obtain leisure to fo he retired to Florence §.); but became principal of the o Academy of Music (1887), and conductor of the Philharmonic Society (1892) at the Crystal Palace (1894). He was knighted in 1894. His works comprise Jason, a dramatic, cantata (1882); Colomba, Mérimée's o as a lyrical drama (1883); The Rose of Sharon, an oratorio (1884); eni, Creator {:}} His Majesty, comic opera 1897); The Empire Flag; Scottish hapsodies; besides songs, partsongs, and anthems. McKenzie, ALEXANDER SLIDELL (1803–48), American naval officer and author, brother of U. S. Senator John Slidell (q.v.). He adopted the name McKenzie in 1837 at the request of his mother's brother. He was appointed midshipman in the navy in 1815, became lieutenant in 1825, and commander in 1841. In 1842, while in command of the Somers, a mutinous plot was discovered, and by recommendation of a council of officers three of the culprits were hanged. One of them was the son of John C. Spencer, Secretary of War, and a storm of denunciation arose. McKenzie was exonerated, however, both by a court of inquiry, and by a courtmartial. He published several books, including A Year in Spain {:}; The American in England 1835); Life of John Paul Jones 2 vols., 1841); Life of Stephen Decatur (1846). For criticism of his action on the . Somers, see J. F Cooper's Cruise of the Somers (1844); for a defence, The Case of the Somers (1843). Mackenzie, HENRY (1745– 1831); Scottish man of letters, was born in Edinburgh. The Man of Feeling appeared in 1771, being a delineation of the character of one who is afflicted with excessive sensibility. This was followed by The Vol. VII.-Jan. "11.

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Man of the World (1773) and Julia de Roubigné (1777). He was also the author of Lives of Dr. Blacklock and John Home, and was a leading contributor to the Mirror and Lounger, of which he was editor. He was the first to call attention, by his essay in the Mirror, to the genius of Burns.

Mackenzie, SIR MoRELL (1837– 92), English physician, was born in Leytonstone, Essex. In 1863 he won the Jacksonian prize for an essay On the Pathology and Treatment off. of the Larynx. He published a Manual of Diseases of the Throat and Nose (2 vols., 1880– 4), which is a leading text-book. Mackenzie attended Frederick Emperor of Germany, in his fata illness (1887–8). A mistaken diagnosis of the disease in its early stage (afterward found to be cancer in the throat), and a somewhat polemic, attitude on Mackenzie's part, led to strained relations with the German doctors in attendance. Ill-feeling was increased by the publication by Mackenzie of The Fatal Illness of Frederick the Noble (1888).

McKenzie, RANALD SLIDELL (1840–89), American soldier, was born in Westchester county, New York, the son of Alexander S. McKenzie (q.v.). He graduated at West Point in 1862, and was assigned to the engineers. He was severely wounded in the second battle of Bull Run. He served with the Army of the Potomac until the end of the war, participating in the leading battles, and rose to the rank of major-general of volunteers. After the Civil War, while on frontier duty, he pursued some Indians into Mexico, which was resented by the Mexican Government, but he was sustained by the United States.

McKenzie, Robert TAIT (1867), Canadian physician and sculptor, was born in Almonte, Ontario. He was educated at the Ottawa Collegiate Institute, and McGill University, where he graduated with the degree of M.D. in 1892. He was demonstrator of and lecturer on anatomy at McGill University from 1895 to 1904, since when he has been professor and director of the department of physical education in the University of Pennsylvania. Prominent among his sculptures are the bronzes The Sprinter ( F. The College Athlete (1903); The Boxer (1905); The Competitor (1906); The Supple Juggler (1907). He is the author of Barnjum Barbell Drill; Exercise in Education and Médicine; and pamphlets and articles on physical exercise and anatomy.

Mackenzie, WILLIAM Douglas (1859), American theologian and educator, was born in Fauresmith, Orange Free state. "He graduated

Mackenzie

from the University of Edinburgh (1881), and from Congregational. Theological Hall, Edinburgn (1882). He was ordained as a Con: gregational minister (1882), and studied at the University of Göttingen }. He served as professor of systematic theology at Chicago Theological Seminary (1895– 1903), in the latter year, becoming president of Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. ... He has written Ethics of Gambling 1893); Revelation of the Christ §§ ; Christianity and the Progress of Man (1897); South Africa % ; John Mackenzie (1902); he Final Faith (1910). Mackenzie, WILLIAM Lyon (1795–1861), Canadian journalist and political agitator, was born in j Scotland. He emigrated to Upper Canada (now Ontario) in 1820, and in 1824 began the publication of the Colonial Advocate in Queenstown. In this per he strongly opposed the government. He soon removed to York (Toronto), and in 1826 his office was wrecked by adherents of the ‘Family Compact” (q.v.). Large damages were obtained, the paper was continued until 1834, ...}}}. popularity with the Reform Party increased. He contended that the members of the executive council should be made responsible to the majority in the assembly, and this was the chief #. of the Reform Party in wer and in Upper Canada. In 1828 he was elected to the legislative assembly, and for an alleged libel on the House was three times expelled and twice excluded. Finally, the government refused to issue the writ for another election. He went to England in 1832 to secure redress of grievances and the removal of unpopular officers, and was partially successful. In 1834 he became the first mayor of Toronto. . . ..Despairing of success by constitutional agitation, the next year he consulted with the disaffected element in Lower Canada. An address practically amounting to a declaration of independence was ublished in his new paper, The Constitution, on Aug. 2, 1837, and in November a provisional government was declared. In a trifling skirmish at Montgomery's Farm, December 7, the revolutionists were defeated and Mackenzie fled to the United States. With a band of American sympathizers, he occuied Navy Island, but the attempt ailed, and he was convicted of violating the neutrality laws, and imprisoned in Rochester for more than a year. Mackenzie went to New York, secured a clerkship in the New York Custom, House, and while there copied a large number of private letters from prominent politicians found among the effects of Jesse Hoyt, a former collector.

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