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Juvenal

He appears to have been the son of a rich freedman of Aquinum, to have spent his life, up to middle age, mostly in the practice of declamation at Rome, and to have published his works at intervals from about 102 A.D. onward. His extant works, consist of sixteen satires, which were published in five books. The first includes the first five satires, and was published after 100 A.D.; the second book, only, the sixth (a long poem), published after 115 A.D.; the third book, the seventh, eighth, and ninth, published after 118 A.D.; the fourth book, the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth, but it gives no hint of its date; the fifth book comprises, the remaining four satires, and must have been published after 128 A.D. A fragment of some twenty lines was recently discovered in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The first nine satires are * distinct in character from the last seven. The former are attacks, in the bitterest and most violent lan

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guage, on the crime, vice, and o of Rome; the latter are rather moral essays on various subjects. In the former, Juvenal gives a most vivid picture of the state of Roman, society in his day; but it is his own genuine indignation at vice, his old Roman severity of character, his love of simplicity, that impart force to his satire. He cannot, however, make his characters lifelike; his satire is not, like that of Horace, a comedy of contemporary manners. His verse is powerful, but monotonous in its rhythm. He appeals, to modern readers by the similarity in man }. of our present rich, afected, and luxurious civilization to that of his own day; and by the power of his epigrams, many of which are household words as quotations. The , best editions

of his work are those by Mayor 1878), Pearson and Strong {:} ewis, Duff Englis

with translation (1882), 1898), Friedländer (1895). translations by Dryden

Jyotisha

1693; new ed. 1813), Gifford 1802), and Leeper (1891). See ousman's D. Junii Juvenalis Satyrae (1905). Juxon, WILLIAM (1582–1663), archbishop of Canterbury, born at Chichester; held pastorates at Oxford and at Somerton in Oxfordshire, and subsequently became in turn bishop of Hereford and then of London, a dignity to which in 1635 was added that of lord high treasurer. He resigned this post in 1641. He attended Charles 1. on the scaffold, and at the restoration was apFo to the archbishopric of anterbury. See Memoirs of Archbishop Juxon (1869). Jyotisha, one of the six divisions into which the Brahmanical Vedāngas, a series of treatises yo, to the original Vedas and Brähmanas, are divided. It is ascribed to Lagadha or Lagata, and is the oldest existing systematic work on astronomy, probably dating from the first centuries after Christ.

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K is the voiceless back stop; before utterance the breath is stopped by raising the back of the tongue. The sound varies according to the yowel which follows. Every, k has a corresponding, voiced stop, or .g. In emitic languages two k's are ology distinguished in writing. and § are the Latin forms of the symbols for these two k's. In the Latin alphabet, and in the alphabets derived from it, the sound k is generally expressed by, the symbol c, and k itself, for the most part, is rarely used. In the German alphabet, however, k is the usual sign.

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When c became ambiguous, in English (see C), the use of , k increased. In recent years the employment of k has become general, in the English spelling of foreign words (‘Koran,’ not ‘Coran'). Initial k before n has now become silent (‘know,' etc.). In the early Semitic alphabet K faced to the left, and the rpendicular stroke was long; É. rew has "I lost one of the side strokes, and 5 is a rounding of that form. In the Greek minuscule the attempt to write K in one stroke gives a form like u. The Semitic name kaph, Greek kappa, means ‘palm' (of the hand). Kaaba, the sanctuary at Mecca, the centre formerly of pagan, now

3,800 sq. m.

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side of Caucasus, in Terek gov. of Russia: extends N. to the rivers Malka and Terek. Area, The Kabardintsi (32,000) are the only tribe of the Adighe (Circassians) which remains in the Caucasus. The Kabardia horse is noted. Total population of district, 70,000. Kabbala. See CABBALA. Kabul. (1.) City, capital of Afghanistan, 190 m. w.N.w.. of Peshawar, 7,280 ft. above sealevel, on the Kabul R. It has an arsenal and a mint, and trades in carpets, shawls, silk and cotton goods. . Much fruit is own in the vicinity. The Bala #. a former residence of the Ameer, dominates the city.

Kabul was in 1879 the scene of the murder of the British envoy, Sir uis Cavagnari. It was from Kabul that Lord (then Sir Frederick) Roberts set out, in August 1880, on his memorable march to Kandahar. Pop. c. 70,000. (2.) River of Afghanistan, which rises in the indu-Kush, and joins the Indus at Attock. ength, 270 m. , The confluence is at the head of the Indus navigation, and there is watercarriage for craft of forty or fifty tons for 50 m. up the Kabul R. Kabyles. See BERBERs. Kadavu or KANDAVU, one of the Fiji group. See FIJI Islands.

Kadesh, several places in Palestine and Syria. KADESHBARNEA (Gen. 14:7; Num. 13:26, etc.), in Arabia Petraea, 55 m. S. of Beersheba, was the headquarters of the Israelites for forty years É. to their entry into Canaan.

rom it Moses sent the spies to survey and report. Here also Miriam, died, and Moses brought water from the rock.-KADESH of IssachAR (1 Chron. 6:72) is near Taanach.-KADESH NAPHTALI (Josh, 12:22; etc.), is in Upper Galilee, with Jewish and Roman remains.—KADESH ON THE ORONTEs (in the Greek version of 2 Sam. 24:6) is the ruined city Kades, south of Emesa.

Kadiak. See KodLAK.

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VIEWS IN KABUL. 1. General view from Asmai Heights (Photo by Emmet).

2. The Bala Hissar.

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