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said to be polysynthetic. Orthoclase furnishes twins of several kinds. Staurolite and Selenite are noted twinning minerals. Rutile furnishes geniculated twins; and plagioclase is the best example of crystals composed of many parallel plates representing the polysynthetic type. Maclise, DANIEL (1806–70), Irish historical and genre painter, was born in Cork. His first notable picture was a water-color drawing, Malvolio Affecting the Count (1829). His All-Hallow Eve (1833), an Irish interior containing portraits of Sir Walter Scott and Crofton Croker, made a further impression. In 1835 he was elected A.R.A.; full honors followed in 1840. During the years 1830–6 he executed, under the name of AlFRED CROQUIS, his remarkable “character portraits' for Fraser's Magazine; and his later work includes historical compositions, cartoons, easel pictures, water-color drawings, and portraits. From 1851 to 1864 he was engaged on The Interview between Wellington and Blitcher, The Death of Nelson, and other frescoes for the British Houses of Parliament. His Hamlet and a second Malvolio are in the Tate Gallery, London, and his Charles Dickens in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Consult O'Driscoll's Life. Maclura. See OSAGE ORANGE. M. a c 1 u re, WILLIAM (1763– 1840), American geologist, was born in Ayr, Scotland. In 1796 he came to the United States, and in 1803 was one of the commissioners appointed to settle the French spoliation claims. He made a geological survey and map of the United States, visiting every State in the Union for that purpose. His outline description of the general geology of the United States was published by the Philosophical Society in 1809, and his geological map appeared in 1817. These works earned for him the title of “Father of American Geology.' In 1816–17 he made a geological survey of the Antilles, and in 1819 revisited France and Spain. In Spain he bought an estate of 10,000 acres, near Alicante, for a free agricultural college. Shortly after the completion of the necessary buildings the provisional government was overthrown, and the estate reverted to the Roman Catholic Church, from which it had been confiscated. In 1824 he returned to America and unsuccessfully endeavored to establish a similar college in the New Harmony settlement, Ind. He bequeathed his library and maps to the Philadelphia Academy of
Natural Sciences, with $20,000 for a building for them. His principal works were Observations on the Geology of the United States (1809); Geology of the Antilles (1817); Opinions on Various Subjects (2 vols., 1837). • MacMahon, MARIE EDME PATRICE MAURICE DE (1808–93), Duke of Magenta and marshal of France, was born in Sully-surLoire, near Autun. He was descended from an ancient noble Irish family which took refuge in Burgundy at the time of the fall of the Stuarts. He was educated at the Military College of St. Cyr. After serving with distinction in Algeria, he was appointed governor-general of the province (1864–70). Arriving in the Crimea (1855), he assaulted the Malakoff (q.v.) successfully (Sept. 8). At Magenta he saved the day (1859), and was made duke and marshal on the field. In 1870 he failed to defend Alsace (beaten at Wörth), but, conducting a brilliant retreat, was placed in command of 120,000 men, with orders to join Bazaine, a movement prompted by political motives and deprecated by MacMahon. In attempting to carry it out he was surrounded, and, after being severely wounded, capitulated at Sedan. On his return from Wiesbaden (1871) he took Paris from the commune, after desperate fighting, and succeeded Thiers (1873) as president of the French republic, resigning in 1879. Consult Daudet's Maréchal MacMahon; La Forge's Histoire Complète de MacMahon; Drumont's MacMahon (1901). McMahon, MARTIN THOMAS (1838–1906), American soldier and jurist, was born in La Prairie, Canada. He was graduated (1855) at St. John's College, Fordham, N. Y.; studied law, and held minor government offices in the West until the outbreak of the Civil War. He volunteered on the Federal side, being chief of staff of the Sixth Corps of the Army of the Potomac from 1862 until its close. He resigned as brevet-major-general of volunteers in 1866, and from 1868 to 1869 was U. S. minister to Paraguay. From 1872 to 1885 he was receiver of taxes for New York City, and from 1885 to 1889 U. S. marshal for the southern district of New York. He served in the New York assembly and senate from 1890 to 1895, and as a judge of General Sessions after 1895. MacManus, SEUMAS, Irish author, was born in Inver, County Donegal, Ireland. As a boy he worked on his father's farm. When eighteen years of
age he became the mountain schoolmaster, and during the following years wrote for Dublin papers and London magazines over the signature ‘MAC.’ His first book, Shuilers from Heathy Hills, poems, was published in 1893. In 1898 he came to America for six months, where his stories met with instant success. He now comes yearly to America to lecture on Irish life, and to give readings from his works. Among his other books are Through the Turf Smoke; In Chimney Corners; The Red Poocher; Donegal Fairy Stories; The Bend of the Road; Dr. Kilgannon; A Lad of the O'Friels. He has written several plays—e.g., The Woman of Seven Sorrows; The HardHearted Man; Orange and Green; The Lad from Largymore; Rory Wins. M e M a s t e r , John BACH (1852), American educator and author, was born in New York City. He was graduated at the College of the City of New York in 1872. From 1873 to 1877 he was engaged in civil engineering, and from 1877 to 1883 was instructor in engineering at Princeton. Since 1883 he has been professor of American history at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1905 he was president of the American Historical Association. He is a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. He is at present engaged on a monumental History of the People of the United States, of which seven
volumes have thus far been pub
lished (1883–1910). He has also written Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters (1887); With the Fathers (1896); Daniel Webster (1902); Struggle for the Social, Political, and Industrial Rights of Man (1903); besides school histories of the United States and many articles in magazines and reviews. McMaster University is situated in Toronto, Canada, and is maintained by the Baptist Church. It was organized in 1887 by the union of the Toronto Baptist and Woodstock Colleges. The number of instructors in 1911–12 was 24; of students, 299. It grants degrees in arts, science, and theology. Brandon College, Brandon, Manitoba, and Okanagan College, Summerland, B.C., are in affiliation in arts. The total registration for 1911–12 was 356. McMaster University has as academic departments Woodstock College and Moulton College, with a combined registration of 338 for 1911–12. Macmillan, a well-known publishing house, was founded by the brothers Daniel (1813–57)
of railroad cars and forgings, built railroads, and was interested in many financial and other business concerns. He was elected U. S. Senator from Michigan in 1889, and was twice reelected. He presented to the city of Detroit a $550,000 hospital. McMinnville, city, county seat of Yamhill co., Oregon, on the Southern Pacific Railroad; 50 m. southwest of Portland. It has lumber, planing, and flour mills. Pop. (1910) 2,400. MacMinnville, city, Tennessee, county seat of Warren co., on the Barren Fork River, and on the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad; 103 m. southeast of Nashville. The chief manufactures are lumber, wood working, flour, woollen goods, etc. It is the centre of a shipping trade in live stock, fruit, and produce, as well as manufactured articles. It is the seat of the Southern School of Photography. Pop. (1910) 2,299. Macmon nies, FREDERICK (1333), American sculptor, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y. At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed to the sculptor St. Gaudens, studying meanwhile in the night classes of the Academy of Design and the Art Students' League. He then went to Paris and studied under Falguière at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, where he was the first American to win the prix d'atelier (1886 and 1887), the highest honor in the school. In 1889 he exhibited his Diana at the Salon. Two years later his Nathan Hale (now in City Hall Park, New York) received a 'second medal' at the same exhibition. During 1892-3 he worked on the huge fountain for the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago. Among his statues, characterized by effective composition, refinement of modelling, and admirable equilibrium, are Diana and Sir Harry Vane (in the new Boston Public Library); Bacchante (in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art); the colossal figure of Victory on the battle column at West Point; Shakespeare and the bronze doors in the new Library of Congress; and the groups for the Memorial Arch in Prospect Park, Brooklyn—his largest work. After 1900 he gave attention to painting, principally portraits; but he has since returned to sculpture, among his more recent works being equestrian statues of General Slocum (in Brooklyn, 1900), Theodore Roosevelt (1905), and General McClellan (in Washington, 1906). He is a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honor and a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. Consult Taft's History of American Sculpture (1903). McMurry, CHARLEs ALEXANDER (1857), American educator, brother of F. M. McMurry (q.v.), was born in Crawfordsville, Ind. He was graduated at the Illinois Normal University (1876); studied at the University of Michigan; taught for several years in Illinois and Colorado; then studied abroad at Halle and Jena. After acting as director of the Training School at the Minnesota Normal University, he became, in 1899, director of the training school at the Northern Illinois Normal School, where he is still in charge. He has published a well-known General and Special Method series for teachers, and for ten years was secretary and editor of the Herbartian Year Books. McMurry, FRANK MoRTON (1862), American educator, brother of C. A. McMurry (q.v.), was born near Crawfordsville, Ind. He studied first at the University of Michigan, and later at Halle and Jena. He began educational work as a school principal; was professor of pedagogy at the State Normal, School at Normal, Ill. (1891–2); professor of pedagogy at the University of Illinois (1893–4); and held similar positions in other institutions until 1898, when he became professor of elementary education at Teachers College (Columbia University). He has published Method of Recitation (with C. A. McMurry); Common School Geographies (with Ralph S. Tarr); How to Study and Teaching How to Study. McNab, SIR ALAN NAPIER (1798–1862), Canadian soldier and legislator, was born in Niagara, Ont. He volunteered for the defence of Canada in 1813; served for a few months in the navy; returned to the army, and fought to the end of the war. In 1826 he was admitted to the bar, and removed to Hamilton. He was elected to the assembly as a Tory in 1830, seconded the motion to expel William Lyon Mackenzie (q.v.), and served as speaker in 1837–41. For his services during the rebellion of 1837–38 he was knighted. In 1844–48 he was again speaker, and in 1854 became Prime Minister of Canada. Upon his retirement, in 1856, he was made a baronet, and received many honors in England. He became a member of the legislative council in 1860, and was the first elective speaker in 1862.
MacNeil, H E R Mo N AT KIN's (1866), American sculptor, was born in Chelsea, Mass., and was graduated (1886) at the Massachusetts State Normal School. Until 1889 he was an instructor in industrial art at Cornell University, and then went to Paris, studying under Chapu and Falguière. Returning to the United States, he was instructor at the Chicago Art Institute, Pratt Institute, the Art Students' League, and the National Academy of Design. He assisted Martiny in the sculptural work for the Columbian Exposition. He then turned his attention to the development of American Indian themes; won the Rinehart scholarship in 1895; and passed four years in Rome, where he completed his notable Indian sculptures The Moqui Runner, A Primitive Chant, and especially The Sun Vow, which brought him medals at the Paris (1900) and Pan-American (1903) Expositions. Returning to the United States, he executed the Fountain of Liberty (St. Louis Exposition); Coming of the White Man (Portland, Ore.); McKinley Memorial Arch (Columbus, O.); Commemorative Medal (Louisiana Purchase Exposition); Soldiers and Sailors' Memorials (at Whitinsville, Mass., and Albany, N.Y.); O. H. Platt Memorial (Hartford, Conn.). He is a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, and the National Academy of Design.
Macomb, city, Illinois, county seat of McDonough co., on the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad; 55 m. northeast of Quincy. It is the seat of the Western Illinois State Normal School and of the Central Business College. The leading industry is the manufacture of brick, pottery, sewer and drain pipe, and earthenware and stoneware from the great clay beds existing in that section. The public institutions include the Marietta Phelps and St. Francis Hospitals. The first settlement here was made in 1831, under the name Washington. Pop. (1910) 5,774.
Macomb, ALEXANDER (1782– 1841), American soldier, was born in Detroit, Mich. He entered the army as cornet of cavalry in 1799; was later transferred to the engineers, and at the beginning of the War of 1812 was lieutenant-colonel and adjutant-general. He was transferred to the artillery in 1813, and rendered effective service at Niagara and Fort George. In January, 1814, he was made brigadier-general in charge of the northern frontier, and in Septem
ber, 1814, commanded the land forces at Plattsburg, N. Y., in the Battle of Lake Champlain. For his services he was brevetted major-general and received the thanks of Congress and a gold medal. At the reorganization of the army in 1821 he was retained as colonel and chief engineer, and from 1828 until his death was major-general and general-inchief of the army. He published two books on courts-martial (1809 and 1840.) Consult Richards' Memoir. Macon, city, Georgia, county seat of Bibb co., 125 m. southeast of Atlanta, at the head of navigation on the Ocmulgee River. It is an important railway centre, being the converging point of six railways—Southern,
Central of Georgia, Georgia Southern and Florida, Macon and Birmingham, Macon, Dublin,
and Savannah, and Georgia Railroads. It occupies a peculiarly advantageous site, near the centre of the State, on both sides of the river, which affords abundant water power, and is one of the fastest growing cities of the Southern United States. It is of special importance as a shipping point for cotton and Southern pine. It has large cotton and knitting mills, lumber and flour mills, brass and iron foundries, and also manufactures cottonseed oil, furniture, boxes and barrels, wagons, buggies, and machine-shop products. According to the U. S. Census for 1910, there were 80 industrial establishments with a capital of $8,476,000, and products valued at $10,703,000. Macon is noted as an educational centre, being the seat of Mercer University (Bapt.), Pio Nono College (R. C.), Wesleyan Female College (M. E., S.), and Mount de Salles Academy (R.C.). Philanthropic institutions include the Methodist Orphans' Home, Masonic Home, Episcopal Orphans' Home, and county charitable institutions. Vineville is a fine residential section. Among features of scenic interest are the Central City Park and fair grounds, Tatnall Park, Daisy Park, and Chickamauga Park. Macon was settled about 1820 and incorporated in 1823. Pop. (1900) 23,272; (1910) 40,665. Macon (ancient Matisco), capital of the department Saône-etLoire, France, on the Saône River; 40 m. north of Lyons. The river is here crossed by an a n ci e n to bridge with twelve arches. The old Cathedral is now in ruins. Watches and agricultural implements and various metallic wares are manufactured, Macon
The town has a large trade in Burgundy wines, for which it is celebrated. It was the birthplace of Lamartine. Pop. 20,000. Macon, city, Missouri, county seat of Macon co., 60 m. southwest of Quincy, on the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy and the Wabash Railroads. The chief industrial establishments are a large foundry and machine shop and wagon factory. Other manufactures are carriages, brick, flour, cigars, and shears. The region is agricultural, well timbered, and abounds in coal. Its public buildings include a court house and an insane asylum. Pop., (1910) 3,584. Mac on, city, Mississippi, county seat of Noxubee co., on the Noxubee River and the Mobile and Ohio Railroad; 30 m. southwest of Columbus. It has railroad repair shops, cottonseedoil mills, cotton compresses and gins. Pop. (1910) 2,024. Macon, NATHANIEL (17581837), American legislator, was born in Warren county, N. C. In 1777 he entered the Continental Army, and served until the end of the Revolution, though elected to the assembly while in the army. He vigorously opposed the adoption of the U. S. Constitution on account of its centralizing provisions. He was a Member of Congress from North Carolina (1791– 1815), and served as Speaker (1801–07). He was transferred to the U. S. Senate in 1815, and was president pro tempore of that body in 1826–27. He refused reelection in 1828, and resigned the same year, retiring to his farm. McPhers on, city, Kansas, county seat of McPherson co., on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe, the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Missouri Pacific Railroads; 27 m. northeast of Hutchinson, and about 150 m. west of Topeka. It is situated in an agricultural section, mainly devoted to wheat and corn. The manufactures are flour, vehicles, machinery, etc., and there are grain elevators, creameries, brick and lumber yards. The trade of the city is mainly in live stock and agricultural produce. It is the seat of McPherson College (Dunkard), and of Walden College, a Swedish mission school. Pop. (1910) 3,546. McPherson, JAMES BIRDsey E. (1828–64), American soldier, was born in Sandusky county, O. He was graduated at West Point, first in the class of 1853; taught engineering there the next year; was stationed on the New York Harbor defences in 1854–57, and
from 1857 to 1861 was engaged on the defences of San Francisco. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was stationed at Boston Harbor. By request of General Halleck he was designated that officer's aide-de-camp, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel (Nov. 12, 1861), and acted as assistant engineer of the Department of Missouri to Feb. 1, 1862. In the Tennessee campaign he was chief engineer under General Grant, and aided in the operations against Forts Henry and Donelson, and took part in the Battle of Shiloh. In May, 1862, McPherson was promoted to colonel, and two weeks later was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. From June to October he was military superintendent of railroads in Western Tennessee, and with his brigade went to the relief of General Rosecrans, who was attacked at Corinth. For his signal services here McPherson was appointed major-general of volunteers. In the Vicksburg campaign (1863) he commanded the right wing, and afterward the Seventeenth Corps. He commanded at the Battle of Raymond, and on the recommendation of General Grant was appointed a brigadier-general in the regular army. In 1863–4 he commanded the district of Vicksburg, then the Department and Army of Tennessee. In the Georgia campaign he was second in command to General Sherman, and was killed while reconnoitring near Atlanta (July 22, 1864). In the opinion of Grant, he was one of the ‘ablest, purest, and best generals' in the army. Macpherson, JAMEs (1736–96), Scottish author, was born in Ruthven, Inverness - shire. In 1760 he published, with translations, a collection of old Gaelic poems, as Fragments of Ancient Poetry. This was followed, in 1762 and 1763, respectively, by his ‘translations' of Ossian's Finga and Temora. There can be little doubt that these ‘Ossianic' poems were to a great extent Macpherson's own, but that he used in their composition a number of fragments of Gaelic legends. He acted as agent to the nabob of Arcot from
1780 until his death. He was buried in the Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey. Consult
Beers' English Romanticism. McQuaid, BERN A R D John (1823 - 1909), American Roman Catholic prelate, was born in New York City. He was graduated (1843) at St. John's College, Fordham, where he was tutor for three years. He was ordained
priest in 1848. He held pastorates in New Jersey, where he erected several churches, and founded and was president of Seton Hall College and Seminary (1858-68). For a time he was rector of the Newark Cathedral. In 1868 he was consecrated first bishop of Rochester. He devoted much time to the founding of parochial schools, of which he was a foremost advocate. Macquarie Islands, a group of uninhabited islands in the Southern Pacific Ocean, about 800 m. Southeast of Tasmania, to which they belong. The largest, Macquarie Island, has an area of 170 sq. m. It is rugged and mountainous, and the resort of penguins and sea elephants, which are hunted in season for their oil. Macquarie River (native, Wambool), New South Wales, Australia, is formed by the junction of the Fish and Campbell Rivers, and is a tributary of the Darling or Barwan River. It gives its name to the great Macquarie swamp through which it flows for 30 m. It has many rapids and falls, affording much water power, in its course of about 350 m. Macready, WillIAM CHARLEs (1793–1873), English actor and manager, was born in London; appeared at Birmingham (1810) as Romeo, and at Newcastle (1811) played Hamlet with Mrs. Siddons. Subsequently he acted at Covent Garden, Drury Lane, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Paris, dominating the stage (1819) as Richard III. . His favorite parts were Macbeth and Werner; but he created, among others, Virginius, Strafford, Claude Melnotte, Richelieu, and Alfred Evelyn in Money. He made a tour of the United States in 1826, and again in 1843–44. In 1849, while filling an engagement in New York, his theatre was mobbed by partisans of Edwin Forrest. (See Astor PLACE RIOT.) He retired from the stage in 1851. Consult Archer's Life; Pollock's Selections from His Diaries and Letters. Macrinus (164-218 A.D.), emperor of Rome from 217 to 218 A.D., was born in Caesarea, in Mauritania, and was prefect of the praetorian guards under Caracalla, whom he succeeded. He was defeated near Nisibis by the Parthians, and forced to purchase peace. His troops mutinied and defeated him near Antioch. Macrocosm. See MICROCOSM. Macrospore. See SPORE. Macrozamia, a genus of evergreen Australian plants, belonging to the order Cycadaceae. They bear mostly ovoid cones, Mactan
with hard scales thickened at their apices, under which are edible nuts. The fronds, not unlike those of palms, are used for Palm Sunday by Catholics. Mactan, MAGTAN, small island. Cebu province, Philippines, opposite Cebu city, on the east coast, from which it is separated by a strait 1 m. wide. It is of coral formation, low, with cocoanut trees and mangroves. Opon (pop. 13,000) is the only town. Magellan (q.v.) the navigator was killed here in 1521. Mactra, a genus of bivalve molluscs, including a number of common North Atlantic species. The shell is roughly triangular, the two halves being equal. All the species live in sand, and are capable of using the foot in leaping. A species common along the eastern coast of the United States is the sea-clam (M. solidissima). MacVeagh, FRANKLIN, American merchant and public official, brother of Wayne MacVeagh (q.v.), was born on a farm in Chester County, Pa. He was graduated at Yale in 1862, and at the Columbia Law School in 1864. Abandoning legal prac
tice on account of ill health, he
engaged in a wholesale grocery business in Chicago, establishing the firm of Franklin MacVeagh & Co., of which he remained the head until 1909. In 1874 he became president of the Citizens' Association, and took a leading part in the important municipal reforms which it inaugurated. He was nominated by the Illinois Democrats for U. S. Senator in 1894; though successful in the State canvass, he was defeated in the Legislature. In 1905 he was vice-president of the American Civic Association. In 1909 he became Secretary of the Treasury in the Cabinet of President Taft.
MacVeagh, WAYNE (1833), American lawyer and official, brother of Franklin MacVeagh (q.v.), was born near Phoenixville, Pa. He was graduated at Yale in 1853; was admitted to the bar in 1856, and from 1859 to 1864 was district attorney of Chester county, Pa. During the Civil War he served as U. S. captain of infantry (1862) and of cavalry (1863). He was Republican State chairman (1863); U. S. minister to Turkey (1870– 1), and a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention (1872–4). In 1877 he was head of the commission sent by President Hayes to adjust political affairs in Louisiana. He was Attorney-General in President Garfield's Cabinet (1881), but retired on the accession of Presi
dent Arthur, and resumed the practice of law in Philadelphia. He served as minister to Italy in 1893–7, and was chief counsel for the United States in the Venezuela Arbitration case before The Hague Tribunal in 1903. He is a prominent advocate of international peace. McVey, FRANK L E ROND (1869), American educator, was born in Wilmington, Ohio. He attended Des Moines College; was graduated (1893) from Ohio Wesleyan University, and studied afterward at Yale. In 1895 he was employed in New York as an editorial writer. He was instructor in history at Teachers College, Columbia (1895–6), and professor of economics at the University of Minnesota (1896– 1907). He was the first chairman of the Minnesota Tax Commission (1907–09), and was a member of the International Jury of Awards at the St. Louis Exposition (1904). Since 1909 he has been president of the University of North Dakota. He has written Populist Movement (1896); History and Government of Minnesota (1901); Modern Industrialism (1904); Transportation (1910); and was editor of the Proceedings of the Minnesota Academy of Social Sciences (1907–09). McVickar, WILLIAM NEILson (1843), American Protestant Episcopal bishop, was born in New York City. He was graduated at Columbia University in 1865, but continued his studies until 1868, when he entered the ministry. In 1898 he was consecrated coadjutor bishop of Rhode Island, and on the death of Bishop Clark, in 1903, succeeded him as bishop. He is a member of the board of managers of the General Missionary Society. MacWhirter, John (1839– 1911), Scottish painter, was born in Slateford, near Edinburgh. He was elected A.R.A. (1879) and R.A. (1894). He excelled in depicting the rugged beauty and lonely grandeur of the Highlands and moors of Scotland, notably the mountain birches. His diploma work was Nature's Archway. His June in the A ustrian Tyrol is in the Tate Gallery, London. Among other examples of his brush are The Lord of the Glen; The Three Graces; The Track of the Hurricane; Dark Loch Coruisk: The Silver Strand; Loch Katrine; Crabbed Age and Youth: A Monarch. He is the author of Landscape Painting in Water Color (1900). He came to the United States in 1877, and painted some noted pictures, mainly of Californian scenery.
Macy, JEsse (1842), American educator, was born in Henry County, Ind. He was graduated (1870) at Iowa College (now Grinnell), whose teaching staff he joined, becoming in 1885 professor of constitutional history and political science. Among his politico-historical works are ęio. in Iowa (1881); Institutional Beginnings in a Western State (1883); Our Government (1886); The English Constitution (1897); Political Parties in the United States, 1846-61 (1900); Party Organization and Machinery (1904). Madagascar, a large island in the Indian Ocean, separated from the nearest point of the eastern coast of Africa by Mozambique Channel, about 250 miles wide. Its extreme length, from Cape Amber in the North to Cape Sainte Marie in the South, is 980 miles, and its greatest breadth about 350 miles. Area, 227,750 square miles. The main orographical features are two plateaus, one occupying the nothern extremity as far south as Mandritsara in 16% 9 south lat.; the other, of far greater area, extending over Imerina, Betsileo, and Bara, nearly to 24° south lat. These plateaus are separated by a saddle less than 2,000 feet high, which has played an important part in the history of the island. The greater plateau slopes from east to west, frequently rising to 5,200 feet on the east, but seldom exceeding 3,900 feet on the west. Toward the east coast the descent is very rapid, while on the west lies a country of plains and flat-topped hills 1,300 to 1,600 feet above sea-level. Extinct volcanoes are scattered over the island, the chief being Ankaratra, the culminating point of Madagascar (8,790 feet). Diégo Suarez, at the northern end, formed by the peninsula of Cape Amber, is one of the best harbors in the world. Tamatave also is a good harbor, and the principal shipping point; while Antongil Bay affords safe anchorage. The northwest coast is much indented, and has harbors at Nossi-Bé, Port Radama, and the bays of Bombétoke (Majunga) and Betsiboka. The climate is tropical, and there is a cool, dry season from May or June to November, and a hot, wet season from November to April. At Diégo Suarez the annual mean temperature is about 80°, the highest in the island, and the range is from 73° to 88°. The rainfall is about 28 inches. Toward the south the temperature is lower, while