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Madagascar

Textiles are woven from the fibre cf the raffia palm, and silk is produced from the raw material produced in the country. Oil is made from several fruits, and there is a considerable manufacture of rum. Goods are conveyed to the shipping points on the shoulders of bearers, most of the routes being mere footpaths. The French have constructed 950 miles of macadamizel roads, connecting the more important towns and military posts, and about Tananarivo, the capital, there is regular automobile service. There are two railroads—a short line from Tamatave to Ivondro (7 m.), the northern terminus of the canal from Brickaville; and the colony's line from Brickaville to Tananarivo (168 m.). The latter is being extended to Tamatave from Brickaville (30 m.), and an extension is projected southward from Tananarivo to Antsirabe (107 m.). There is a bi-weekly postal service by rail between Tamatave and Tananarivo, and monthly by local steamers between coast ports. The few interior mail routes are covered by boat and foot, and vary from once to sixteen times a month. At the beginning of 1911 there were 4,270 m. of telegraph on the island, and two government wireless stations; besides cable connection, with Mozambique and Mauritius. There is telephone connection between Tamatave, Tananarivo, and Ivondro. The principal shipping ports are Tamatave, Majunga, and Diégo Suarez. The exports consist chiefly of hides, rubber, mangrove bark, raffia, beeswax, vanilla, lard and rice, and various textiles. In 1910 the value of the exports was $8,769,583, of which 60 per cent. went to France: the value of the imports was $6,453,326, of which 85 per cent. came from France. The most prominent people

are the Antainmerina, or Merina, of Malay origin, and known to Europeans as the Hova. They live on the plateau of Imerina; their dominion, before French occupation, extending over twothirds of the island. On the northwest coast there has been an infusion of Arab blood. Of the total population (est. 1910), 3,054,658, about 13,500 are Europeans. Of the larger native tribes, the Hova in 1907 numbered 847,480; the Bétsiléo, 408,024; the Betsimisãraka, 288,159; the Tamala, 156,720; the Sakalava, 155, 126; the Bara, 140,450. There are also Hindu, Chinese, Arab, and other Asiatic merchants.

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Madagascar Cat

The last native sovereign of Madagascar was Queen Ranavalona III., who succeeded to the throne in 1883. The French claimed certain territory on the northwest coast, ceded to them by local chiefs. The Hova refused to recognize these cessions, and a conflict ensued. In 1885 peace was arranged, Liégo Suarez passing into the possession of France. The French then established a resident-general at the capital, claiming a protectorate, which was disputed by the Hova, but acknowledged by Great Britain. The French enforced it by an armed expedition. Madagascar was annexed by the French in 1895, and slavery was abolished the following year, 1,000,000 being set free. On August 6, 1896, the island and its dependencies were declared a French colony. In 1897 the Queen was deposed, and deported to the island of Réunion; thence in 1899 to Algiers. The government is administered by a French Governor-General, with the aid of a consultative council, which is not elective. The island is partly under civil and partly under military administration. Natives are employed in subordinate governmental positions. Consult Keller's Madagascar, Mauritius, and Other East Indian Islands (1900); Gravier's Madagascar (1904); You's Madagascar: Histoire, Organisation, Colonisation (1905); Pappenheim's Madagascar: Studien, Schilderungen, und Erlebnisse (1906); the Antananarivo Annual. Madagascar Cat. See LEMUR. Maddaloni (ancient Sessuela), city, Caserta, Italy, 14 m. northeast of Naples. It possesses a royal college and a military school. Weaving and quarrying are the chief industries. Near by is a fine aqueduct, built by Charles III. to supply water to the cascades in the royal gardens of Caserta. Pop. 25,000. Madden, SIR FREDERIC (1801– 73), English palaeographer and antiquary, was born in Portsmouth. He edited an edition of Havelok the Dane (1828), Layamon's Brut (1847), and Wycliffe's Bible (1850), the last named with Rev. Josiah Forshall. From 1837 to 1866 he was head of the manuscript department of the British Museum. His journals in the Bodleian Library are to remain unopened till 1920. Madder, the root of Rubia *inctor um, and other plants of the same family, was formerly grown in large quantities in Western Europe, Turkey, and Japan. It is valued for the stable coloring matters, alizarin (q.v.) and pur

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purin, that are present in the root in the form of glucosides. There are several varieties, which are prepared for the market by long drying and grinding. Madder, though used from the earliest times as a dye for mummy wrappings, has been largely superseded by alizarin, synthetically prepared from coal tar. Garancin, a preparation obtained by treating the root with dilute sulphuric acid, and various extracts of madder, were also commercial forms of the dyestuff. The true madders are still used by artists. Madeira, a wine of Portugal which closely resembles sherry, having a fine, soft, mellow flavor. It is made from a mixture of black and white grapes, its peculiar flavor being due largely to the process of maturing the wine for several months in heated vaults at from 100° to 125°. It is a fortified wine, containing from 16 to 21 per cent. of alcohol. Many of the best brands are sent on long sea voyages to modify and improve them. This wine takes its name from the island of Madeira, where much of it is produced. Among the important brands are Boal or Bual and Verdelho, rich, mellow, and choice; and San Antonio and Sercial, fine, dry, and pale. The output of Madeira wines amounts to about half a million gallons annually. Madeira (THE MADEIRAs), a group of Portuguese islands in the Atlantic Ocean, 390 m. west of Morocco, and 600 m. southwest of Lisbon, comprising Madeira, Porto Santo, Desertas, Bujio, and Selvagens, the three first only being inhabited. They are of volcanic origin. Area, 315 sq. m. Pop. 160,000, mostly on Madeira. Madeira itself is an oval island, measuring 35 by 15 miles. The coasts are steep and rocky, the highest point, Pico Ruivo, reaching 6,060 feet. The eastern portion is lower than the western, through which runs a central ridge crowned with the great plain “Paul de Serra." The mountain slopes are terraced for cultivation, and tropical, subtropical, and temperate fruits of all kinds are grown at different levels, with the help of irrigation. The scenery is unusually picturesque. Its equable and salubrious climate has made Madeira a favorite health resort for Europeans, especially for those suffering with lung diseases. Wines and sugar are the principal products, and the exports are wines (6,000 pipes annually), fruits, vegetables, honey, sugar, wax, cane and wicker goods, lace, and

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straw hats. The chief imports are coal, grains, and drygoods. Funchal (q.v.), on the south coast, is the capital and the principal port. Madeira was colonized by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century. It was occupied by the British in 1801 and 1807–14. Madeira River. See AMAzoN. Madero, FRANCISCO INDALECIO (1873), President of Mexico, the Son of a wealthy land owner, was born on the family estate of Rosario, in Coahuila. As a young man he was occupied in the management of the agricultural lands and mining interests of the family, especially in the installation of modern machinery and methods. Through close contact with the prevailing labor conditions of his native land, he became the active foe of the peonage and contract labor systems by which the natives had been long oppressed. In 1903 Madero came into public notice as a leader of the independent voters of his native state, Coahuila. He established political clubs throughout Mexico, developing from them a new national party through a convention held in the City of Mexico. In 1905 he opposed the candidate for governor of Coahuila named by the Liaz government. His party was defeated, but Madero set himself energetically to work to make a contest against the Diaz government in the election of 1910. In 1908 he wrote and published a book, The Presidential Succession, which was suppressed by the Government; and he travelled about the country, making political speeches in opposition to the re-election of Diaz. In June, 1910, he was arrested, and was held without bail on a minor charge until after the election, in which Diaz was victorious. He was set free in October, and made his way to Texas, where an uprising was organized, which began prematurely in November, 1910. The uprising covered practically the whole of Mexico, as far south as Tehuantepec, and with the capture of the city of Juarez, Diaz was forced to resign (May 25, 1911). Francisco de la Barra became provisional president until the election held in October, 1911. In that election, Madero was the principal candidate, and . was opposed by General Reyes. The latter withdrew, however, and Madero was elected almost unanimously. See M Exico. Madhava Achirya, Hindu Sanskrit scholar and writer of the fourteenth century. To him is

Madison

attributed the Parāsara - Mādhaviyam, a classification of Hindu religious law, subsequently supplemented by his Vyavahára, which dealt with systems of law as generally understood. He is also responsible for important digests relative to ancient Indian philosophy, especially an introduction to the Mimamsa system, and a commentary on the same. M a d is on , city, Wisconsin, State capital and county seat of Dane co., 75 m. west of Milwaukee, on the Chicago and Northwestern, the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul, and the Illinois Central Railroads. Its site is one of great natural beauty, being on a narrow strip of land, about 800 feet high, between the lakes Mendota and Monona, with two others of the chain' near by. It is the seat of the University of Wisconsin (q.v.). Besides the buildings of the university, other important edifices are the beautiful new State Capitol (now in course of construction), State Hospital for the Insane, County Court House, Federal Building, and State Historical Library. The last named contains 300,000 volumes and 50,000 pamphlets, and is the most important historical library west of the Alleghanies. Other features of interest are Tenney, Henry Vilas, Capitol, Madison, and Brittingham Parks. The chief industries include the manufacture of a gricultural implements, electrical machinery, lathes, gasoline engines, and beet sugar. There are also large tobacco warehouses, tobacco being one of the products of the surrounding region. Madison attracts many summer visitors. Numerous works of the prehistoric mound builders are to be found near the lakes. The city was settled in 1837, and was named in honor of President Madison. Pop. (1910) 25,531. Madison, city, Indiana, county seat of Jefferson co., 40 m. northeast of Louisville, Ky., on the Ohio River and the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad. It is the centre of a rich farming territory, growing tobacco, grain, and fruit, and

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here was made in 1807. (1910) 6,934. Madison, town, Madison co., Illinois, on the Illinois Central and other railroads. Here are located the shops of the American Car and Foundry Co. (2,700 men), the Laclede Steel Co. (600 men), and the Helmbacher Rolling Mill Co. (750 men). Pop. (1910) 5,046. Madison, borough, Morris co., New Jersey, 26 m. by rail west of New York, on the Morris and Essex division of the Lackawanna Railroad. It occupies an elevated site, surrounded by hills, and is a residential place, with practically no industries other than the culture of roses and chrysanthemums, which is extensively carried on for the New York market. It is the seat of Drew Theological Seminary (q.v.). Pop. (1910) 4,658. Madison, city, South Dakota, county seat of Lake co., 40 m. northwest of Sioux Falls, on the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad. It has grain elevators, and is a shipping point for grain. Live stock also is raised in the surrounding country. It is the seat of a State Normal School and a branch of the Chautauqua Institute. Pop. (1910) 3, 137. Madison, village, Somerset co., Maine, 8 m. northwest of Skowhegan, on the Kennebec River and the Somerset Railroad. It is situated at Norridgewock Falls, which supply water power. Paper and paper pulp, woollen goods, lumber, and manufactures of lumber are the principal industrial products. The surrounding country Polo chiefly apples, oats, and hay. It was incorporated in 1804. Old Point, in the vicinity, was the scene of a victory of the English over the Indians led by Sebastian Rasle, a Jesuit priest. A monument marks the site. Pop. (1910) 2,408. Madison River, a head stream of the Missouri River, rising 8,300 feet above sea level in the Yellowstone National Park. It flows into Southwest Montana, thence in a northerly direction, along the base of the Madison range, to its confluence with the Jefferson or Beaver Head and Gallatin Rivers, at Gallatin City (Three Forks). It is known in its upper course as the Firehole River, taking the drainage from the Geyser Basin. It is about 230 m. long, and has deep canyons and wild scenery. Madisonville, village, Hamilton co., Ohio, 9 m. northeast of Cincinnati, on the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, and the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern Railroads.

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Madison

The chief manufactures are blankets and other woollen goods and lumber. Pop. (1910) 5, 193. Madisonville, city, Kentucky, county seat of Hopkins co., 36 m. south of Henderson, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Lumber, flour, and tobacco are manufactured, and it is a coalmining centre. Natural gas is plentiful. Pop. (1910) 4,966. Madison, JAMES (1751–1836), American statesman, fourth President of the United States. He was born at midnight, March 16, 1751, at Port Conway, on the Rappahannock River, in King George county, Va. His father, after whom he was named, was the largest landholder in Orange county, Va., and lieutenant of the county; his mother was Eleanor Conway; and both were of English descent, and of families which had come to Virginia when the colony was first established. James was their eldest child. When he was a few months old he was taken to Montpelier, his father's estate in Orange county, and this was his home all of his life. At the age of seventeen he entered the Sophomore class of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), and was graduated in 1771 with honors. In 1775 he threw himself into the Revolutionary cause, his impaired health alone preventing him from going into the army. In 1876 he was elected a delegate to the Virginia Convention, and was one of the committee of thirty-two which presented to the Convention the Declaration of Rights which George Mason drew up. The last clause of the Declaration, as Mason drafted it, provided that “all men should enjoy the fullest toleration in the exercise of religion." To this, Madison offered as an amendment a clause providing that “all men are equally entitled to the full and free exercise of it (their religion), according to the dictates of conscience,' and that no class of men ought, on account of religion, to be invested with peculiar emoluments or privileges. His object was to proclaim freedom of religion, not as a matter of tolerance, but as a matter of right, and to prevent a state church from ever being re-established in Virginia. The Convention was not prepared to go the full length of his proposition, and 8dopted a compromise which he did not consider sufficient. In 1786 the Virginia legislature proposed to lay taxes for the support of teachers of the Christian religion, and a bill for the purMadison, James Madison, James

Koi..." almost passed, when adison wrote a remonstrance against it which was printed as a broadside, circulated throughout the state, and signed by many thousands of people. It aroused a sentiment so strong that the bill was definitely abandoned, and ten years afterward (1795) he introduced in the legislature the Bill, for Establishing Religious Freedom in Virginia,” which Thomas Jefferson had written in 1779, as part of a revised code of laws for the state, but which had lain dormant till Madison revived it and carried it to successful passage. It assured comlete religious o in Virginia or all time, and Madison deserves more credit for this outcome than any one else. He served as a member of the council of state of Virginia from 1778 to 1780, when he was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress, taking his seat March 20, 1780, the most important act of his early service being the drawing up of the instructions to John Jay, minister to Spain, which were adopted by Congress. Oct. 17, 1780. They required Jay, in soliciting a treaty of alliance with Spain against England, to insist as a condition that the United States be accorded the right of free navigation of the Mississippi river from its source to the sea. In 1786 Jay, having returned from Spain, was secretary for foreign affairs, and endeavored to negotiate with Spain, a treaty one part of which rovided, in return for promised avors to the U. S., that the navigation of the river should be closed to Americans for twentyfive, or thirty years. Many of Madison’s associates favored this arrangement, but he insisted that Spain could no more stop the current of trade down the river than she could the current of the river itself. He was not then in Congress, but was a member of the *:::::: assembly, and wrote a vigorous protest against the terms of the contemplated treaty, which the o by a unanimous vote. e was elected to Congress again in 1787, chiefly so that he o continue his fight o closing the river, and finally succeeded in defeating the proposed treaty by a narrow majority. A few years afterwards (1795) when circumstances were favorable, a treaty was made with Spain by which American products were granted free progress down the river and the right of deposit at New Orleans, they might be transshipped to any point. In August, ło by a secret treaty, Louisiana passed from the ownership of Spain to France, but the fact did not become known until

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he, George Mason, Edmund Randolph, and Alexander Henderson were named. On Dec. 28, again on his motion, the commissioners were empowered to unite with the Maryland commissioners in asking Pennsylvania to co-operate in providing regulations for the use of a route from the head of the Potomac to the Ohio. Two of the commissioners for Virginia and all of the commissioners for Maryland met at Alexandria and Mt. Vernon in March, 1785, but Madison was not present, as he had failed to receive notification of the meeting. The joint commission, however, . . entered into an agreement which was ratified o the Maryland legislature on Nov. 22, with a clause added recommending that the arrangement be submitted to the legislatures of Pennsylvania and Delaware. This proposal, coming before the Virginia, legislature, was enlarged b acilson into a request to all the states to appoint delegates to consider how far a uniform system of commercial arrangements throughout the United States might be made, which passed with little notice on Jan. 21, 1786, the last day of the session. The result of this invitation was the Annapolis Convention, which met the following September, Madison being a member, and which issued the call for a convention to revise the articles of confederation. At the Constitutional Convention which followed in the ensuing year, the first plan of overnment offered was presented y the Virginia delegates and embodied Madison's ideas of what the government of the United States, should be, and most of these ideas were incorporated in the constitution agreed upon. What he wished to see established was a national republic, but the feeling of state importance was too so to be overcome, and the result was a compromise recognizing the nation idea in the House of Representatives and the state idea in the Senate. Except Gouverneur Morris and James Wilson, he spoke oftener than any other member of the convention, and he had more to do with framing the constitution as a whole than any other one man. The constitution, having been framed, was offered to the states for adoption, and Madison, in conjunction with Hamilton and Jay, wrote the Federalist, and secured the ratification, by Virginia. If Virginia, had rejected it, New York and other states would undoubtedly have followed her lead. The party in the state o: to the adoption was ably led by Patrick Henry, and in the convention, called to decide the question of ratification he made

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the F. fight of his life, his chief opponent being Madison. Madison's speeches were the strongest made in the convention, the strongest made in any convention called to consider the ado tion of the constitution, and the strongest he himself ever made. His success in securing ratification by Yolo was the greatest triumph of his career. He was elected to the first House of Representatives, having failed of election to the Senate because of Patrick Henry's opposition, and was recognized as its leader. As the parties formed over, the question of the powers of the Federal government, he took the side which insisted upon the preservation of , the rights of the states, declaring that as the constitution had been ratified by the states with the understanding that many of their powers were reserved to them, it was improper now to construe the constitution in another sense. After service in the House of . Representatives and state legislature Madison became secretary o state in Jefferson's Cabinet and held the office for eight years, and Was so in accord with Jefferson's policy of retaliatory legisla: tion as a weapon against England and France, when their oppressions of American commerce reached an acute stage. The use of such a weapon had, in fact, always been Koi..', policy. In the constitutional convention he favored giving o power to tax exports so that foreign countries might be compelled to make equitable commercial arrangements with the United States, and in the first Congress he urged the adoption of a discriminating tonnage law which should operate heavily against countries not in treaty with the United States. When he became president in 1809 affairs were in such a train that war with England or France or both seemed almost inevitable, but he exhausted every effort to preserve peace before sending a message recommending war with Great Britain to Congress. The country was not prepared for the war which followed, and Madison had neither the personal force nor experience to qualify him for leading a nation in arms, and his administration in a military sense was a failure. His title to enduring fame was not in fact won when he was secretary of state or president, but in the earlier Fo of his public career when e demonstrated qualities of constructive statesmanship of the highest order. He died at ontpelier, June 28, 1836. Madison's journal of the debates in the Constitutional Convention and certain other of his

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wrote a fragment in three volumes covering a part of his career under the title History of the Life and Times of James Madison (1859–68). S. H. Gay wrote a short Life of Madison in the “Amer: ican Statesmen Series' (1884), and Gaillard Hunt wrote his life in one volume (1902). Madoc, or Madoq, AB OWEN Gwyn Epid, a Welch prince, one of the legendary pre-Columbian discoverers of America. Little is known concerning him, but according to the legend, which seems to have no authentic foundation, he sailed west about 1170, discovered America, and established a colony there. Madoc is the sub{. of a poem (1805) by Southey: sirtually all that , is 3. of Madoc and of the legend may be found in Stephens's Madoc an Essay on the Discovery of America by Madoc ab Owen Gynedd in the 12th Century (1893). Madonna, the term usually applied, to representations of the Virgin Mary in art. The earliest existing picture of her is said to be one in the Capella Greca in the catacombs of Priscilla, Rome, assigned to the first half of the 2d century. Other early examples show traces of classic form, and in Rome that tendency persisted even after Byzantine influence asserted itself throughout Italy. The famous Rucellai Madonna in Santa Maria Novella, Florence, which is attributed to Cimabue by tradition, but is now assigned by some critics to Duccio, the § statue of the Virgin and hild, and the exquisite ivor statuette by Giovanni Pisani, still in Pisa, and, the Majestas by Duccio, which was carried in triumphal procession through the streets of Siena in 1311, show a freer and more natural manner. With the great artists of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries the Madonna was a favorite subject. Favorite incidents are the Annunciation, the Holy Family, the Adoration, the Assumption, and the Coronation. Other celebrated Madonnas are _by. Mantegna, Botticelli, and Bellini, two or three reliefs by Donatello, and Michael Angelo's statue in the Medici chapel, Florence; Leo: nardo's Virgin of the Rocks; and

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