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Madrazo y Kunt
being those of 1833, 1865–6, 1876– 78, and 1892. Although the presidency has no natural harbors, Madras on the E. coast is one of the most important in the Indian empire, and Kanara, Malabar, and Travancore on the w. are centres of considerable export and import. The value of the sea-borne trade of the presidency amounts to over $100,000,000. The chief articles of export are hides, coffee, raw cotton, rice, oils, spices, indigo, coir, sugar, tobacco, and tea. The native state of Mysore is directly administered by the imperial government of Calcutta. Travancore is ruled by a maharajah on Euroan lines. The bul o: ation are Hindus, and a considerable *. Mohammedians, but the proportion of Christians É. Roman Catholics) is arger than in any other part of India. The Laccadive and Maldive Islands, off the Malabar coast, are, for administrative purses, included in the Madras É.ie. Pop. (1901) 38,623,066. (2.) Capital of above presidency, on the Coromandel coast, in lat. 13° 4'N., and long. 80° 15' E. Notwithstanding that it has no natural harbor, it ranks amon the foremost seaports of Britis India. On the foreshore is ‘Black Town,” the commercial quarter; to the S. is the citadel, Fort St. George, Government House, and the o offices; the denselypopulated native quarters straggle to the w. and s.; then come the houses of the Eurasian population; and beyond, the residences of Europeans. The total trade in 1903 was valued at over $35,000,000. In 1504 the Portuguese founded here the town of St. Thomé. In 1639 the rajah of Chandragiri granted to the East India. Company a site close to, St. Thomé. Attacked in 1702 by Aurungzebe's army, in 1741 by the Marathas, Madras fell to the French in 1746. In 1748 it was restored to the British, by the treaty of Aix-laChapelle. , Pop. o 509,346: 256,730 males, 252,616 females. Madrazo y Kunt, FEDERIco DE (1815–94), Spanish painter of historical and portrait subjects, was born at Rome; succeeded his father as director of the Prado Gallery in Madrid, and was professor at the Madrid Academy. Among his works are Godefroy de Bouillon proclaimed King of Jerusalem (1839), Maria Christina at the Bedside of Ferdinand III. (1843), The Three Holy Women at the Sepulchre (1845), and the portrait King Don Francisco. Madrepore. See CoRAL. Madrid. (1.) Province, Spain, occupying the southern and eastern slopes of the Guadarrama Mts., and reaching down to the
It was captured by Ramiro II. of Leon in 933, but was again lost. Ferdinand I., it is asserted, again took it temporarily in 1047. It became permanently a Christian city under Alfonso VI. of Castile (1083). , When Philip II. made it the capital of the realm (1560), the city contained a population of 25,000, and then increased rapidly. Its streets are wide and handsome, especially that of Alcala, one of the finest streets in Europe. The central square is the renowed Puerta del Sol, into which ten streets debouch. In addition to the university there are a normal school, vet
tobacco being the chief manufacture. Pop. (1900) 539,835.
. Madrigal, a term often used in a loose sense for any light song, but Pool; denoting a o, of song, of Italian origin which normally consists of two or three tercets, followed by one or more couplets. It is also used for the music written for such songs. Madrigals were either sung by three or more unaccompanied, voices, or played upon viols. They were written by most of the 16th and 17th century composers. . . Ultimately the form was merged in the glee. See Oliphant's Short Account of
Madura. (1.) Capital of dist., Madras Presidency, India, 270 m. s.w.. by rail of Madras. For centuries it was the go and political capital of S, India, and it contains some of the finest extant examples of Hindu architecture, including, the granite temple of Minarchi, or the Fish Mother. Rebuilt in the 2d or 3d century, it was nearly destroyed during the Mohammedan conquest of the 14th century. Its present splendor is due to Tirumulla Nayak (1623–59). The town has coffee and cotton mills and cigar factories. Brass-ware and dyed cotton-cloth are also made. Madura is the centre of American mission effort in South India. Pop. (1901) 105,984. (2.) Mountainous isl., Dutch East Indies, separated from Java on the w. by the Surabaya Strait, and on the s. by the Madura Strait. Fishing and cattle-rearing employ most of the inhabitants. Area, 1,770 sq. m. Pop. (1897) 1,652,580.
Madvig, Joh AN,Nicola I (1804– 86), Danish scholar, and statesman, born at Svaneke in Bornholm; became (1829), professor of Latin language and literature at Copenhagen University, resigning in 1880. He compiled a
Maecenas, GAIUS CILNIUS (between 73 and 63 to 8 B.C.), friend and adviser of the Roman emperor Augustus, was of an Etruscan family of Arretium. In 42 B.C. his services were used in negotiating with Antony. During 36–34 B.C. he was entrusted with the maintenance of order in Rome and Italy; and also in 31 B.C., when he crushed the conspiracy of the younger Lepidus. e is, however, more famous as a literary patron. Virgil, Horace, and Propertius were among his friends, and received many benefits at his hands. Maelström. an ocean current between the 'Norwegian islands of Moskenäs and Mosken, in the Lofoden group. It is only when the north-westerly gales blow against the tide that this current is dangerous. See E. A. Poe's imaginative description. Maenades. See BACCHAE. Maerlan t , JAKOBVAN, (d.c. 1291), Flemish, poet, “the father of Dutch ts,’ born near Bruges; translated Bénoit de Ste.-More’s Roman de Troie, but subsequently established a great reputation through his own lyrical compositions. Author of Spieghel Historiael (“The Mirror of History') and Rijmbijbel (‘Rhyming Bible'), his most celebrated book, the latter causing grave displeasure to the bishop of Utrecht. Maes-How, an earth-covered building of stone, about a mile N.E. of the standing, stones of Stennis, in the main island of the Orkneys, Scotland. Outwardly it is o mound 36 ft. high, and 280 ft. in circumference. Its artificial nature was not known to modern people until 1861. It consists of a room 15 ft. square, with three small lateral chambers. Runic inscriptions on the walls prove that the mound was broken into by Norsemen in the 12th century. Who were its actual builders
is unknown. On the brow of Kew.# Hill (parish of Firth), a few miles from Maes-How, is a similar but considerably smaller structure, examined by Mr. M. Charleson, Stromness, in 1901. Maestricht. See MAASTRICHT. Maestricht Beds belong to the