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Magnetism

on each other so as to make a hollow square of iron. In Ewing's hysteresis, tester, a small square röd is built up of narrow strips of iron, and is clamped crosswise on an axle turned by a handle. A large horseshoe magnet is placed opposite to the axle, so that the sample ...revolves between its poles. When it is along the line

FIG. 15.

of the poles it becomes magnetized, and as it passes away the residual magnetism in it attracts the magnet. The ordinary attraçtion of soft iron on a magnet is eliminated, since this will act in opposite directions as the sample approaches the poles and recedes from them; ...but the residual magnetism will always act in the same direction, and if the magnet is hung on bearings or knife edges, it will swing over in the direction of rotation of the samle. The extent of the deflection is a measure of the hysteresis in the specimen. Fig. 15 shows the apparatus. similar method has been used for measuring the hysteresis in a rotating magnetic field, which represents the condition of , a dynamo, armature. The sample is cylindrical, and is placed between the poles of , a magnet which is rotated... The pole pieces are cut to a cylindrical form, the axis of which is the axis of rotation, and the sample is also concentrically placed. The sample is held in pivots, and the hysteresis produced when the magnet revolves, tends to turn the sample round with the magnet. Movement is checked by a spring attached to the sample, and the deflection measures the hysteresis in the iron. Magnetism in other Materials. —It has recently been discovered that certain alloys of the nonmagnetic metals copper, manganese, and aluminium are almost as magnetic as cast iron, and show residual magnetism

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and change of permeability in the same manner. For all ordinary purposes, however, metals other than iron, nickel, cobalt, and magnetite may be considered non-magnetic. But careful examination shows that many substances are feebly magnetic. The salts of iron, nickel, cobalt, and oxygen are the most conspicuous, oxygen in the liquid state being appreciably magnetic. On the other d. certain substances, notably bismuth metal, are less affected than empty space. They are called “diamagnetic ies,” and their permeability is less than unity. Lines of force, will tend to avoid passing through them, and they will be repelled out of a magnetic field. But, the effect is very small. No residual effect has n discovered in diamagnetic bodies. Consult Ewing's Magnetic Induction in Iron and Other Metals (1904). Magnetism, Terrestrial. The science of terrestrial magnetism dates its birth in the latter half of the fifteenth century, when it gradually became known that the compass needle does not, in general, point true north and south, but a certain number of degrees east or west; and, furthermore, that the actual amount varies with the locality. This divergence of the comfrom true north is known to the mariner and to the surveyor as the ‘variation of the needle,' but its more precise term is the magnetic declination. It is difficult to determine definitely to whom credit must be so for having first discovered these facts. Suffice it to say, that beginning with Columbus' memorable voyage of 1492, the knowledge of them began to #. Some writers believe that the magnetic declination was discovered on land prior to 1492 through the construction of sun-dials. y, the year 1600 considerable knowledge of the com direction in various parts of the earth had become known. In the year 1576 Robert Norman, an English practical seaman and instrument maker, had discovered that the end of the needle which points to the north dips down, if the needle be mounted so as to swing in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis passing through its centre of gravity. This angle which, a "dipping, needle. makes with the horizontal line, if its plane be set in the direction pointed out by a compass, is called the ‘dip' or the magnetic inclination. From the facts known in 1600, William Gilbert, in his memorable work, De Magnete, drew the conclusion that the earth itself was a at magnet. Gilbert supposed, owever, that the magnetic poles were coincident with the geographic poles; as a matter of fact, they are distant 1,200 miles and more from the latter. . If the two sets of poles were coincident, and the earth regu

Magnetism

larly magnetized—as it doubtless would be were it composed throughout of a uniform material—then the com would everywhere point, trusy north and south; there would be no magnetic declination. But since it was known to Gilbert that the compass actually did not

point to the true north, differing therefrom at some places over 30 degrees, he regarded the magnetic

declination as a ‘sort of perturbation and depravation of the true direction,’ and ascribed it to the attracting influence of the continents. The next at discovery was made in 1634 | another Englishman, Henry Gellibrand at London —viz., that the compass even at the same place is not constant in direction, but suffers an appreciable change with the lapse of time. This is known as the secular change, and makes itself felt in all the magnetic elements; not only in the magnetic declination, but in the magnetic dip, and in the so of the magnetic force which the earth exerts to impart directive property to a magnetic needle. But a comparatively few years suffice—five to ten —so to alter the earth's etic condition that the resulting ge in the com direction even during the brief interval is sufficient, if not taken account of, to introduce serious error in surveying and navigation. At London, in 1580, Borough and Norman had found that the north end of the compass bore 11+ degrees east of true north; whereas Gellibrand, in 1634, found only 4°.6’ east. In the year of Cromwell’s death, 1658, the compass pointed due north at London. Thereafter it began to swing westward, by an ever-increasing amount, until about 1812, when it stood practically still for a few years at somewhat over 24 degrees west. Consequently between 1580 and 1812—i.e., in 232 years—the compass, had changed its direction from 11 degrees east to 24 degrees west, or had passed through a change of 35 degrees. It now bears only about 16 degrees west. Whether it will ever return precisely to its position in 1580– i.e., whether the secular change is truly periodic—is not known. In the United States the com changes have not been as e, during the same interval of years, as in England—possibly not more than one-third to one-fifth. Still, they must be taken into account. The oast and Geodetic Survey esses the most extensive and authentic information for this country, and inquiries may be addressed to that organization for the latest data. For some as yet unknown cause the secular changes have recently been especially pronounced and complex. It was formerly thought, that the annual amount of change in the United States would not exceed 3 or 4 minutes—in fact,

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North of the Magnetic Equator (zero line) the North-seeking Pole dips— South of it, the South-seeking Pole dips ----

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Magnetite

tions, the South Magnetic Pole is placed in about 72}^s. and 15.5%" E. A straight line drawn through the earth, connecting the two magnetic poles, misses the earth's centre by about 750 miles, or about one-fifth of the earth's radius—an indication of the very irregular manner in which the earth is magnetized. No theory, at present, accounts satisfactorily either for the cause of the earth's magnetism or for its distribution at any one time. It is known, however, that about 95 per cent. of the magnetic force manifested on the surface arises from sources within the earth itself, such as electric currents and permanent magnetizations; and that only 5 per cent. , is due to electric systems above the surface. In order to pave the way for a theory—or at least to determine more accurately the sources and extent of the electric and magnetic systems which compose the earth's total magnetism-there is at present (1911) in progress, under the ausices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and with the co-operation of civilized countries, a general magnetic survey of the globe, to be completed about 1915, or not long thereafter. While the Institution confines its magnetic work chiefly to the oceans, its exploring parties, since 1905, have penetrated to nearly every remote corner of the earth where no data previously existed. The work already accomplished on the oceans consists of a three years' cruise in the Pacific, aggregating 65,000 miles, in a chartered vessel, Galilee; and, more recently in the North Atlantic Ocean, a cruise of 8,000 miles on the specially constructed non-magnetic brigantine Carnegie. The latter vessel is now (1911) on a circumnavigation cruise of 65,000 miles covering the Atlantic, Indian, an Pacific Oceans. Besides the magnetic phenomena above described, the earth's magnetic condition is subject to a variety of changes—the diurnal variation, seasonal variation, variation with the frequency of sun-spots, fluctuations due to magnetic storms, etc. For description of the mariner's compass, see CoMPAss. See also MAGNET sys; NAvigation. Consult Watson's Text-book of Physics 1903); publications of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and of the Carnegie Institution of Washington; U. S. Magnetic Tables and Charts (1905), j Principal Facts of the Earth's Magnetism (1909). Magnetite, or magnetic iron ore, Fe3O4, is an important ore of iron. It is found as a heavy (sp. gr. 5.2), brittle, black solid, with a metallic lustre (h. = 6). It has magnetic properties, though not many specimens exhibit definite poles. In small grains it occurs in almost all igneous rocks. Occasionally it is accumulated into imWol. VII.-Jan. '11...

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mense ore bodies. When pure this ore carries 72 per cent. of metallic iron. There are many magnetite mines, in the eastern part of the United States. See IRoN. Magneto-electricity. See ELECTRICITY, CURRENT. Magneto Ignition. See MoTOR CARs. Magnificat, the hymn of Mary (Luke 1: 46–55). Its use in the services of the church dates back to at least the commencement of the 6th century. . There are English versions of it from the 14 century. In the Book of Common Prayer it occupies the position of the first canticle in the office of Evensong. . It was formerly omitted in the American prayer book, but is now restored. Magnifying Glass. See LENSEs. Magnitude, a conventional measure for , apparent stellar brightness. Hipparchus and Ptolemy divided the stars into six classes or magnitudes. The system, later extended to telescopic stars, was rendered precise by the adoption of Pogson's light-ratio (1850). On this scale, the brightness of stars, of adjacent magnitudes is in the proportion, 2.512 to 1, the light-ratio being further defined as the number of which the logarithm is 0.4. Gradations of brilliancy, discriminated b modern astronomers to one-tent of a magnitude, are expressed by decimals; fractional and negative numbers indicate degrees of brightness exceeding, first magni§ Thus, a star of zero magnitude gives 2.512 times the light of one of standard first magnitude and the negative magnitude o Sirius o signifies its being 1.6 times brighter still. he sun’s stellar magnitude is approximately. -26.5. See Youngs, General one". (1898). Magnolia. genus of very ornamental trees and shrubs, many of which are found in the United States, either wild or cultivated. Their flowers are generally large and erect, somewhat tulip-shaped and often fragrant; they are usually white, greenish, or pinkish. The foliage is sometimes .*. and the leaves are generally simple, often very large. The fruits are odd cones of carpels, from, which escaping seeds are suspended by filaments; in some instances cones an seeds are rose-colored or crimson. Among the foreign species which are cultivated, and which are fairly hardy, are the Chinese tulip-trees (M. Yulan, and M. Soulangeana), with their many varieties. he former is from eastern Asia, a tree with large white, campanulate, sweet-scente blossoms appearing in early spring before the foliage; the latter is a similar hybrid, with

Magnusson

gray bark, and flowers washed with purple tints on the outside. M. stellata blooms in March and bears a profusion of comparatively small ... white flowers, with many spreading petals. The indigenous species are many... and are often cultivated, especially in the South; the sweet-bay, or swamp, magnolia, (M. virginiana #". is found along the coast as ar north as Massachusetts. It is a tall shrub, with fragrant flowers, the petals bein ick, and *. in hue. Its buds are often hawked on the streets of New York in June. M. grandiflora, a native of the south-eastern states, forms a stately tree, from 75 to 100 ft. high. It is an evereen with oval or lanceolate eaves. . The white flowers, in bloom from May to June, are often nearly a foot across, and have a pungent, fragrant odor. Several others, as the umbrella trees (M. tripetala and M. Fraseri and macrophylla), are cultivated, particularly for their enormous leaves, in the latter reaching 3} ft. in length. . Magnolia wood is soft and of little value, but the bark is bitter and has been used for fevers in the domestic medicine of the South. Magnus, kings of Norway, chief among whom were:–MAGNUs, ‘the Barefooted’ (1073–1103) reigned from 1093; incorporat the Hebrides and Orkneys, together with the Isle of Man, in 1102. He made a descent upon Ireland, but was slain in battle and buried at the cathedral o Down.—MAGNUs, the Lawgiver” (1238–80), crowned at Bergen in 1261. esides the Norwegian codes, he compiled the code called Jarnsida for Iceland (1271– 2). . Under him the crown was declared to be hereditary and the realm indivisible. He restored the Hebrides to Scotland in return for an annual tribute. He was a friend to the clergy, and granted to the Hanseatic League privileges injurious to the commerce, of his country. Magnus, or MAGNI, OLAUS so Swedish historian, rn at Linköping; was made archbishop of Upsala, succeeding his brother Johannes. He was the author of Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (1555). Magnusson, ARNI, or ARNE (1663–1730), Icelandic historian and archaeologist, born in W. Iceland; became professor of history and Danish anti uity in the University of Copenhagen. Author of Incerti auctoris Chronica Danorum et praecipue Islandia (1695) and Testamentum Magni-Regis Norwegia |. He made a notable collection of Icelandic manuscripts—which now bear his name and are the property of the university library.

Magnusson

Magnusson, or MAGNUssFN, FINNUR (1781–1847), Icelandic archaeologist, born at Skalholt, Iceland; ame professor at the University of Copenhagen (1815). He wrote a work, on the Elder Edda (1828) and Prisca Veterum flour. Mythologia Lexicon 1828). Mago, Carthaginian soldier, the youngest son of Hamilcar Barca, and brother of Hannibal. At the battle of the Trebia, in 218 he commanded the ambush troops whose attack decided the victory, and at Cannae he shared with Hannibal the command of the main Carthaginian force. Soon afterwards he was sent to Spain. Then for several years he carried on a war against the Romans, with his brother Hasdrubal and Hasdrubal's son Gisco. His decisive defeat occurred in 206 B.C. In the next year he invaded Liguria, in the north of Italy, and caused the Romans some trouble for two years; but the Roman invasion of Africa caused the Carthaginians to recall him, and he died on the way home. Magoffin, BERIAH (1815–85), American politician, born at Harrodsburg, Ky. He graduated at Centre College (now Central University), Ky., in 1835, and at the law department of Transylvania University (now Kentucky, University), in 1838. He practised law at Jackson, Miss., in 1839, but soon returned to Ky., and was elected to the state senate in 1850. In 1859 he was elected overnor for a four-year term. §. a Confederate sympathizer, he attempted to maintain the neutrality of the state and refused to obey Lincoln's first call for troops and , also a demand from the Confederacy. He also demanded that neither side should send troops within the state. Worn out by his contest with an un#no, legislature, he resigned in August, 1862. Magog. See Gog AND MAGOG. Magog, vil., Stanstead co., ood. 18 m. S.W. of Sherbrooke, at the N. end of Lake Memphremagog, on the Can. Moog op. (1901) 3,516. Magoon, , CHARLEs E. (1861), American lawyer and public official, born in Minn. e was educated at the University of Nebraska, and was admitted to the bar in 1882. He served as judge advocate, of the Nebraska §§n. Guard; as law officer of the Bureau of Insular Affairs of the War Department in 1899– 1904; as general, counsel to the Isthmian Canal Commission, and as a member of that body in 1904– 05, when he was appointed governor of the Canal Zone and then American minister to Panama. He was serving in this latter office

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the male the black feathers are too glossed with green and violet and set off by §: white abdomen and shoulder-patch. In a full-grown male, measurin about eighteen inches in to length, the long tail feathers may be eleven inches long. The nest is made of thorny sticks, mingled with roots and turf, and lined with

do variety of this species is numerous throughout the Rocky Mountain region, and noted for its."garrulous gabble' and spluttering whistle. In the valleys of the California coast dwells a second Ro: the yellow-billed (Pica Nuttalli). Mag rath, WILLIAM (1838), American landscape and figure painter, born in É.i. Ireland, who came to the United States in 1855. He was elected to the National Academy of Design of New York in 1876. He excelled in *::::: figures, usually a farmer or milkmaid. Among his bestknown works are: e Road to Kenmair (1871); The Reveille (1873); Rustic Gouriship iso, and . On the Old Sod (1879), in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York city. Magruder, John BANKHEAD (1810–71), American soldier, born at Winchester, Va., He graduated at West Point in is35 and was assigned to the Seventh Infantry, but was transferred to the artillery the next year. . With the exception of service in the Florida War in 1837–38 and on the Canadian border in 1838–40, he was in garrison and on recruiting duty until the Mexican War. He served under both Gen. Taylor and Gen. Scott, became captain, June, 1846, and was brevetted major for gallantry at Cerro Gordo and lieutenant-colonel for his conduct at Chapultepec. He joined the Confederate army as colonel, and after the skirmish at Big Bethel was promoted brigadier-general in June, 1861, and major-general in October. Dur

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ing the Peninsular §§ the skilful use of his small force delayed the whole Federal army. He gistinguished himself during the Seven Days' Battles, particularly at Malver: Hill, and was then assigned to command the TransMississippi Department. His territory was, however, reduced to Texas., Qn, Jan. 1, 1863, he recaptured Galveston, took the Harriet. Lane, dispersed the blockading squadron, and kept the port open to the end of the war. He then , served under Maximilian ğ9 in Mexico until his downfall.

M a gru d e r , JULIA (1845), American author, born in Char. lottesville, Va., and educated at home. Her books, which in the romantic stories show, a lively imagination and a §to style, are: . A cross i Chasm 1885); A Magnificent Plebeian 1887); The Princess Sonia (1895); hild Sketches from George Eliot (1896); The Violet; #."Selves; and "The Thousanāth Woman (1905).

Maguey. See AGAVE. Magyars (properly HUNAGARs, HUNGARIANs), Finno-Ugrian or Finno-Turki people, who about 550 A.D. moved from the Ural region to the Volga, and after a long sojourn on the Russian jo were driven w. by the kindred Khazars. Under their king, Arpád, the united HunagarMagyar nation obtained a permanent footing in the basin of the Middle Danube before the close of the 9th century. The bulk of the population have “ol. features, s *} figures, black hair. and eyes, dark complexion, medium stature, quick, impulsive temperament, and intense patriotic feeling. The Magyar lanfloo is steadily encroac ing on the surrounding German, Slav, and Roumanian languages, the people of Magyar speech having increased from 8,436,000 in 1890 to 9,954,000 in 1900, . See Vámbéry, “On , the Origin of the Magyars,” in Mitt. d. K. K. Geograph. Ges. (1897). Mahabaleshwar, a ridge of the W. Ghats, about 70 m. s.E. of Bombay, having an average altitude of 4,500 ft.; is the hotweather resort of the governor of ; The sanatorium was established in 1828. The village is of great sanctity in the eyes of Hindus, as the spot where the sacred Krishna has its source. Its average rainfall is 240 inches. Mahābálipur, vil., Chengalpat dist., Madras, India, 35 m. s. of Madras; has famous cave temples and rock sculptures. Mahābhārata, a sacred book of the Hindus, and the longest epic of the world; marks the period when Brahmanism, compelled to abandon its attitude

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Mahadeva

of haughty isolation and to recgo existence of thoughts and aspirations, other, than its own, held out its hands to folklore, demonology, and hero-worship. This was necessary to achieve its purpose of conquering southern India. Its authorship is ascribed to supernatural agency; but its redaction remains loose, fragmentary, and chaotic, and its story is smothered under didactic pronouncements, irrelevant di: gressions, vivid, descriptions of scenery, relieved here and there by flashes of lofty moral sentiment. Two brothers of the Lunar dynasty establish rival thrones in Bharata (N. India). Dhritarashtra, the elder, has one hundred sons, commonly known as the Kurus, who represent the powers of evil. The powers of d are represented by Pandu, §. younger brother's five sons, who have a common wife, Drauadi, the Helen of the song. hen the Pandu princes, in conflict with their foes, have lost all, they stake fraupadi, and, on the throw of the dice, she becomes the prize of their rivals. The god Krishna comes to the assist; ange of the outraged wife, and as her single garment is repeatedly torn from her the exultant , Kurus, Krishna clothes her with innumerable celestial robes. The wanderings and trials of the Pandus signify the temporary triumph of vice, until the victory of virtue is crowned by the renunciation by the Pandus of an earthly throne for a heavenly kingdom. new edition, comprising, Sanskrit text, with complete English and Hindi transla: tions, was begun at Moradabad

in 1902. There is an English rose translation by Protap handra Roy (1883, etc.). Con

sult, Frazer's Literary History of India (1898); Hopkin's Epic of India (1901). Mahadeva. See SIVA. Mahasry #. PENTLAND (1839), Irish historian, and for many years professor of ancient history at ublin University, born near Vevey, Switzerland. He has published Twelve Lectures on Primitive Civilization (1868); Greek Social Life from Homer to Menander (1874); Greek Antiquities (1876); Greek Life and %. from Alexander to the Roman Conquest (1887); Empire of the Ptolemies {:}; The Art g Conversation (1889); and An h in Irish History (1904). e edited an English edition of pany. Roman History (1883– 86). Mah an , , ALFRED THAYER (1840), American naval officer and historian, was born at West Point, N. Y. He was educated at the Naval Academy, where he graduated in 1859, and was in

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active service until 1886, when he became lecturer on history, and subsequently president, of the Naval War College, Newport. In 1896 he was retired from active service, but he was member of the Naval Advisory Board during the war with Spain. He represented the U. S. in the Peace Conference at The Hague in 1899. He has received the degree of LL.D. or D.C.L. from a number of institutions. In 1883 he published a volume on The Gulf and Inland Waters during the Civil War, but his great reputation was made later by his assuming a new standpoint in the study of history and politics and seeing vo clearly what it involved. his view was first presented publicly in The Influence of Sea Power upon. History 1660– 1783 (1890), and at once commanded general attention. He became at once an authority on the subject of world politics, past and present, and has so remained, although there have been considerable differences of opinion over the development of his principles. His other works arc The }}. of Admiral Farragut (1892), The Interest of the United States in Sea Power (1897), The Life of Nelson (1897), Lessons on the War with Spain (1899), Short History of the South African War (1900), The Problem of Asia (1900), Retrospect and Prospect (1902), Types of Naval Officers (1902), and Sea Power in its Relation to the War of 1812 (1905). Mahan, DENNIS HART (1802– 71), American military engineer, born in , New York city. He raduated at West Point first in is class in 1824, was assistant professor of mathematics in 1824– 26, and principal assistant professor of engineering in 1825–26. He studied in Europe in 1826–30, was acting professor of engineering in 1830–32, and professor, of .*# from 1832 until his death. The anticipation of his forced retirement so unsettled his mind that he sprang from a steamboat on the #. and was drowned. He taught during his service nearly all the officers of the army, and besides Fol. several textbooks which became standards. Among them were Field Fortifications (1837, 2d ed. 1868), with Permanent Fortifica: tions (1867); Course of Civil Enineering (1837, rewritten 1868); escriptive Geometr o etc. See biography in Cullum's Biog of; egister of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy, 3d ed. Mahan, MILo (1819–70), American clergyman, brother of D. H. Mahan, was born at Suffolk, Va., and received his education at St. Paul's College, Flushing, L.I. He was ordained a priest in the P. E. Church in 1845, and was

Mahdi

rector and assistant rector of churches , in Jersey City and Philadelphia until 1857, when he became professor of ecclesiastical history in the General Theological Seminary in New York city. After 1864 he was rector of St. Paul's, church, Baltimore. His §. al, work, History of the Church in the First Three Centuries (1860), was extended to cover seven centuries, and was republished, posthumously in 1872. See Hopkins's Memoir in Works (1872–5). . Mahanadi, or MAHANUDDY, riv., India, rises 25 m.s. of Rai: pur, in Central Provinces, and after a course of 520 m. falls into the Bay of Bengal by several mouths, about 120 m. s.w.. of the Ganges delta. Area of catchment basin, 52,500 sq. m. Mahanaim (Gen. 32:2, etc.) tn. in Gilead, Palestine,' stood apparently towards the s. (1 ings 4:14). *. having travelled along the plateau from Mizpeh, in N. Gilead, to . Mahanaim, recrossed the Jabbok, reis...} north before Esau, and descending to Succoth in the Jordan Valley, N. of the river. ..Mahanoy City, bor., Schuylkill co., Pa., 35 m. N.N.w. of Reading, on the Phil. and Read., the §§ Val., and the Schuylkill Val. br. of the Pa. R. R. It is the centre of an anthracite mining , district. The borough has a public library. It is supplied with fine mountain water. R ut 30 per cent. of the population are Slavs. Pop. (1900) 13,504; est. (1903) 14,170. Maharajah. See RAJA. Mahavansa, two books written in Pali, which purport to give a historical account of the island of Ceylon_previous to the 4th century. Pörtions were translated by George Turnour in 1837. Mahavira, the last of the twenty-four Arkat (Jain teachers) of the present age. Originally a deity, Mahavira is said to have voluntarily submitted to successive incarnations, in all of which he succeeded in winning immortality. . His holy life enabled him to work miracles. Mahdi (Arabic “the guided,’ who will therefore guide others), the expected Messiah of the Mohammedans, who will inaugurate a reign of truth and justice on earth. According to tradition his coming, was for old by Mohammed, though it is not mentioned in the Koran. Jewish, Christian, and Persian ideas doubtless developed the belief. It first manifested itself, among the followers of Ali after his tragic death. Persian Shia named Abdulla, who lived about the 10th century, and whose preaching was greatly influenced by the doctrines of Zoroaster, proclaimed the ad

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