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academies, many of which receive aid from the state b maintaining “standard’ courses of study. In 1905 there were in the state 207,284 persons between the ages of 5 and 21. Of these 132,448 were enrolled in the common schools, and 97,845 were in avere daily attendance. The length of the school year must be at least 100 days, and in 1905 averaged 139 days. . There were 6,658 teachers, of whom at least 5,800 were females. The average monthly pay was much lower than in other sections of the country, being for males, $38.32, and for females, $29,48; the total amount aid for teachers and janitors was 1,293,608. The total number of schools was 4,605, of which 2,613 were ungraded. The total school revenue for the year ending June 30, 1905, was $1,597,656, of which $984,856 came from town taxes, and $567,192 from the state. The number of free high schools receiving state aid was 239, with an average attendance of 11,462. The state provides for the instruction and training of teachers in normal schools located at Farmington, Castine, Gorham, and Presque_Isle, and in the Madawaska Training School at Fort Kent. In 1895 summer schools were begun; these were held one week annually, usually at three different points, when they were superseded by summer training schools for teachers, held at three or more places for terms of four to six weeks. Higher education is provided for at the University of Maine at Orono, and at the following denominational colleges: , Bowdoin (Conregational), at Brunswick; Bates § Baptist), at Lewiston; and olby (Baptist), at Waterville. Charities and Corrections. – Among the state charitable institutions are two asylums for the insane, located at Augusta and Bangor. By act of Congress of 1905, the national government transferred to the state of Maine the Arsenal property and Widows Island at Augusta, to be used by the hospitals for the , insane. Other institutions are the Military and Naval Orphan Asylum at Bath, the Maine School for the Deaf and the Eye and Ear Infirmary at Portland, the Maine General Hospitals at Portland, Lewiston, and Bangor, the Auusta City Hospital, the State §. for Boys at South Portland, and the Industrial School for Girls at Howell. In the state H. at Thomaston the able

odied prisoners are employed .

in the manufacture of carriages brooms, harness, furniture, an clothing. History.—The broken shore line and numerous rivers of the Maine coast furnished one of the

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earliest bases for European exlorations. Verrazano in 1524, Somez in 1525, John Walker, under, the command, of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in 1580, Gosnold in 1602, Pring in 1603, De Monts in 1604 and Weymouth in 1605, sailed along ão coast or made fruitless expeditions into the territory. John Smith in his expedition of 1614 explored region and left the more or less authentic ‘Description ... of New England’ as his contribution. Settlements were made in 1604 on Neutral Island in the St. Croix river, in 1607 at Sabino Point at the mouth of the Kennebec, on Mount Desert in 1608, and on Monhegan Island in 1623; but the first permanent settlement was at Pemaquid in 1625. Agamenticum (York) was settled at about the same time, and Saco, Biddeford, Port Elizabeth, Portland and Ścarborough followed in close succession after 1630. Various grants of land were made covering the territory .# or in part. The French king, Henry Iv., granted it to De Monts in 1603. It was a part of the grant iven to the Plymouth Company y James I. of England in ió06. In 1622 Gorges and Mason received from the Council for New England a grant of the land lying between the Kennebec and the Merrimac and , extending, sixty miles inland, which they divided so that Gorges received the poltion east of the Piscataqua. In 1639 Gorges received a large additional tract, was granted the title of Lord Palatine, and established a provincial government at York. Disputes soon arose as to the ownership of lands and Massachusetts, being calle in as arbitrator, laid claim to and annexed all the towns as far east as Casco, by the authority of its charter for all lands three miles north of the source of the Merrimac. . By 1660 Massachusetts had secured possession of all west of the Penobscot and retained it in spite of the grant made in 1664 to the Duke of York of all land between Pemaquid and the St. Croix. In 1677 Massachusetts bought out the remaining claims of the heirs of Gorges and was confirmed in her possession by the charter of 1691. The French, who held the land east of the Penobscot, incited the Indians against , the , English, causing an outbreak of the Tarentines in 1675, with the result that most of the coast towns east of Piscataqua were ravaged. In King William's War the Penacook Indians massacred the inhabitants of Cocheco, and took Pemaquid. From 1722 to 1725 the tribes of Nova Scotia and East Maine waged war against the colonists

..adopted Oct. 29,


and continued to harass them until peace was established b the treaty of Paris §6% During the Revolution, chusetts held the territory as the district of Maine, but in 1783 steps began to be taken toward separation. An added impulse was given to the movement in 1812, when Maine was left poorly defended, and was occupied by the English. The admission of Missouri into the Union, making necessary the admission of another Northern state, hastened the separation, and Maine became a member of the Union on March 15, 1820, its constitution having been 1819. Since its admission, the most important items of its '...}} have been the dispute and hostility between the inhabitants of Maine and New Brunswick over the north-east boundary line, finally determined by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842; the prohibition agitation, begun, in 1846, and leading to a prohibitory law in 1851, and a constitutional amendment in 1884; and the adoption of a form of the Australian ballot law in 1891. Politically, Maine was antiFederalist and Democratic until 1856, since when it has been continuously Rolio in national

elections. The same is true of, state poli. except for the failure of popular choice in

1878 and 1880, when the Democratic-Greenback candidates were chosen by the legislature. Maine, SIR HENRY JAMEs Suno (1822-ss), Scottish jurist and administrator, was born at Kelso. In 1847 he was P ointed regius professor of civi H. at Cambridge; but he soon went to London, and in 1852 was appointed reader in Roman law and jurisprudence in the Inns of Court. His great work on Ancient Law appeared in 1861. He was legal member of the Council of India (1862–9). After his return he was appointed corpus professor of jurisprudence at Oxford, and wrote #: Communities in the East and West (1871), The Early History of Institutions (1875), and Early Law and Custom (1883). In 1871 he became a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India, in 1877 he was elected to the o of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and in 1887 to the Whewell professorship of international law. His International Law was not published until after his death. His political book, Popular Government (1885), is not in his happiest vein. See .Sir Henry Maine §). by Grant Duff; Theories and Criticisms of Sir Henry Maine, y M. O. Evans (1896); and Oxford Lectures and other Discourses (1890), by Sir F. Pollock. Maine. UNIVERSITY OF. A Maine-et-Loire

State institution at Orono, Me., established in 1865 as the State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. The name was changed to the University of Maine in 1897. The University is organized in colleges of Arts and Sciences, Agriculture (agriculture, forestry, domestic science, and biology), Technology (chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering, chemistry, and pharmacy), and Law, and the Agricultural Experiment Station. Graduate work leading to the master's degree is given in various departments. A six-weeks' summer term is maintained. Extension work of various kinds is carried on by the College of Agriculture. From the land grant an endowment of $118,300 was realized; and a bequest of $100,000 was received in 1885 from former Governor Abner Coburn. The University is receiving annually, under Congressional acts, $50,000 for instruction and $30,000 for scientific investigation, and $100,000 from the State for general purposes (1909–12). Total State appropriations for its benefit have been over $1,250,000. In 1911 the students numbered 896, and the faculty 106; the library contained over 46,000 volumes. The buildings and equipmentare valued at $500,000. Robert J. Aley has been president since 1910. Maine-et-Loire, department in the northwest of France, formed from ancient Anjou. It is 2,812 sq. m. in area; consists mainly of low hills and plains, and is traversed from east to west by the broad valley of the navigable Loire, which is joined by the Maine. The soil is generally fertile, especially in the Loire Valley, and the country abounds in fine orchards and market gardens. Grain and live stock are important products, and flax and hemp are cultivated. There are extensive vineyards about Saumur; coal is mined in the Loire Valley; slate is quarried near Angers; and iron is mined at Sagré. Cotton, woollen, and linen goods, and wine and cider are manufactured. The capital is Angers. Pop. (1911) 508,149. Maine, U. S. Battleship. The a n ti-American feeling of the Spanish sympathizers in Havana was very strong for several years previous to the outbreak of the Spanish-American War (q.v.). For three years no American war vessel had visited the port. In the hope of establishing more friendly relations, the Maine was ordered to proceed there, and arrived on Jan. 25, 1898. She made fast to Buoy No. 4, near the Naval Sta

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tion, and remained at this buoy until blown up on the evening of Feb. 15, 1898, at 9.40 P.M. Two officers and 258 men were killed or died of their injuries shortly afterward. A Court of Inquiry was ordered by the Navy Department. After an investigation, and a careful examination of the hull by divers, the Court found that the destruction of the vessel was caused by the explosion of a large submarine mine underneath the bottom; and this, in turn, caused the partial explosion of two or more of the ship's forward magazines. The evidence was conclusive. One of the most decisive features of it was the fact that parts of the keel and bottom plating were bent upward until their ends were at or above the surface of the water. No explosion of a vessel's own magazines ever blew a hole in her bottom or sides below water. At the Battle of Santiago three Spanish ships were burned. In two of them, all their magazines exploded; and in one, all the after magazines. In no one of these ships was the hull below water ruptured or even perceptibly deformed, though the upper works were destroyed. These ships were similar in size and battery to the Maine, and carried similar quantities of the same sort of powder. The wreck lay in Havana Harbor until 1910, when Congress appropriated money for its removal. Concrete caissons were sunk about the wreck, forming a continuous wall. The water was pumped out and the wreck carefully examined. The conclusions of the Court of Inquiry were fully sustained, and additional proof obtained of their correctness. The bodies remaining in the wreck were removed, and the fragmentary parts of the wreck were from time to time taken to sea and sunk. Finally, on March 16, 1912, the after part of the wreck, forming about threefifths of the original ship, was towed out into deep water, under escort of the U. S. battleship North Carolina and scout Birmingham, and there sunk with her flag flying, the attendant ships firing minute-gun salutes. The dimensions of the Maine were: length over all, 324.3 feet; beam, 57 feet; mean draught, 21.5 feet; displacement, 6,650 tons. Her maximum speed was 17 knots, and her battery consisted of four 12-inch guns in two turrets, six 6-inch guns, seven 6-pounders, and twelve smaller pieces. She was built at the New York Navy Yard, and was completed and commissioned in 1895.


She had a complement of 26 officers and 328 men, and was commanded by Capt. C. D. Sigsbee (q.v.). Main land. ISLANDs. Mainland, Orkney Islands. See POMON.A. Mainotes, the inhabitants of the central districts of the Peloponnesus in Greece, now called Mani or Maina. They claim to be direct descendants of the ancient Spartans. They number over 40,000. Mainpuri, a district of the United Provinces, India, covering 1,675 sq. m. In general it is a level alluvial plain, broken only by the river channels; well wooded in parts, but with many large stretches of barren lands. There are several shallow lakes and marshes. Pop. 840,000. Mainpuri, town, capital of the Mainpuri district, United Provinces, India, on the south side of the Isan, 83 m. southwest of Bareilly. It is on a recently completed branch of the East India Railway from Shikohabad. The town is very ancient. It is noted for its carved wood and brass wire. Maintenance, the common-law offence of maintaining a party in litigation in which the offender is not personally interested. It generally consists in providing money for the prosecution of law suits. A contract for maintenance is void, and the offence is punishable by fine and imprisonment, and is a cause of action for damages. The form of maintenance practised by lawyers in taking causes on a contingent fee has generally been legalized in the United States. See CHAMPERTY. Maintenance, Cap of, in heraldry, a symbol of dignity at first confined to the arms of princes and dukes, but at a comparatively early period used by other branches of the nobility. In the achievement it is usually placed to support the crests. Ma in ten on , FRANÇoise D'AUBIGNé, MADAME DE (1635– 1719), second wife of Louis xiv. Left friendless by the death of her mother in 1650, she accepted marriage with Scarron, poet and wit (1651). As his wife she met all literary Paris. After Scar


ron's death she was installed

by Madame de Montespan as governess of her children by Louis xiv. Wholly successful in winning the affection and respect both of the children and their father, she was made Marquise de Maintenon (1673), and after the death of the queen (1683) was married secretly to Louis, probably in December, 1684.

pyright, 1911, by Underwood & Underwood.

As It Appeared in July, 1911, After the Water Had Been Pumped Out from Inside the Cofferdam.

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Her influence with him in political matters has probably been overestimated, and she had little to do with the unfortunate half of Louis' reign (1685–1715), when persecution was rife. She found her greatest pleasure in the school of St. Cyr, which she founded for three hundred poor girls. Her Lettres (ed. Lavallée, 12 vols., 1854) are accounted among the best French prose works of the seventeenth century. Consult Dyson's Madame de Maintenon (1910). Mainz (French Mayence), fortified city, grand-duchy of Hesse, Germany, on the Rhine, opposite the mouth of the River Main. It is one of the important fortresses of Germany, and one of the chief commercial centres on the Rhine, carrying on a brisk shipping (mainly transit) trade with Holland and Belgium. Its principal exports are leather goods, furniture, and wine; while lithographic and other printing, and the manufacture of chemicals, cars, and musical instruments are flourishing industries. The older portion of the city has narrow streets and quaint Gothic buildings. The newer section is distinctly modern. The picturesque Cathedral dates back to 978, though it was practically rebuilt in the twelfth to the fourteenth century. The old Castle of the electors, built in 1627–78, contains rich collections of Roman and Germanic antiquities, and the Gutenberg Museum. Mainz was founded by Drusus, 13 B.C., as Maguntiacum. The town's political importance dates from 747, when it was made an archbishopric. It was a large city as early as the tenth century, and became autonomous about 1250; but in the fifteenth century the archbishops again gained the temporal power. It was ceded to France in 1801 by the Peace of Lunéville, but was retaken in 1814, and incorporated with the grand-duchy of Hesse in 1816. Mainz is connected by a bridge with the strongly fortified town of Kastel (the Castellum Mattiacorum of the Romans), on the right bank of the Rhine. There are many remains of the Roman period in the neighborhood, notably the pillars of the great aqueduct. Gutenberg, the inventor of movable type for printing, was born here. Pop. (1910) 1.10,634. Maiorescu, TITU (1840), Roumanian statesman and author, was born in Craiova. After years of study at Vienna, Berlin, and Paris, he became (1862) professor of philosophy, first at Jassy and afterward at Bucharest. He has exercised an epochmaking influence on recent Rou

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manian literature, both personally and by his essays—Critice (2 vols., 1892). He is an eloquent speaker, and has several times been minister of public instruction, when he endeavored to organize education in Roumania on the Prussian plan. His works include Poesia Rumana (1867); Observari Polemice (1869); Despre Scrierea Limbei Romane (1874); Logica (1886); Chestia Ovreilor (1888). Ma is on n e u v e, PAUL DE CHOMEDEY, SIEUR DE (?–1676), French governor of Canada, was born in Champagne, France. After serving for a time in the French army, he formed the Associates of Montreal, and with four women and forty men reached Quebec in 1641, with the intention of establishing a religious colony. In 1642 he founded Montreal, and was its governor for twenty-two years. Trouble between Montreal and the Quebec government led to his return to France, where he died. M a 1 s tre, Joseph MARIE, Count DE (1754–1821), French diplomatist and philosophical writer, was born in Chambéry, Savoy. Following the conquest of Savoy by the French, he quitted the country for Sardinia; subsequently went to Turin, and from there to St. Petersburg as ambassador (1803). In 1817 he returned to Turin, and died there. De Maistre occupied a prominent position in his day as a philosophical writer. All his works are tinged with high political considerations, involving complete papal supremacy and the adoption of the principles and tenets of theocracy. He wrote Considérations sur la France (1796); Essai sur le Principe Générateur des Constitutions Politiques (1810); Du Pape (1819); De l'Eglise Gallicane (1821), and other treatises. Consult Morley's Critical Miscellanies. Maistre, XAvieR DE (1763– 1852), soldier and littérateur, brother of Joseph de Maistre (q.v.), was born in Chambéry, Savoy. When the French subdued Savoy he went to St. Petersburg, and died in that capital. His literary works include Voyage autour de ma Chambre (1794), of striking originality, which had a sequel in the Expédition Nocturne autour de ma Chambre (1825); Les Lépreux de la Cité d'Aoste (1817); La Jeune Sibérienne (1815); Les Prisonniers du Caucase (1815), his most celebrated story. Maisur. See MYSORE. Maitland, town, Northumberland county, New South Wales, Australia, on Hunter River, 14 m. northwest of Newcastle. It


is on the Great Northern Railway, and was the western terminus of the first railway built in Australia (1855). Walles Creek, which empties here, divides the town into East and West sections. The country grows grain principally, and some sub-tropical fruit and tobacco. Coal and kerosene shale are mined in the vicinity. Pop. (1909) # 1,900, about 8,000 in West Maitland. Maitland, SIR FREDERICK LEwis (1777–1839), British ad-" miral, was born in Rankielour, Fifeshire. He took part in Lord Howe's victory of June, 1794, and was employed in the Egyptian expedition of 1801. In 1815,

when in command of the Belle

rophon, he received the surrender of Bonaparte, who tried unsuccessfully to obtain permission from Maitland to sail for the United States. Consult his Surrender of Napoleon (1904). Maitland, SIR John, Lord MAITLAND OF THIRLEstane (?1545–93), Scottish statesman, brother of William Maitland (q.v.), was made lord privy seal in 1567, and a spiritual lord of session in 1568. Being with his brother in Edinburgh Castle on its surrender, he was sent a prisoner to Tantallon, and did not obtain full liberty until Morton's resignation of the regency in 1578. He took an active part in Morton's final overthrow, and after the latter's execution in 1581 won the confidence of the king, and exercised a supreme influence in the king's counsels. In 1587 he was made lord high chancellor. Some of his Latin verses are included in Delicia: Poetarum Scotorum (1637). Consult Skelton's Life. Maitland, Sir Richard, LORD LETHINGTON (1496–1586), Scottish lawyer and poet, was ordinary lord of session (1561–84), and keeper of the great seal (1562–67). He made a famous collection of Scottish poetry. His own verses, chiefly satirical pieces, were printed by the Maitland Club in 1830. His History of the House of Seaton appeared in the same year. Maitland, William (?1528– 73), known as Secretary Lethington, Scottish statesman, eldest son of Sir Richard Maitland (q.v.), entered the service of the queen-regent, who employed him on diplomatic missions. But joining the Lords in 1559, he had much to do with the supremacy of Protestantism in Scotland. When Mary Stuart returned to Scotland, Maitland was retained as one of her chief political advisers, holding the office of secretary. To reconcile Mary to Protestantism he did all that he could to bridle the pretensions of


Knox. When Bothwell won the ascendency over Mary, Maitland again joined the Lords, who shortly afterward sent Mary to Loch Leven. On the failure of the Norfolk marriage scheme, which he endeavored to promote, he definitely separated himself from Mary's opponents. This led to his being formally accused of connection with the Darnley murder; but having been rescued by Kirkaldy of Grange and lodged in the castle of Edinburgh, he was by the nobles ‘purged of privitie to the murder of the king or regent,' and set at liberty. After a vain attempt to reconcile the two factions, he, on April 1, 1571, joined Kirkaldy of

Grange, who was holding Edin

burgh Castle for the queen. On its capture he was sentenced to execution, but died while in prison in Leith. Maize. See CoRN. Maize Beer is used in many parts of South America. The native women chew maize, and eject the mass into a large calabash. It is then diluted with water and allowed to ferment spontaneously. This beverage has a powerful effect on those who indulge in it. Majesty. See SOVEREIGNTY. Majolica, a term applied by Italian potters originally to en a melled and lustred ware, though now it is made to include also enamelled ware that is not lustred, and various imitations. The enamel is specifically tin dioxide. Tradition says that this type of pottery was introduced into Italy by the Pisans from the island of Majorca in the twelfth century. They had, however, made enamelled pottery long before that; but in the fifteenth century they appear to have learned, or discovered independently, the secret of the lustre of tin enamel. The classic period of the specifically Italian majolica covers the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; the principal seats of its manufacture were Forli, Faenza, Pesaro, Urbino, Gubbio, and Castel Durante; and among the more famous masters of the art were Giorgio Andreoli (work dated 1517–37) of Gubbio, and F. X. Avelli, Guido Fontana, and Niccolo da Urbino, at Urbino and Castel Durante. Much of this ware was highly decorated and painted in blue, ruby, yellow, ‘silver,’ ‘gold,' and other colors, which were put on sometimes before, sometimes after, the firing. The white enamel was composed of thirty parts of powdered glass mixed with twelve parts of tin dioxide. Majolica continued to be made in Italy during the seventeenth

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ron of cavalry. The grade also

exists in the various staff departments. Majors of coast artillery are generally fire commanders, and frequently post commanders also. Each regiment of U. S. infantry and cavalry has three majors, one to each battalion or squadron. Majors in the Philippine scouts are captains of the regular army with the temporary rank of major while serving in the scouts. The grade also exists, with similar duties and responsibilities, in the U. S. Marine Corps. In the British army, the major takes the place of the lieutenantcolonel, upon whom devolves the actual command of a regiment, the colonel usually occupying an honorary position. In European armies generally, the major commands a battalion under the orders of the regimental commander, who may be either a colonel or lieutenant-colonel. See RANK AND COMMAND. Major. CHARLEs (‘Edwin CASKODEN ') (1856), American novelist and lawyer, was born in Indianapolis, Ind. When thirteen years of age his parents removed to Shelbyville, where he was educated. He was graduated from the University of Michigan in 1875, and was admitted to the bar in 1877. He was a member of the Indiana legislature in 1885–6. He has devoted himself largely to writing stories that have proved very popular. Among them are: When Knighthood Was in Flower (1898); Bears of Blue River (1901); Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall (1902); A Forest Hearth (1903); Yolanda, Maid of Burgundy (1905); Uncle Tom Andy Bill (1907); A Gentle Knight of Old

Brandenburg (1908); The Little
King (1910).
Majorca (Spanish Mallorca),

the largest of the Balearic Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea, 115 m. southeast of Barcelona, It extends 60 m. from east to west by 45 m. from north to south; area, 1,310 sq. m. The coast line is indented with large bays, affording fine natural har


bors. The land on the west and north, opposite the mainland of Spain, is mountainous, culminating in Mount Torellas (5,154 feet). There are many mineral and saline springs. Coal, iron, lead, and mercury are found; also an abundance of agates, alabaster, jasper, and rock crystal. The clim a te is oppressive during most of the year, owing to the great dampness of the air; but the island is fairly healthy, especially since the drainage of the great Albufera morass at Alcudia in the north. The soil is very rich, and the Fo pursuit is agriculture. arge quantities of grain are produced, and tropical and subtropical fruits flourish. The principal exports are brandy and wines, oil, almonds, dried figs, apricot pulp, confectionery, boots and shoes, and textiles of wool. linen, and silk. There are also manufactures of pottery and glass, and silver purses. In 1910 the wine product amounted to 662,500 gallons. There is a railway connecting Puebla and Manacor with Palma, the capital city and chief port. There is weekly steamship service between Palma and Marseilles, and also with Algiers. The race is much mixed, with Greek, Celtic, Carthaginian, and Provençal strains. There are many Celtic remains. The language spoken is Catalan, and is F. than on the Spanish mainand, where it has been affected by the Castilian. The Moorish kingdom of Mallorca was conquered by Jaime of Aragon (1282), and in 1343 incorporated in Aragon. Pop. (est. 1911) 275,000. Consult D'Este's With a Camera in Majorca (1907). Major-General, a military rank next below that of lieutenantgeneral, and above that of brigadier-general. In the U. S. Army the major-general commands a division; in the British Army he commands a brigade. See RANK AND COMMAND. Majority, the period when the legal disabilities peculiar to infancy or minority cease; or, to employ the popular phrase, the period when a minor becomes ‘of age.' This is at the age of 21 years in most of the United States; although in a few, females attain their majority at the age of 18 years. See AGE. Majuba Hill, height of the Drakenberg Range, Natal province, United South Africa. It is noted for the defeat of the British by the Boers on Feb. 27, 1881, Gen. Sir. George Colley being killed in the action. -Majunga, or properly Mö.

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