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Kadija

Kadija. Kaempeviser. -Literature. Kaempferia, a genus of perennial tropical plants o to the order Scitaminaceae. A the species are natives of Africa or Asia, and have mostly fleshy roots. Kaf, a mythical mountain range supposed by the Mohammedans to encircle the world, and to be the home of the giants, jinns, and fairies. Kaffa. (1.) Or Gomar A, trib. state of Abyssinia, in the Galla country, 7° N. and 36° 30' E. Exports coffee to Mocha. Some of the natives profess a corrupt Christianity. he chief town is Bonga. (2.) See THEoposia. Kashr Bread, the pith of the young shoots of various species Encephalartos, or bread-tree,...S. African cycads with short cylindrical trunks and terminal crowns of coriaceous leaves. They are eaten by the natives. Kaffir Corn. See DURRA. Kaffirs (properly spelled KAFIRs; formerly "CAFFREs) are the redominant native people of S. Roo. between the Zambezi R. and the Cape. The term Kaffir is an Arabic word for “infidel,’ and gives its name to Kafiristan (N.W. India) as well as to Kaffraria (S.E., Africa). But although thus derived, this name is now specially applied by Europeans to the Bantus of S. Africa. It is somewhat elastic in its application, however. The Bechuanas, for example, do not strictly belong to §. Kaffir group—a distinction verbaily recognized by statisticians, even while they include Kaffirs and Bechuanas in one classification. Nevertheless, the latter are colloquially spoken of as Kaffirs. The Basutos, also and the Mashonas, although of Bantu stock, are differentiated from the true Kaffirs, whose no: blest characteristics are typified by the Zulus. It need scarcely be added that on no occasion is the term Kaffir ever applied to the aboriginal Vaalpens, Bushmen, and Hottentots, the former lords of the soil until the conuering Kaffirs came down upon them from the north and reduced the surviving remnant to subjection. The #. uniting the various Kaffir nations is mainly one of language. ... They are a mixed people, in all cases of negroid type, but often showing, a i. infusion of Arab or Galla bl especially, in , the families of chiefs. This intermixture is assigned to times long antecedent to their advent in the region s. of the Zambezi. Dr. Latham regarded the Kaffir, area as extending from the Cape, to the equator, and even beyond. The name Kaffraria, however, is

See MoHAMMED.
See DENMARK

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now restricted to the littoral between the Kei R. and Natal, although formerly it included all the territory between the Great Fish, R.; and Delagoa Bay. Little by , little Kaffraria became absorbed by the Dutch and the British, until it has become geographical expression. Natal was carved out of it in 1830–40; British Kaffraria was oined to Cape Colony in 1865; ondoland was annexed in 1894: and in 1897 Zululand was unute to Natal. During the long and arduous struggles, between , the colonists (often with the aid of British regulars) and the Kaffirs, the fiercest and most successful opposition came from the Zulu tribes, who, under the successive military autocracies of Tchaka, Penda, and Cetywayo, had been welded into a magnificent and almost invincible military organization. Dingaan, Langalibalele, Moshesh, Lobengula, and Khama were also notable native rulers. To-day the Kaffirs are all subject, directly or indirectly, to British rule. In Cape Colony, Natal, Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal they are more or less Europeanized, and work in the mines, in the construction of roads and railways, as farm laborers, and as domestic servants. The governor of Natal is empowered to call upon the chiefs to provide men (under pain of fine or imprisonment) for public works, the laborers receiving suitable wages, Labor is not compulsory in Cape Colony, but a yearly tax of $2.40 is levied on every male native unable to show a certificate of three months' work. On proving certain qualifications, Kaffirs in Cape Colony and Natal may receive certificates of citizenship and become voters. In Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland the native monarchies are preserved free of white control, beyond a reasonable supervision exercised by resident commissioners, order being maintained by native police under British officers. There are, moreover, numerous . ‘locations,' or “reserves,' throughout the other South African provinces, within whose limits the tribal life is continued; and even those Kaffirs who live on the estates of colonials are still poly under the authority of their chiefs. Each hut throughout British S. Africa pays a yearly tax to government, varying from $2.40 to $5.00; and revenue duties are also laid on Kaffir beads, picks, hoes, blankets, shawls, and unmanufac. tured tobacco. Otherwise, the native organization, in these semiindependent territories, is intact. The king or chief is supreme, although guided to some extent by his prime minister and sub-chiefs.

Kafiristan

He administers justice ‘in the gate,’ and decides in all cases of murder, wounds, adultery, quarrels, with foreigners, and theft denied. ... Kashrs do not receive their full status as “men’ until they marry—an event sometimes postponed for years by the auto

cratic Zulu kings, for military reasons. Polygamy , is practised by all who can afford to buy more

than one wife. In a polygamous household the wives are usually divided into three groups—the houses folio oft the “great' wife, of the ‘right-hand’ wife, and of the ‘left-hand’ wife. New accessions are relegated to one or other of these houses. Generally the wife first married is the #. wife. In the case of the blood-royal, however, the heirapparent may have had many wives before his father's accession; but none of these can be the ‘great wife,' as the next heir to the throne must be born “in the purple.’ Marriage between blood relations is strictly forbidden. Women may own property, but cannot inherit. Agriculture is the work of the women, who cultivate small plots of fertile soil. Their crops are o (Kaffir corn), maize, pumpkins, melons, and “sweet-reed.’ rom the first of these Kaffir beer is brewed. The Kaffir year is divided into three seasons: “Green Heads’ (the time of sprouting corn), Kindness’ o and “Cutting’ (harvest). Kafurs are great owners of flocks and herds, cattle constituting their currency. Their arts include wood-carving, mould# pottery, and iron-smelting; Their garments, often dispensed with, are skins or European blankets—a leopard's skin denoting a chief. Weapons: assegais, shields, and knobkerries (clubs). Religion: various forms of witchcraft, with, in some cases a modified worship of the sacred ox (ixaka). The Kaffirs bury their dead in a sitting posture: Under the peaceful conditions of recent years the Kaffirs have jo, increased in number, there being approximately over 610,000 in Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland, 837,000 in Natal, and 700,000 in the Transvaal. See. The Natives of South Africa, ed. by the S. African Native Races Committee (1901); Theal’s History of South #. 1888–93); Statham’s Blacks, Boers, and British (1882); Widdicombe's Fourteen Years in Basutoland (1892); and, Hepburn's Twenty Years in Khama's Country (1895). Kafiristan (kafir, a Mohammedan word for an “infidel’) is the territory on the s. slope of the Hindu-Kush, between Afghanistan and Kashmir. Spurs from the Hindu-Kush spread over the whole

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KAFFIR TYPES AND NATIVE ORNAMENTS, WITH VIEW OF ZULU KRAAL. (Photo by H. P. Edwards.)

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Kaftan

country, which is watered by tributaries 6; the rivers indus and Kabul. The inhabitants, pastoral tribes called Siahposh, are backward in civilization, and practise Fo Th; were subdued y the Ameer of Afghanistan, in 1895, Mohammedanism being then forced upon them. The country is of strategic importance as an outpost of the Indian frontier, owing to its command of the passes of the Hindu-Kush. Area, about 5,000 sq. m. Pop. c. 150,000. See G. S. Robertson's Kajirs of the Hindu-Kush (1896). Kaftan, JULIUS (1848), German theologian, was born at Apenrade in §§ -Holstein. Called to a professorship, at Basel in 1881, two years later he succeeded Dorner at Berlin. His principal works are, Das, Wesen der...christlichén Religion (1881); Die Wahrheit der

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arms, cottons, and cigarettes. It was bombarded % the British on Aug. 15, 1863. he town was the head of the Satsuma rebellion in 1877. Pop., (1904) 59,001. Kagu (Rhinochetus jubatus), a curious bird found ins; in New Caledonia, and though generally resembling a heron, apparently most nearly allied to the cranes. It is rather bigger than the common fowl, with a powerful heronlike bill, and nostrils overhung }. a roll-up membrane. The plumage is of a slaty-gray color, and there is a long pendent crest on the head; the É. and feet are orange red. The bird is now rare; it seems to be nocturnal, and feeds on worms, molluscs, and insects. Kahlur. See BILASPUR. Kai-feng-fu, cap. of prov. Honan, China, 10 m. S. of Yellow

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christlichen Religion (1884; trans. 1895); Dogmatik (1897). In general, Kaftan is an adherent of the so-called school of Ritschl, and his Dogmatik is the best and most complete systematic treatise that has issued from that party. See Lichtenberger's Hist. of German Theol. in 19th Cent. (trans. and ed., by W. Hastie, 1889), 585 f.; and officiderer's bie Ritschische Theologie, pp. 100-122. Kaga, or KASHIU. See KANAZAWA. Kagera, or ALEXANDER NILE, head-water of the Nile, consist of two head-feeders, the Akanyaru and the Nyavalongo, and enters the Victoria Nyanza on the w: about 1° S. of the equator. Kagoshima, th:, Japan, 88 m. S.E. o Najiki, on s. E. shore of Kiusiu I., in prov. of Satsuma, of which it is, the capital. It manufactures Satsuma faience,

R., enclosed in massive walls, and a place of busy trade. Under its andient name, Pien-liang, was capital of the Sung dynasty (960– 1126 A.D.). A Jewish community has existed here since 1183 A.D. Pop. about 100,000.

Kailas, or GANGRI, peak (21,810 ft.) of the Himalayas in W. Tibet; is looked upon by the Hindus as sacred; stands N.w.of Lake Manasarowar, and gives rise to the Indus, Sutlej, and Brahmaputra rivers.

Kain, John Joseph (1841– 1903), American R. C. Koo. was born at Martinsburg, W. Va., and after courses at St. Charles seminary and at St. Mary's college, Baltimore, was ordained a priest, 1866. With headquarters at Harper's Ferry, he was for several years in charge of , the Roman Catholics living in eight counties of W. Va., and four of Va., during

Kaiser Wilhelm Canal

which period he restored or rebuilt several churches damaged during the Civil War. He was consecrated bishop of Wheeling, 1875, and coadjutor archbishop of St. Louis, 1893, succeeding Archbishop Kenrick in 1896. Kain ite, a mineral composed of magnesium sulphate and potassium chloride, found at Stassfurt, §o. It occurs as a o to yellow granular mass, and is a vasuable source of potas. sium salts. Kaipara Harbor, inlet, w. coast of North I., N. Z.; the outlet for the kauri pine industry. Kaiping, th:, China, prov. Pechili, 75 m. N.E. of Tientsin; with coal mines (at Tang-shan and Lin-si), iron mines, and cement works. . Kaira, munic, th; and ancient city, Kaira dist., Gujarat, Bombay, India, 22 m. s. by E. of Ahmadabad. It is surrounded by walls, and has a richly decorated Jain temple. Pop. (1901), 10,392. Kairana, munic. th:, Muzaffa. dist., United Provinces, India. Pop. (1901) 19,304. Kairwan, decayed tn., “the Mecca of N. Africa,’ Tunis, 80 m. S. of Tunis; is surrounded by walls, and contains a citadel and magnificent mosques, the principal of which is that of Okba, who founded the city in 669. The chief industries are the making of copper vessels, potash, saltpetre, morocco leather, and carpets. Pop. (1896) 26,000. Kaisarieh (anc. Caesarea), th:, vilayet of Angora, Asiatic Turkey, 160 m. S.E. of Angora. Greek and Roman Catholic bishops and

an Armenian archbishop have

their seats in the town. Pop. c. 72,000. See CesAREA. Kaiser, the Teutonic equivalent for Caesar, commonly used in speaking of the emperors of Germany. It is also sometimes used of the emperors of Austria. Kaiserfahrt, the navigable channel of the mouth of the Oder, Prussia, about 3 m. long connecting the "Stettiner Haft with the Swine R. Kaiserslautern, th:, Bavaria, prov. Palatinate on the Lauter, 42 m. by rail w. of Mannheim, with manufacture of cottons, woollens, furniture, sewing-machines, tobacco, iron and steel, beer, and bricks, also railway works and sawmills. Near here, in 1793 and 1794, the French suffered three defeats by the Prussians. Pop. (1900) 48,310. Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, also known as the North so Baltic Canal, in Schleswig-Holstein, is 61 m. long, and extends from near Brunsbüttel on the Elbe to Holtenau on Kiel Bay. Breadth, at bottom, 72 ft.; at surface, 219 ft.; depth, 29% ft. The passage occupies from eight to ten hours, and Kaiser Wilhelm’s LandKale-i-Sultanieh

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the saving is 200 m. on the Kattegat passage. , Begun in June, 1887, it was opened in June, 1895. Kaiser Wilhelm’s Land, the N. part of German New Guinea (Papua), was declared a German protectorate in 1884. Area, 70,000 sq. m. The surface generally is mountainous. The chief productions are areca, sago, and cocoa palms, bamboos, ebony, cotton, coffee, and tobacco. The natives trade in copra and motherof-pearl. Seat of government, Herbertshöhe in Bismarck Archipelago. Pop. (1902) 110,000. Kaisong, or SoNG-Do, th:, Korea, 35 m, N.N.w.. of Seoul, was the capital from 910 to 1392. ... It manufactures ginseng and oiled paper. Pop. 60.000. kaithal, ancient th- and munic. in Karnal dist., Punjab, India, 50 m. s.w.. by s. of Ambala; traditionally connected with Handmán, the monkey-god. It manufactures saltpetre and lac ornaments and toys. Pop. (1901) 14,408. Kaka, a large brown parrot of New Zealand representing , a group (Nestorinae) of South Sea É. with elongated beaks, rush-tipped tongues, and other features adapting them to forest life and a diet of grubs dug from decaying wood, juicy fruits, and nectar brushed from flowers. Most of the species are handsome, and all are conspicuous and easily seen and killed, so that they have becomescarce, and in some islands whole species have been extirpated. An exception to this disappearance is the too-numerous sheep-wounding species of the South #. of New Zealand, kalled kea (Nestor notabilis), which, by its habit of feeding upon the offal of slaughter-houses, and its custom of alighting, on the backs of sheep to pick the ticks from their wool, has acquired a taste for flesh and the habit of tearing open the skin of sheep, and devouring the fat about their kidneys, thus causing serious losses to flocks. This is one of the most extraordinary develo ments of new habits in animals which natural history can show. Consult Evans, Birds (1900). Kakapo (Stringops habropti: lus), an aberrant parrot found in wooded regions in New Zealand, and now becoming rare. Its powers of flight, are exceedingly limited, and it is hunted by the natives on foot with dogs. It is nocturnal in habits, and feeds on moss, seeds, berries and so on." it "climbs' well and walks swiftly. No nest is built, and the eggs are laid in burrows. T. upper part of the body is green, with yellow and brown markings, the lower of a yellowish tint. The plumage is soft and owl-like, as is also the

the city. Pop. (1904)29,782.

55 ño. The bill is very poweru

Kakodyle. See CACODYL. Kalahandi, or KAROND, feudato state, Central Provinces, India. Area, 3,745 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 350,529. Kalahari, a large basin or depression of the South African plateau, reaching from Cape Colony to the Zambezi, probably 400 m. from E. to w., and 600 from N. to s. Its general elevation is from 3,500 to 5,000 ft. Livingstone's Lake Ngami is the last remnant of the once numerous salt-pans. The water-courses are mostly periodic. Copious rains fall in the interior from August, to April, and produce coobi: vegetation of thorny trees and shrubs: The hot winds of the Kalahari have a great effect upon the climate oft S. Africa. Estimated are, 350,000 sq. m., with a population of some 50,000. Kalahasti, or KALASTRI, th: in N. Arcot dist, Madras, India, 52 m. s.w.. by w. of Nellore. Pop. (1901) 11,992. Kalamata, or KALAMAI, seapt., cap., nomarchy of Messenia Greece, at the head of the Gulf of Korone, 17 m. S.W. of Sparta: Oranges, figs, mulberries, and olives, are exported, and silk is manufactured. The first national assembly of Greece was held here in 1821. Pop. (1896) 14,298. Kalamazoo. (1.) City, Mich. co. seat of Kalamazoo co., on the Kalamazoo R., and on the Chi., Kalamazoo and Saginaw, the Mich. Centr, and other R. Rs. It is situated in a good farming district, especially noted for its celery, the annual crop being valued at over si 000,000. Its manufactures include paper, windmills, tanks, spring-tooth harrows, springs, carriages and wagons, cutters, corsets, military regalia, machine-shop P. beet sugar, engines and boilers. According to the federal census of 1904 there were in that year in Kalamazoo 157 manufacturing establishments, with a total invested capital of $9,617,880, employing 5,666 hands, and with products, including custom work and repairing, yalued at $13,141,767. The chief industries and the value of their products were: paper and wood pulp, $2,421,158; carriage and wagon, $1,228,702; foundry and machine-shop, $1,3 142,444. Its chief educational and philanthropic institutions are Kalamazoo ollege, Michigan Female Seminary (Presb), Le Fevre Institute and Nazareth Academy . C.), Western State Normal School, Borgess Hospital, Kalamazoo Hospital, and the Michigan Asylum for the Insane. There is a public library. Bronson Park, adorns the central part of

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Kaleidoscope

River, rises in Hillsdale co., S. Michigan, flows in a w.N.W. direction for some 200 m. to Lake Michigan, entering at Saugatuck, 29 m. S. of Grand Haven. Kalanao, Molokai, Hawaiian Islands, a leper settlement, with churches, public buildings, and a children's home. It was established in 1865. Father Damien's grave is marked by a fine monument. Kalanchoe, a genus of tropical shrubs belonging to the order Çrassulaceae, mostly natives of Asia or Africa. They have succulent leaves, and showy cymes of large purple, yellow, or scarlet flowers. Kalat. See KHELAT. Kalatch, river port, on Don, in S. Russia, connected with Tsaritsyn (45 m.), on the Volga. Population varies greatly. Kalbe, or CALBE, th:, Prussian prov. of Saxony, on the l. bk. of the Saale, 17 m, by rail s. of Magdeburg, with textile and sugar manufactures. Pop. (1900) 12,281. Kale, or Borecole, a cultivated variety of Brassica olei

which does not “heart” after the

manner of the common cabbage. All varieties are very hardy and are cultivated as winter vegetables. While most of them are biennial, some are called perennials. They like an open situation , and , deeply-dug and moderately enriched soil. Kaleege, a sportsman's name for any of several species of beautiful, small, creste heasants of the Himalayan foothills, much esteemed as game, and also as ark-ornaments – especially the hinese silver pheasant. They constitute the genus Gennaeus, and Chinese and Malay as species are known. Kaleidoscope, an optical instrument invented by Brewster about 1815, became very popular

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multiple of 360°, in practice generally 60°–an eyepiece at one end, and an object-box containing fragments of colored glass at the other. On shaking the instrument, an infinite series of always symmetrical patterns is presented. Sec. Brewster's Trealise on the Kaleidoscope (2d ed. 1858). Kale-i-Sultanieh, CHANAK KALESSIA, seapt., Turkey in Asia, on E. side of Dardanelles, 20 m. S.w.. of Gallipoli. It is strongly fortified. There are manufactures of pottery. Pop. 11,000. Kalendae. See CALENDs. Kalevala, the national epic of the Finns, written in the same metre as fongfellow's Hiawatha, was collected and strung together out of scattered fragments b Lönnrot (1835; definitive ed. 1849). It relates the conflicts between the brotners Wäinämöinen and Ilmarinen and their enemy Lemminkäinen. Magic, especially the magic “mill’, sanpo, Plo a. great Fo in the story. ng. trans. by J. M. Crawford (1889). Kalgan, or CHANG-CHIA-Ku, walled frontier town of N. China row. Chiii. iio" m. N.w."of eking, in 40° 50' N., 114° 55' E., on the main route across, Monolia from Peking to Kiakhta, in §. and an important centre of the tea trade. Qp. 6. 70,000. **** tn., E. Coolgardie

gold fields, W. Australia, 340 m. F.N.E. of Perth. Pop. (1901) 18,000.

Kali. See ALKALI.

Káli, Indian goddess of destruction, is the wife of Siva. It was in her honor that the Thugs used to strangle their victims. Kálidasa, Indian poet, belongs to the post-Vedic, period of Sanskrit literature. Tradition assigns him to the 1st century B.c.; modern scholars to the 3d century A.D. His powers of imagination and description, and his grace of diction, place him among the greatest of 8. pets, though to Western taste his work is marred by extreme artificiality. He wrote three famous plays– Sakuntala, Vikramorwasi, and Agnimitra, of which the first was translated by Sir William Jones (1789), and again by Monier Willins (new ed., 1890); also two epics, besides lyrical K. One of these epics, the RaghuVamsa, was translated into English verse by P. de Lacy, Johnstone (1902). See also Edgren's Shakuntala, or the Recovered Ring (1894), and for bibliography, Macdonnell's History ; untskrit Literature (1900). Kalif. See CALIF. Kalimno, or KALYMNos, isl. off s.w.. coast of Asia Minor, 15 m. N.w.. of Cos. It is noted for its honey, and is the headquarters of the sponge industry of the

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during the s.w.. monsoons. Pop. about 5,000. Kalisch, Isidor (1816–86),

American rabbi, was born in Krotoschin, Posen, Prussia, and was the son of a learned rabbi. He studied at the universities of Berlin, Breslau, and Prague, bean work as a writer, and preached the first German sermon given in his native town. In 1848 he was compelled to leave Germany on account of his liberal views. He came to the U. S., and from 1849 to 1860 was in charge of congregations at ël...f. Cincinnati, and Milwaukee, during whic period he was active in promoting the tenets of reformed Judaism in all these places. For the next fifteen years Dr. Kalisch alternated between the pulpit and the lecture platform, holding various astorates in the West. In 1875 e settled permanently in Newark, N., J., and thereafter was occupied almost exclusively with his literary work and lectures. In behalf of reformed Judaism he conducted a famous controversy with the Rev. Isaac Leeser. His contributions to religious periodicals were very extensive, and he translated many of the Jewish classics. Kalispell, city, co. seat of Flathead co., Mont., on Flathead R., and on the Great Northern R. R., 154 m. N.w.. of Helena. It manufactures lumber, flour, and beer, and is a centre for hunting and . camping §§ Lake MacDonald, in Flathead co., and Flathead Lake, 40 m. long by 5 m. wide, are scenic attractions. The former is fed § laciers, and is especially beauti o The city was first settled in 1891. It has a Carnegie Library. Pop. (1900) 2,526. Kalisz. (1.) Province of Russian Poland, touching Prussia on w. and N.w. Area, 4,392 sq. m. Pop. (1897) 846,719. The surface is usually sandy and flat. Agriculture is comparatively, advanced; kitchen-gardening and cattle raising, flourish. Important industrially, it manufactures cottons, cióth, and ribbons, cement, soap, candles, vinegar, pottery and glass, spirits, sugar, beer, tobacco, leather, and flour. Of the o: nearly 700,000 are Roman Catholics, nearly 80,000 Protestants, and about 70,000

Kalmuks

|. (2.) §§ of Russian Poand, cap. of Kalisz gov., some 150 m. W.S.w.. of Warsaw. It is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, and an educational and industrial centre, with manufactures of, leather, cloth, soap, sugar, tobacco, beer, and spirits. Pop., (1897) 21,680, about onethird Jews. Kalk, on.,, Prussian prov. of Rhineland, 2 m. by rail E. of Cologne, with iron works, chemical, machinery, and other factories, breweries, and brick works. Pop. (1905) 25,477. Kalk Bay, seaside resort on N.W. shore of False Bay, Cape Colony, British S. Africa, 12 m. s. of Cape Town. Kalladakurichi, or KALLADAkKyrichi, tho, Tinnevelli dist. Madras, India, 15 m. s.w. o Tinnevelli. Pop. (1901) 14,913. Kalmar, cap. of Kalmar co., on an island in Kalmar Sound, Sweden, once strongly fortified; has a fine cathedral (ić60–99), and Kalmar Castle, a 12th century edifice. It has shipbuilding yards, tobacco, o and match manufactories. ere was drawn up (1397) the Act of Union between Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, conferring the three crowns on Margaret of Denmark. Pop. (1901) 12,715. Kalmia, a genus of hardy everreen American shrubs belonging to the order Ericaceae, valuable as ornamental plants. They #. a peaty soil, and like abunant moisture at the roots. They may be propagated by seeds sown in pans of sandy peat in a cool greenhouse or frame; or by cuttings of half-ripened wood, placed in sandy peat under a hand-glass; or by layers. The flowers are showy, white or pink in color, flattened bell-shaped, and arranged in terminal cymes. The best known species is K. latifolia, the so-called American laurel, or calico bush, which grows to a height of thirty feet, in the southern United States, with leaves dark green above and light green below.

Kalmia angustifolia is a smaller species, the lambkill, with deeper rose-colored blossoms. Both species are reputed to be poisonous to live stock.

Kalmuks, KALMUcks, or CALMucks, a section of the Mongol race, found in three main divi. sions: (1) on iP!: of lowest Volga valley, around Astrakhan; (2) in Zungaria, Kulja, and adjacent regions of Chinese Central Asia; (3) in Tsaidam, Koko-nor, an other parts of N. Tibet and S.W. Mongolia. In districts (2) and (3) the Kalmuks are called Eleuths or Oliuts. Their chief historical centre has been in Zungaria where they founded a short-liv empire in the 17th and 18th cen

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