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town and seaport, Arabia, 300 m. northeast of Aden, the capital of the district Mahra, of the province of Hadramaut. Pop. 18,000. M. a k a r of f, STEPAN OSSIPovitch (1849–1904), Russian admiral, was born in Nicolaieff. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 he torpedoed several Turkish warships. In 1894 he was appointed commander of the Baltic fleet; in 1898 commanderin-chief of the Cronstadt naval station, and in February, 1904, he was given the sole command of the Russian fleet in the Far East, in the war with Japan. He perished in the destruction by, a Japanese mine of his flagship, the Petropavlovsk, two months later. He designed the ice-breaker Yer: mak and the collision mat used in all navies. He was the author of standard works on naval tactics. Makart, HANs (1840–84), Austrian painter, was born in Salzburg. He was a pupil of Piloty at Munich (1861–5). He first won fame by Amorettes and The Seven Deadly Sims (1868), in which his love for gigantic dimensions and gorgeous color effects finds full expression. In 1869 he settled at Vienna, and in 1879 was made professor at the art academy there. His other principal works include The Homage of Venice to Catherine Cornaro (1873), which was exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876; Cleopatra on the Nile; Entrance of Charles V. into Antwerp (1878); Death of Cleopatra: The Spring. His Diana's Hunting Party, painted in 1880, is now in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. He had a fondness for sensuous but lifeless human forms, and for faded leaves and flowers. Consult Von Lützow's Life. Make m i e, FRANCIs (1658– 1708), American clergyman, was born near Rathmelton, County Donegal, Ireland. After missionary work in Barbados, he settled in Somerset county, Md., afterward removing to Virginia, where he entered into trade. In 1692 he engaged in a controversy with George Keith, who had attacked a Catechism published by Makemie the previous year, his reply appearing as An Answer to George Keith's Libel. Makemie

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Ma kololos, South African people of mixed Bechuana stock, who moved to the Zambezi about 1835. Here they overthrew the Barotse nation; but in 1870 the Barotse rose against and exterminated them, except a few chiefs, then absent. M. a k r a n, the southernmost province of Baluchistan, bordering the Arabian Sea for about 200 m. between Persia and India. Although the coast has several harbors, they are obstructed by sand bars. The principal port is Gwadur, which, with the surrounding territory, belongs to Arabia. The country is a waste of barren hills, excepting the valleys of the Bolida and the Kej, which are productive, of dates (Panjgur) especially. Fishing is the chief industry of the coast people. The province is governed by the khan of Khélat (q.v.), under British supervision. Area, 25,000 sq. m. Pop. 80,000. Makrizi, TAK1-ED-DiN AHMED EL- (c. 1364–1441), Arabic historian, was born in Cairo. He is famous for a History and Topographical Description of Egypt, of which a French translation appeared in 1895. He also compiled histories of the Fatimites, and of the Ayyubid and Mameluke sovereigns of Egypt, and an encyclopaedia of Egyptian biographies. Malabar, maritime district of Southwest Madras, India, stretching for 145 miles a long the coast of the Arabian Sea, and extending inland to the Western Ghats, which rise to a height of 7,600 feet. The country is broken by heavily forested spurs and ravines falling into widening valleys, which shelve into rice plains near the coast. The forests yield teak, cedar, and ebony, and the fields rice, plantains, pepper, tea, coffee, spices, and


copra. The chie, nuustries are the manufacture of coarse yarns (coir) from cocoanut husks, fishing and fish curing, wood cutting, oil pressing, and the making of palm-leaf hats. Area, 5,585 sq. m. Pop. 495,000. Ma lab 6 n, Philippines. TAMBóBoNG. Mala buy oc, pueblo, Cebu, Philippines, 60 m. southwest of Cebu, at the mouth of the Malutuoc River. Pop. 14,000. Malacca, a British colony on the Malay Peninsula, and the largest of the Straits Settlements, but commercially overshadowed by Singapore. The colony consists of a strip, 40 m. long by from 8 to 25 m. broad, along the coast. The country is formed of undulating hills of moderate elevation, with narrow valleys and a large amount of jungle. Behind these rises Mount Ophir, or Gunong Ledang (4,400 feet). The coast lands are alluvial, and generally low and swampy, but are well timbered. The rainfall is heavy, and the climate is hot and moist. Although gold and tin, formerly of leading importance, are still found in paying quantities, mining has practically ceased, and the industries are purely agricultural, chiefly the growing of rubber, tapioca, and rice, and the raising of swine. The fisheries are important. Area, 660 sq. m. Pop. (1911) 124,029, consisting chiefly of Malays and Chinese, with a few Europeans. M a la c ca, town and free port on the Strait of Malacca (2° 11% 'N.). Here are an AngloChinese college and a government hospital. The chief exports are Para rubber ($4,000,000 in 1911), tapioca, copra, rice,


swine, dried and salted fish, gambier, spices, fruits, hides, and tea. In 1511 Malacca fell

into the hands of the Portuguese, from whom it was taken by the Dutch in 1641. In 1824 it was exchanged with the British for Bencoolen in Sumatra. Pop. (1911) 21,213. Malacca, Strait of, the channel separating the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra and the adjacent islands. It is about 550 m. long, and varies in width from 185 m. in the north to 35 m. in the south, where it encircles a group of several populous islands belonging to and including Singapore (q.v.). Both shores of the strait are fringed with shallow mud-banks. Malachi ("my messenger'), the last of the books of the Old Testament, and in the Hebrew Canon the last of the twelve minor prophets. It contains denunciations upon priests and Malachite

people for their polluted sacrifices, their mixed marriages, their neglect of tithes and offerings, and their pride; and it likewise pronounces the threat of penalty, and the promise of the Messiah, who is to be preceded by a divine messenger (Elijah). The writer lived after the return from the Captivity, and may have been contemporary with Ezra and Nehem iah (c. 460 B.C. and later). There has been discussion among scholars as to whether Malachi was the proper name of the prophet (Hitzig, Vatke, Orelli, Robertson); or a general name prefixed to an anonymous work, and perhaps borrowed from iii. 1 (Ewald, Kuenen, Wellhausen, Robertson Smith, G. A. Smith). The style shows a considerable decadence from the pathos and grandeur of the great prophetic age; but in its play of question and answer the book reveals no small dramatic power, and it has enriched Christian literature with a relatively large number of memorable utterances (cf. i. 2, 3, 11; iii. 1 f., 8, 17; iv. 2). Consult Commentaries by Köhler, Pusey, Nowack, G. A. Smith, Perowne, Wellhausen. Malachite, basic carbonate of copper, CuCO.Cu(OH)3, occurs in finest form in the Urals in nodular or mammillated masses of stalagmitic origin; also fibrous, and rarely in slender monoclinic crystals. It is of common occurrence as a secondary product in almost every copper district, notably in Cornwall and South Australia. Arizona furnishes the most beautiful American specimens, and in this region it is also an important ore of copper. It is of emerald-green color, translucent to opaque, and somewhat soft (h. = 3.5; sp. gr. about 3.9). Malachite is also used for ornamental purposes, on account of the beautiful color and markings brought out by polishing. Malachy, St. (1094-1148), archbishop of Armagh, associated himself with Malchus, bishop of Lismore, and afterward became head of the abbey of Bangor, County Down, and bishop of Connor (1124). As archbishop (1132-6) he effected great reforms, and was appointed papal legate by Innocent II. He died at Clairvaux, on his way to

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wild and precipitous, in Central Pyrenees, Spain, separating the valleys of Benasque and Aran. It contains Pie d'Anethou (11,170 ft.), the highest summit of the Pyrenees. It is best reached from Bagnères de Luchon. Malaga, a mountainous province of Andalusia, in Southern Spain, forming part of the ancient kingdom of Granada, and bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. The climate is almost tropical in summer, and very mild in winter, the fertility and beauty of the province being unequalled even in Spain. Mining, agriculture, and the manufacture of wines (chiefly Muscatel) are the principal occupations. Fishing (sardines and anchovies) is important locally. Area, 2,812 sq. m. Pop. (1910) 497,888. Malaga, city, capital of the province of Malaga (q.v.), 82 m. southeast of Cordova, a seaport with fine harbor on a bay of the Mediterranean. It has an export trade in citrus fruits, olives, olive oil (1910, 10,910 tons), figs, raisins (1910, 12,718,429 pounds), almonds, grapes, and wine (1910, 3,102,889 gallons), cane sugar, and products of the distilling industry; also minerals (1910, 79,927 tons), including iron and lead. The manufactures are principally textiles, rope, paper, leather, soap, candles, beer, and tobacco; there are iron foundries, sugar mills, and brick yards. The town is straggling, with narrow streets, but is picturesquely surrounded by gardens and vineyards, and almost enclosed by mountains. The Cathedral is a vast structure, mainly Gothic. The Moorish fortress (Alcazaba) has now disappeared. The climate in winter is delightfully mild, and favorable for invalids. Of Phoenician origin, Malaga was for centuries a Moorish city, and one of the principal ports of the kingdom of Granada. Ferdinand the Catholic captured it, after a long siege, in 1487. Off the town was fought, on July 23, 1704, a naval battle between the Anglo-Dutch fleet and the Fran

co-Spanish fleet, the result being indecisive. Pop. (1910) 133,045.

Malaga, white Spanish wine, very full-bodied, luscious, and sweet; contains from 12 to 18 per cent. of alcohol by volume. It closely resembles Alicante.

Malakoff, town, department of the Seine, France, southwestern suburb of Paris, and near its fortifications. At first it was known as California, but acquired its present name in 1855 from the tower built by Alexandre Chauvelot in commem


oration of the victory of Sevastopol. Pop. 16,500. Malakoff, a famous fortification on the hill opposite Sevastopol, and one of its chief defences. The French carried it by storm, Sept. 8, 1855, after a siege of eleven months, and its fall was followed by the evacuation of Sevastopol (q.v.). Malampaya Sound, a landlocked arm of the China Sea. northeast of the Capoas peninula, in the northern part of Palawan (Paragua), Philippine Islands. It is 19 m. in length. and the inner sound is 4 m in width, affording a magnificent deep-water harbor. It is entered by Blockade Strait, on the south of Tuluran Island. The principal settlements on the Sound are Pancol and Guinla. See PALAwan. Malan, CESAR HENRI ABRAHAM (1787-1864), Swiss Protestant tiivine, was born in Geneva, and was pastor of the state church there. Under the guidance of Robert Haldane" and John M. Mason of New York. he became a Trinitarian, and pastor of an independent church at Geneva. He was the composer of the music of Chants de Zion (1826), and author of The Church of Rome (1844). Pictures from Switzerland (1852), Stories for Children (1852), and L'église Romaine (Eng. trans.). Malapterurus, the genus to which belongs the electric catfish, also called electric sheathfish. The most important species is M. electricus, which grows to a length of four feet, and is found in the Nile. The electric organ extends throughout the body. See ELECTRic EEL; CATFish. Mälar, lake of Sweden, 70 m. long, 34 to 30 m. broad, with an area of 450 sq. m. Its surface is only from 1 to 2 feet above sea level. It flows into the Baltic through the city of Stockholm and the Södertelge Canal. The Sea water, however, often streams into the lake, the cause being probably a difference of atmos. pheric pressure on the lake and the sea respectively. It is studded with over a thousand islands. On them, or its shores, stand the royal palaces of Gripsholm, Ulriksdal, Drottningholm, and Haga. It is connected on the west by the Arboga Canal with Lake Hjelmar. Malaria (sometimes called AGUE, MIASMA, and INTERMITTENT FEver), a specific infectious disease, commonest in warm. marshy districts, in river valleys, and in the vicinity of small bodies of stagnant water. There are various types, the best known


being the tertian (recurring every third day during, the attack), the quartan (every fourth day), the quotidian, the tropical or malignant (so called because of its locale and severity), and autumno-aestival which tends to attack in spring and autumn. All, as far as is known, have like sources of infectionviz., the mosquito of the species Anopheles, which carries the microorganism of the malaria from the blood of one man to the blood of another. Course of THE DISEASE.-The period of incubation, is not precisely known, but is believed to vary with the different types between two and fifteen days. The first symptoms, resemble those of many fevers. There are languor, general discomfort, chilliness, and depression, with influenza-like pains in the limbs, back, and eyes. All these symptoms may come and go once or twice before the true attack begins. Then the chilliness becomes aggravated into a violent shivering fit, with chattering teeth, and possibly, diarrhoea and vomiting, and ringing sounds in the ears. For half an hour or an hour no amount of external warmth or covering can make the sufferer feel warm, though his temperature is above normal all the time the paroxysm lasts, and may gradually go as high as 106° F. in an ordinary attack, much higher in the malig; nant type. Then comes a period during which the sufferer feels intensely hot, though possibly the body temperature is no higher, or only a degree more than during the chilly stage. This may last four or five hours, and then profuse sweating begins. With this there is a general improvement, the temperature falling, the pain disappearing, and sleep genera '. coming on. Another attack follows in twentyfour, forty-eight, or seventy-two hours, .#. to the type of malaria, and so on for some time, the attacks generally gradually lessening in, severity, until they cease altogether; but in the malig; nant or tropical type exhaustion and death may be the end, generally due to extreme debility following several attacks. In other varieties, though death may result, it is much less common, and the chief result in ordinary cases is a long-continued anaemia, due to the destruction of red blood corpuscles by the specific organism of malaria which lives in them. The victim of malaria has a characteristic appearance, due to the deterioration of the blood. He is sallow, wasted, and languid, and his muscular and mental strength are much reduced. His spleen is the organ most affected. It is greatly enlarged, often to many times the normal size (ague-cake); and a frequent complication in malaria is injury to the enlarged spleen

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through a slight blow, which may cause death by rupture and consequent haemorrhage. . There are various diseases witn which malaria may be confused, particularly in the early stages and in the case of the malignant type. Influenza, typhoid fever, and abscess of the liver are perhaps the commonest. . Micro*::F. examination of the blood wils settle the matter. In case that is impossible, then, if the sufferer does not rapidly, improve under quinine and other appropriate treatment, the case is either not malaria, or it is of the malignant type. The malignant form is characterized by its comparatively gradual onset, its failing to respond to quinine, and its fever gradually becoming remittent—i.e., Roy constant, though lessened at intervals, instead of leaving the sufferer altogether at regular periods. The temperature in the malignant form tends to be very high. In fatal cases it may rise as far as 110° F., or even 112°F. Other grave complications are mania, paralysis, §.: or choleraic symptoms. alariaso weakens the constitution as to make it common for other diseases to follow, and to be severe in their attacks. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT.It was long known that those exposed to night air in marshy districts were particularly liable to attacks of malaria; it was known, too, that swampy forests were dangerous in that respect even by § but the disease was always attributed to foul gases, decomposing vegetable matter and so forth in iš's Meckel of Vienna found that malaria was associated with black microscopic bodies in the blood; but he did not decide their nature or their influence. In 1880, Laveran a French army surgeon, announced not only that malaria was a parasitic disease, but that the parasites could be seen as crescent-like bodies in the red blood corpuscles. Golgi, an Italian, showed that there was a difference, microscopically, between the #. present in the blood in the different types of malaria– quartan and tertian – and also pointed out that the return of a high temperature coincided with the production of spores. Then Manson in 1894, suggested that there exist a means of transference from one human being to another, and that the mosquito ... that purpose. Nott had hazarded this sugestion as far back as 1848, and averan also thought it possible; but it was left to Ross, a surgeon in the English army, to prove it; and Grassi, Bignami, and Manson all brought corroborative evidence. It has now been proved by experiment that if mosquitoes are fed upon malaria patients, they can communicate malaria to those upon whom they feed later, the malaria being always of the same type—


tertian, quartan, etc. Laboratorybred mosquitoes, which have never been allowed to feed upon malaria patients, cannot inoculate any one with malaria. The miscroscope given further evidence of the virtue of what has long been the universal remedy—viz., quinine. The microscope shows that this remedy prevents the young parasites from developing, though it does not seem to affect the mature ones; hence reproduction in time ceases in the human y. The microscope also shows that reproduction of the parasite in the human subject takes place by sporulation, though in the mosquito the parasite reproduces sexually. The microscope also shows that it is the female mosquito which carries the disease from one human host to another. When malaria is feared, about five grains of quinine are taken per diem, by the mouth. At the beginning of an attack ten or fifteen grains should be taken in a single dose, followed by five or ten every four hours. The dose is gradually lessened; but quinine must be taken for about a month after an attack. In the malignant type sporulation...goes on in spite of uinine. hen vomiting prevents the drug from being retained, it can be injected by the bowel, or by a vein, or intramuscularly. Roughly speaking, half doses are used intramuscularly and by a vein (the latter not generally recommended), while double doses are given by the bowel. In addition the sufferer is fed on light but nutritious food, is kept in bed between blankets, and encouraged to take copious hot drinks. For the prevention of malaria, the breeding-places of mosquitoes – damp, warm spots – must drained, or the ls where the mosquito larvae develop must be made uninhabitable. This has been successfully accomplished in some instances . covering the water surface wit troleum, or some other fluid which excludes the air. Stocking pools with fish which devour the larvae is another useful preventive , measure; and , special care should be taken to avoid small accumulations of water in drain ipes, water barrels, buckets, etc. ouses in malarial regions should be carefully screened. At night mosquito-nets should used, and various oily preparations may be smeared over exposed parts. See Mosquitoes. BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Recent texts on malaria, the malarial organism, and the malarial mosquito are Craig's Malarial Fevers (1909); Deaderick's Malaria (1909); Stephens and Christophers' Practical §. of Malaria and other Blood Parasites; Howard's Mosquitoes (1901); Mitchell's Mosquito Life (1907); Doane's Insects and isease (1910); Ross' Prevention of Malaria (1910). Malasiqui, pueblo, Pangasinan

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MALAY STATES; SIAM; STRAITs SETTLEMENTS; MALAYS. M a lays, a brown-skinned. straight-haired, round-headed peole, of low or medium stature, É. in all the islands between Madagascar and, the o but centred chiefly in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. . They are essentially maritime, and although they have modified their piratical habits, they have never occupied

the interior of any country except Sumatra, which o regard as their ancestral home. It is generally

held that they form a branch of the Mongoloid stock; but so varied are their physical characters that it is safe to regard them as not belonging to any one race. Witty and even brilliant in conversation, dignified and refined in intercourse with strangers, they have never produced a literature or an art. Most of the #. Malay tribes profess Mohammedanism, but practise ic and ancestor-worship. Their dialect is closely akin to those of the South Sea Islands, and has become to some extent the lingua franca of the Far East. They are polysyllabic, untoned, profuse in particular, but poor in general terms; apt for irony, simile, and metaphor. eir most characteristic product is the kris, a thrusting weapon of many shapes. Consult Skeat's Malay #. (1990); Wilkinson's Malay-English Dictionary (1903); Skeat's Tribes of the M# Peninsula (1905); Skeat and den's Pagan Races | the Malay Peninsula § and many recent works by Clifford and Swettenham. Malay States, Federated, oc§ the centre of the Malay Peninsula, and have an area of 30,880 sq. IIl. They comprise Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, ** Kelantan, Trigganu, Kedah, and Perlis (the last four since 1909). Pop. (est. 1909) 1,080,000, almost equally Masays and Chinamen. Thos are administered by a British ResidentGeneral, under the advice of the governor of the Straits Settlements, who is High Commissioner of these states; but each state has a native ruler, who acts under a British resident. In December, 1909, the first Federal Council was inaugu

rated. The imports in 1909 totalled $24,000,000, excluding bullion and :*: and the *H. $39,700,000, the chief export being tin (about seven-tenths of the world's supply), and the chief import rice. %. principal products are coffee, sugar, É. gambier, and tapioca. The orests yield timber, resins, canes, and gutta-percha. There are 590 miles of railway, all state owned. The chief city is Kuala Lumpur

(pop. 40,000). #aio, Edward GREENE (1777–1807), American portrait

painter, born at Newport, R. I., and educated in Boston. He



was an associate of Washington Allston in Charleston, S. C., in 1800. He went to 'Europe in 1801, where he met Benjamin West, and in 1802 he returned to Čharieston where he died. Although he painted large portraits and some landscapes, his reputation rests upon his miniatures, especially of women. Allston said of him: “No woman ever lost any beauty from his hand.’. His best picture, The Hours, in the Providence Athenaeum, represents a group of graceful Women.

Malcolm . I. (MAcDonalD), king of Scotland (943–954), annexed Moray, and received Čum

berland from King Edmund (945). —MALCOLM II. #. king of Scotland (1005–34), acquired Lothian , and Cumbria

north of Solway; he was the first to bear the territorial title “Rex Scotiae.”—MALcol M III. (CANMoRE), king of Scotland ‘s...}. made four invasions of England; two (1070 and 1091) in favor of Edgar Atheling being followed by counter-invasions, when he submitted. Having invaded Northumberland, he was ambushed and slain at Malcolm's Cross (1093). He married (1067) Margaret, sister of o flogo IV. §: Maiden'), king of Scotland 1153–65), great-grandson of Canmore and grandson of David I., whom he succeeded. When Somerled of Argyll rebelled, Malcolm surrendered to Henry II., (1157) Northumbria, Cumbria, also the strongholds of Newcastle, Bamborough, and Carlisle, receiving in return the shadowy earldom of Huntingdon. Malcolm, SIR John (1769– 1833), Indian administrator and diplomatist, was born at Burnfoot, Dumfriesshire; entered the service of the East India Company in 1782. His first diplomatic post was that of assistantresident at Haidarabad in 1798; in the following year he was appointed to the Mysore Commission, and between 1801 and 1810 thrice visited Persia as , plenipotentiary. He drew up the peace negotiations with Scindia and Holkar in 1802, and arranged terms with the Peshwa in isi. He was governor of Bombay from 1827 to 1831. His Administration of India (1833), History of Persia §§ and Life of Lord Clive 1836) are his best known books. Malda, dist., Bengal, India, E. of the Ganges. It is 1,813 sq. m. in area, and is engaged in the indigo and silk industries. The headquarters are at . English Bazar, on the r. bk. of the Mahananda. Pop. (1901) 884,030. Malden, city, Middlesex co., Mass., 5 m. N. of Boston, on the Malden R., and on the Bost. and Me. R. R. It is an important manufacturing centre, the prod

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