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form a regular, uninterrupted, horseshoe-shaped series, the canines being small in both sexes, and not Folio In connection with the upright position the skeleton shows a number of minor culiarities; thus, the vertebras column presents a characteristic sigmoid flexure, , only indicated in the apes; the lower limbs are proportionately much longer; the great toe is long and strong, and in the adult is incapable of being opposed to the other toes. Again, the heel is better developed than in any anthropoid, and the foot has been so modified that it can be placed flat upon the o: We may say concisely, that, from the zoological standpoint, man differs from the anthropoids in (1) his adaptation to the erect, position and the terrestrial habitat, in (2) his greater brain develo ment, and in (3) the very ń. developed social instinct. To the zoologist there can be no reasonable doubt that he has arisen from an anthropoid stock or § arboreal habitat. Although after infancy the u right position is the one habitually adopted by man, yet it is a position which he can only maintain for a ovel; short period without fatigue. his seems inexplicable, save on the assumption that the position is a recent acquisition. Another, interesting point is the presence of a separate tibia and fibula in the lower limb. The persistence of so primitive and apparently so useless a structure as a free fibula can only be explained on the supposition that it is an inheritance from an arboreal ancestor, to whom the free movement of the ankle-joint rendered possible by its presence was a necessity in climbing. The well-developed clavicles and some associated peculiarities of the scapula can, similarly, only be explained on the assumption that man is descended from a climbing ancestor. . There are indeed many indications of close affinity with the anthropoid ape both in the human foetus before birth and in the infant at birth. Thus, the sole of the foot at birth is inturned, the vertebral column does not then dio. the characteristic curves, the foot possesses a power of prehension of which the later condition affords no trace, and so on. In his five fingers and five toes, in his separate radius and ulna and tibia and fibula, in his clayicles, in the structure of his teeth, man is primitive in structure—still shows relation to the insectivore stock from which he is lineally developed. It is possible that the common ancestor of man and the large anthropoids was a form related to the living

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in Jo of a portion of a skull and a femur, believed to belong to a hitherto unknown form

to which, he gave the name of Pithecanthropus erectus, has as yet done little to bridge the gap in man's ancestry. In the absence of evidence of a direct kind, we can only reason from analogy as to the probable course of evolution. Anyway, it is the social instinct which has played the predominant part. As to the date of origin of man nothing definite can be said. The first clear indications of his existence anywhere on the earth are found in the deposits of the Glacial Period. More than this: the remains found in beds of Glacial age in Europe (bones, tools, etc.), in Asia (tools, but not nes), in America (tools, bones), and in Africa (tools), all indicate a race at approximately the same stage of civilization, if it may be so called. The men of the Glacial Period fall into two groups, accordin as their implements are .# and unpolished (Palaeolithic type) or smooth and polished (Neolithic type). . Of the Palaeolithic skulls found in Europe, the oldest is believed to be the Neanderthal or Spy type, which shows a number of jojo characters, the forehead being low and retreating, the brow ridges prominent; and the stature apparently short; nevertheless, the ; man Was definitely human, and in no sense a transitional form. As regards the races of men, there has been much discussion as to whether or not all are to be ##". as forming one species. The view that there is but one †† is supported by the fact that the progeny of mixed marriages shows no obvious diminution of fertility, as witness the numerous races of half-castes found in different parts of the globe. The degree of pigmentation of skin, hair, and iris, when taken in conjunction with the characters of the hair, is of great importance in classification. Broca recognizes no fewer than thirty-four shades of color in the human skin, but it may be sufficient here to point' out that these are all variants of the following four colors—white, yellow, iro. black (or dark-skinned). As regards, the iris, the blue or gray eyes found in fair-skinned Europeans are the rarest shades, all other peoples having dark eyes. The chief types of hair are the straight (e.g. that of the Chinese),


the wavy (common in Europeans), the frizzy (in Australians), and the woolly (as in negroes). Other very important characters in classification are the shape of the skull and the form of the bones. In the article ETHNOLOGY will be found a summary classification of the races of man, based upon the above and some other characters. Apart from the physical characters of man discussed above there are certain universal social characteristics which must be mentioned. One of these is the love of ornament. . It appears to be a well-established fact that ornament precedes dress. Though some races go entirely unclothed, it is, doubtful whether any are totally devoid of personal ornaments. . Another, widespread if not universal characteristic of man is the habit of domesticating animals. The earliest animal to domesticated seems to have been the dog, which was tamed by Neolithic man. It is often said that there are three great stages in culture, man being #. a hunter; then, as he learns to domesticate animals, he becomes a nomad, following the natural migrations of his flocks; finally, with the use of draught animals, he becomes an agriculturist. See ANTHRoPolOGY. Consult Darwin's Descent % Man (1888), Huxley's Man's lace in Nature (1858), Topinard's Anthropology (trans. 1890),

Duckworth's Morphology and

Anthropology (1905), eniker's

Races of Man (1900). Man, Isle of, in the Irish

Sea, is 33 m. in length and 10 m. in breadth. High, rugged cliffs border the coast, pierced in several places by caves... A double or triple range of hills stretches south-westward through the island (Snaefell, 2,030 ft.). Nearly two - thirds of the surface is under cultivation. Argentiferous lead is worked. The climate is remarkably equable, the annual range of temperature being only, 17.1, as compared with 23.5 at Brighton. Myrtles, fuchsias and other exotics flourish out of doors all the year round. There is a breed of tailless cats. The island is a much-frequented holiday resont. The principal towns are Douglas (the capital), Ramsey, Castletown, and Peel. Near St. lo. is Tynwald Hill, formerly the seat of the Supreme Court. The island is rich in stone circles, sepulchral mounds, runic and other crosses; possesses Rushen Castle, a well-preserved mediaeval fortress, and Peel Castle, formerly used as a state prison. It was known to the Romans, as Mona, and repeatedly raided, by INorsemen. . In 1266 Scottish supremacy replaced Norwegian, but in 1290 the islanders Manaar

placed themselves under English influence. In 1406 Sir John Stanley was granted the island, with the title of king. In 1765 the Duke and Duchess of Athole, who then theld the island, agreed to alienate the sovereignty to the British crown for $350,000, and an annuity of $10,000. Their remaining claims were ceded in 1829 for a further sum of $2,080,000. The administration is vested in a lieutenant-governor representing the King, a council, and the elected House of Keys (twenty-four members). The episcopal designation is Sodor (Norse, Sudreyr = “Southern') and Man. The Manx language, now almost extinct, is

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wide. It narrows to the N. into Palk Strait, from which it is separated by the islands of Manar and Rameswaram and the reef known as Adam's Bridge. The gulf is famous for its pearl fisheries. Manasarowar (Tibetan, Tsomapham), sacred lake of S. W. Tibet, 15,285 ft. above sea-level, in the valley of the Brahmaputra, in 81* E. look Its area is over 150 sq. m. To the N.w.. is the sacred mountain of Kailas. Manasquan, bor. and watering-place, Monmouth co., N. J., 12 m. s. of Long Branch, 1 m. from the seashore, and on the Cent. R. R. of N.J. The Manas: quan R. near by is noted for good angling. Pop. (1905) 1,636. Manassas. See BULL RUN. Manasseh, the elder son of Joseph, who, however, received from his father a blessing inferior, to that of his brother Ephraim (Gen. 48). The tribe of Manasseh had settlements on both sides of the Jordan. Manasseh Ben-Israel (1604– 57), lo theologian and scholar, born in Lisbon ; founded a Hebrew printing-press at Amsterdam (1626). He sought to gain admission for the Jews into England in the time of Cromwell (1655). Manasseh published Spes Israelis (1650), Vindicia Judaeorum (1656), and De Creatione (1635). Manatee (Manatus), one of the sea-cows or sirenians, formerly numerous in river-mouths and on nearby shores from Florida to Southern Brazil, and far up the large rivers of tropical S. America; few now, remain north of Yucatan. Like the dugongs,

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SCENES IN THE ISLE OF MAN. 1. Ramsey. 2. Tynwald Hill and St. John's Church. 3. Kirk Braddon. 4. Laxey Wheel. 5. Peel Castle, 6, Douglas. (Photos by Frith.)

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Manbhum, dist., Chota Nagpur, div. of Bengal, India, wi an area of 4,147 sq. m., and a population . (1901) of 1,301,364. Coal is mined. The capital is Purulia.

Manby, GEORGE WILLIAM (1765-1854), English inventor, born at Denyer, Norfolk. He invented a life-saving, apparatus for shipwrecks, tried at Yarmouth (1808), for which he received grants from Parliament. He also gave his attention to lifeboats, and to life-saving apparatus for fires and for ice accidents.

Mancha, LA, dist. s. of New Castile, Spain, now included in provs. of Albacete and Ciudad Real. It produces a light red wine, called Val de Penas, and is noted for its mules. Don Quixote

1893), co. bor., the seat of a bish-
opric since 1847, and of a univer-
sity, since 1880, in Lancashire,
#. 183 m. N.w.. of London
and 32 m. E.N.E. of Liverpool. It
has access for sea-going vessels
by means of the Manchester Ship
Canal (q.v.), opened in 1894.
Manchester is essentially a mod-
ern town. It is the leading city in
the world in the textile industry.
It is chiefly engaged in the spin;
ning, and weaving of cotton, and
in the bleaching, printing, and
making up of ‘Manchester goods.’
There are also a vast number of
engineering works. The shipping
houses of Manchester export cot-
tons, silk and woollen goods,
steam, gas, and electrical machin-
ery, chemicals, india-rubber, iron,
steel, and copper goods. The

school of art, the Manchester homo school (founded in 1515 the Hulme grammar school, and the Manchester high school for girls. The art gallery contains a noteworthy collection of pictures. . The town hall (1877) is one of the finest in the kingdom, and contains decorated panels by Madox Brown. The Free Trade Hall was erected on the site of the Peterloo massacre in 1856, to commemorate the victory of the Anti-Corn Law League; it is here the Hallé concerts are given. Pop. (1901) 543,969. MANchester College was founded in Manchester in 1786, and removed to Oxford in 1893. It exists for the purpose of promoting the study of philosophy, theology, and religion, without

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