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Cathedral. 2. Rylands Library, interior, 3...Town. Hall. 4. Art Gallery and Athenaeum. 5. Market street. 6. FreeTrade Hall. 7. Technical Schoos. 8. Whitworth Hall and Owens College (Victoria University). 9. Royal Exchange.

(Photos by R. Banks.)

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reformatory, St. Anselm's Col-
lege (R. C.), Elliot, and Sacred
Heart hospitals, and the Man-
chester Institute of Arts and
Sciences. The public library
contains 50,000 volumes. To
the E. of the city lie two connected
lakes, known as Lake Massa-
besic, a beautiful sheet of water.
It is reached by trolley, and is a
favorite place of , resort in the
summer. Pine Island, 4 m. s.
of the city, is another pleasure
round. he first settlement
ere was made in 1722. The
town was first known as Amos-
keag and Harrytown, and in 1751
was incorporated as Derryfield.
The name was changed to Man-


1644. The town was a part of
East Hartford until 1823. Pop.
(1900) 10,601.
(3.), City, Chesterfield co., Va.,
opposite Richmond, on the
James, R., and on the Southern,
the Atl. Coast I. and the Seab.
Air L. R. Rs. Several brio.
connect it with Richmond. he
manufactures are paper, flour,
iron-work, wood-work, furniture,
trunks, mattresses, railroad sup-
plies, leather, car axles, glass,
shoes, electrical apparatus
brooms, etc. Coal is mined an
ranite is extensively quarried.
he first settlement was made in
1769. Pop. (1900) 9,715.
(4.) City, Ia., co. seat of Dela-

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bridges. There is a monument to the soldiers of the Civil War and one to Gen. John Stark, The city is laid out in rectangular blocks. Between the mills and the mercantile district lie neat lines of corporation boarding-houses, which are models of their class. According to the Federal census there were, in 1905, 155 industrial establishments, with a capital of $25,248,460 and products valued at $30,696,926. he chief items were cotton goods, $14,366,061, and boots and shoes, $6,567,903. Other important manufactures are boxes, lumber, sashes and doors, books and other printed matter, tobácco and cigars, carriages and wagons, foundry and machine - shop products, etc. Manchester is the seat of a state

Manchester Ship Canal.

56,987. See Clarke, Manchester:
a Brief Record of its Past and a
Picture # Its Present (1875).

(2.) n., Hartford co., Conn.,
8 m. E. of Hartford, on the Hock-
anum R., and on the Highland
div. of the N. Y., N. H. and
H. R. R. It includes the villages
of Manchester, South Manches-
ter, Buckland Manchester Green,
and Highland Park. Silk goods
are manufactured in great va-
riety. There are also ten P.
mills and two large woollen
mills. Dairy interests, are im-
portant. Tobacco and garden
truck are raised, and there are
flagstone and sandstone quarries
in the vicinity. There is a pub:
lic library at Manchester and
one at South Manchester. The
first settlement was made here in

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Manchester Ship Canal

above Cincinnati on the Ohio R. Manchester Station on the Ches. and O. R. R. is across the river in Kentucky. The manufactures are furniture, flour, lumber, foundry and machine-shop products, etc. There are also granite-works. There is a “serpent mound” in the vicinity, the work of the moundbuilders. Pop. (1900) 2,003. Manchester Ship Canal, a waterway by which large seagoing vessels can ascend to Manchester, , England. This canal, one of the greatest works of hydraulic .#. was begun in 1887, and was opened for traffic on Jan. 1, 1894. It starts from Eastham, on the left bank of the Mersey estuary, about four miles above Birkenhead. At the entrance there are three parallel locks of different sizes, and when the water of the Mersey is at the same level as the water in the canal the lock gates stand open. For the first fifteen miles from Eastham to Runcorn the canal skirts the Mersey, from which it is separated by a massive sea-wall. At Runcorn it leaves the estuary and strikes up the valley of the Irwell. The next locks are at Latchford, eight miles farther up; and between that and Manchester are three sets of locks, the total rise above sea-level about 72 ft. The length of the canal is 35% m. It has a breadth of 172 ft. at surface and 120 ft. at bottom, and a depth of 26 ft., which is now being increased to 28 ft. The engineering difficulties were great. Railway lines had to be diverted and their levels changed, rivers carried under the canal by means of inverted siphons, and the Bridgewater Canal carried over the ship canal by means of a large swing aqueduct. The cost of construction was about $75,000,ooo. There "is extensive "dock accommodation at Manchester, Salford, Warrington, and elsewhere. In July, 1905, the King opened the new dock (No. 9) at anchester, the area of which is 15 acres, and the depth 28 ft. For the half-year ending June, 1905, the available profit amounted to $514,850. Manchuria, a country lying N.E. of China proper. Area, 363,000 sq. m., divided into three provinces : (1) Feng – tien, or Hsing - Ching, in the s. – cap. Mukden (Manchu name), or ShēnYang (Chinese name); (2) Kirin —cap. Kirin, or Chuen-chang; and (3) Hei-lung-chiang, in the N.—cap. Tsitsihar. The province of Feng-tien is divided by a range of hills starting in the s. of the Liao-tung peninsula and running N.E. to Kirin. It is well watered by the Liao, Hun, and Tai-tzu rivers, all navigable by junk in summer. At Yentai, 10 m. N.E. of Liao-yang, coal is mined. Ki

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SCENES IN MANCHURIA. 1. Gateway, Kirin. 2. Town of Kirin. 3. Talienwan Bay. 4. Tsitsihar. 5. Triumphal arches, Tsitsihar. 6. Prominent Chinese merchant decorated by Russians. 7. Manchurian belles, Kharbin. 8. On the Amu River. 9. Scene near Liao-yang.



have been evacuated afterward, it remained under Russian control, and this was the cause of the Russo-Japanese War §§ Both Russia and Japan nominally evacuated the country, in 1907, and China reëstablished the government under a viceroy. Actually, Russia still controls the northern half with its railways, and Japan the southern The latter country has secured concession after concession from China, and so has been able to extend her influence. Unsuccessful in securing China's consent to the reconstruction of the Antung-Mukden railway, she proceeded without it o and demanded also that our more towns be opened for trade. In return the disputed Shien-tao territory was restored to China, but Japan .*. isdiction over her subjects. Both Russia and Japan claim the right to control a considerable strip of territory on each side of the railways, and each has more than 10,000 soldiers, besides a considerable police force, So “ool, In 1908, however, Mr. Fisher, United States Consul at Kharbin, refused to acknowledge Russian jurisdiction over , foreigners and was sustained by his government. Secretary of State Knox further submitted to Russia and Japan, in 1909, a proposition to neutralize the railways and turn them over to China. Russia expressed willingness to consider the matter, but the Japanese government refused. Further, Japan has refused to allow the construction of the Fakumen railway unless the track is kept at a minimum distance from the lines she controls. .# estimated from 17 to 20 millions. See The Long White Mountain, by James (1888); Manchuria; Its %ple, Resources, and Recent History, by Alexander. Hosie (1901); The Story of the Manchuria Mission, by Mrs. Duncan M'Laren (1896). Mandaeans, or SABIANs, an Oriental sect whose religion is compounded of Christian, heathen, and Jewish elements, somewhat resembling the worship of the ancient Gnostics. They oc.#% a portion of Mesopotamia, and their scriptures are written in an Aramaic dialect...The principal of these is the Sidrà Rabbá, or “The Great-Book,” in which are related three total destructions of the human race by fire and water, pestilence and sword, only two persons in each case surviving. See Brandt's Mandāische Religion (1867), Babelon's Les Mandaites (1882). M and a lay . o of Upper Burma, on 1. bk. of Irawadi, 400 m. N. of Rangoon. The original town is a square encompassed by a wall. Its gates are surmounted by curious wooden towers, and in WOL. VII.-Jan. "10.

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pilgrims. , Silk-weaving is the chief industry. Pop. (1901) 166,154.

. Mandamus. A high prerogative writ, issued out of a court of superior jurisdiction, and directed to a court of limited jurisdiction, or to any person, public officer, corporation, or public body, commanding the party named therein to do some act. connected with their official duties, , and in some cases individual duty. It is known as an extraordinary o: and will only be granted when there is no other adequate remedy. Examples of its use are: to compel corporations to permit stockholders to examine their books in accordance, with the law; to compel a railroad company to tear up tracks laid §. securing the right of way; to restore a person to office; to compel a court of inferior jurisdiction, to try a case; to compel a Follo officer to pay money which e is required by statute to do. To obtain the writ the petitioner must generally show that he has demanded performance of the duty, that it is a clear legal du which he seeks to have performed, and that he cannot obtain redress otherwise. Disobedience of a writ of mandamus is çontempt of court. Consult Merrill's, Mandamus. Mandan, city, N. Dak., co: seat of Morton co., 4 m. w. of Bismarck, on the Missouri R., and on the N. Pac. R. R. It is situated at the junction of the Heart R. valley with the valley of the Missouri. It has railroad shops, flour mills, and cementblock works, and is the trade centre of an agricultural district. It is the seat of the state reform school and has a Catholic catheo, Old Fort #". 4 m. S. of the city, was the starting-point of Gen. "Čuster's ii. j. dition. A village of the Mandan Indians was formerly, situated here, and another neighborhood abounds in Indian relics. The Standing Rock Indian Reservation, 60 m. S., containing the remnants of the Sioux Indians, is reached from here. The great bridge of the Northern Pacific Railroad crosses the Missouri R. at this point and makes Mandan the railroad centre, for a great region of west N. Dakota. It was settled in 1879 and incorporated in 1883. Pop. (1905) 2,714. Mandan, an extinct tribe of Indians formerly residing in the vicinity of Mandan, N. D., While they were of Sioux stock, they

differed greatly from the other


tribes. They were agriculturists, raising corn, beans, and squashes, lived in underground houses, and made pottery that resembled the ware of the Iroquoi. They also ed great skill in skin dressing and porcupine quill work. At one time they were imagined to be of European origin, and many ingenious theories were offered in explanation, but it is now certainly known that they were Indians allied to the Dakota. See Coues's New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest (1897); Catlin, North American Indians (1848); Maximillian, Travels in North America (1843). Mandarin, general term applied by Europeans to Chinese government officials, civil or military. Their rank is indicated by the colors of the buttons on their caps. Those of the two highest orders (governors and generals) display buttons of red coral; the third order (lieutenant-governors, provincial judges, etc.), clear blue; the fourth order (prefects), lapis lazuli; the fifth order, crys: tal; the sixth order, white; and the seventh, eighth, and ninth orders, gilt or yellow buttons. The robes of civil authorities are embroidered with birds, and those of military authorities wit beasts. Admission to mandarin rank, and promotion therein, are regulated by state examination. Mandarin Duck (Aras galericulata), a handsome bird found in E. Asia, which possesses a neck-ruff of chestnut feathers, a curious ‘fan or ‘sail of chestnut , and . black feathers, and a brightly tinted crest. The female is soberly colored. It is now common in parks all over the World. Mandar in Orange (Citrus nobilis), a species of orange, with smaller fruit than most other species, and an easily removed rind. It has a distinct subtle flavor and powerfully aromatic odor. Man date. In Roman and Scots law a contract by which one person obliges himself to do some act for another person or to manage his affairs gratuitously. A reward may, however, be given in the form cf a honorarium. The mandatary must use reasonable diligence, such as he would employ in his own affairs. See BAILMENT. Mandaue, pueb., Cebu, PhilipÉ. on E. coast, 4 m. N.E. of ebu. Pop. (1903) 11,078. Mandevilla, a genus of tropical climbing shrubs, belonging to the order Apocynaceae. They bear simple racemes of mostly red or yellow, funnel-shaped flowers, The species most often cultivated is M. suaveolens, ‘Chilean jas

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