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mine,' ... bearing sweet-scented white flowers in great profusion. It is grown out of doors in California. Mandeville, EARLs of ESSEX. See Essex. Mande ville, BERNARD PE (?1670-1733), Dutch-English ethical writer, was a native of Dordrecht; settled in London about 1692, and practised medicine there until his death. He is the author of The Fable of the Bees (1714), a professedly ethical work, which in reality was a jeu d'esprit founded on the paradox that “private vices are public benefits,’ and that a nation's prosperity is advanced by individual greed and luxury. It is partly in verse, partly in prose, and combined, in the 1714 edition, The Grumbling Hive (1705), Remarks on this, and An Inquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue (1714). . . In a later edition (1723), he added A Search into the Origin of Society. Mandeville, SIR John, the accredited name of the author of a notable book of travels, published in French during the latter half of the 14th century. The real author is supposed to have been one Jean de Burgoyne, who died in Liège (1372), where he settled (1343) as a physician, being also astrologer, naturalist, and philosopher. The greater part of the book is borrowed from the Epistle of Prester John, the works of Friar Odoric, Vincent de Beauvais, Friar Carpini, and others. There is an edition by G. F. Warner (1889). Mandi, feudatory state, Punjab, India. Area, 1,131 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 174,045. Mandi, the chief town, is on the Beas, 45 m. N.w.. of Simla. Pop. (1901) 8,144. Mandible, a term used to designate the lower jaw of vertebrates, and also the toothlike appendages of the mouth in insects, crustaceans, and allied animals. Mandingans, or Mandénké, African people, in W. Sudan, where they form the bulk of the population between the Upper Niger and the Atlantic. Some, such as the Veis of the seaboard, are pure negroes and pagans; but the great majority are a blend of negro, Berber, and Arab elements. These have long been semi-civilized Mohammedans, who founded the powerful mediaeval empires of Mali and Guiné, and the more recent kingdoms of Massina, Bambara, and Kong. All speak dialects of the Mande language. Total population estimated at over 10,000,000. See Madrolle, En Guinée (1895); de Nordeck, Tour du Monde (1886). Mandla, chief th:, dist. of same name, Central Provinces, India,

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which has eight strings tuned in four pairs of unisons to the same fifths as the violin, and set in vibration by means of a plectrum. The compass of the instrument is about three octaves. Mandrake, or MANDRAGORA, a genus of hardy herbaceous plants, natives of S. Europe. They bear small pale-colored flowers, followed by, globose, apple-like fruits. They have thick roots, and generally sinuate – margined leaves. . M. vernalis, or devil's apple, blooms in early spring. M. autumnalis is supposed to be the mandrake referred to in Genesis in connection with Leah and Rachel. Its violet-colored flowers, much like those of the passion flower, appear in autumn. From very early times the mandrake has been superstitiously invested with all kinds of evil powers, having, in its forked roots, a fancied resemblance to the human form; it was said to grow near gallows, and to shriek when pulled from the ground. The mandrake, so-called, of America, is the “may-apple’ (Podophyllum peltatum). i Mandrel, an iron rod used as a core on which something may be held while in a lathe or round which something may be bent cylindrically — e.g. , the revolving shaft which carries the chuck of a lathe. Mandrill (Cynocephalus mormon), one of the largest of the baboons, and a native of the west coast of Africa. The canine teeth are of enormous size; the nose is ribbed with longitudinal ridges;


the cheeks are naked, and striped with brilliant colors; while the ischial callosities are of great size and bright red color. It is a savage and repulsive beast. Mandsaur, or MANDESUR, th:.., native state of Gwalior, Central India, 106 m. N.w.. of Indore. The treaty which concluded the Maratha-Bindari War was signed here in 1818. It has a trade in opium. Pop. (1901) 20,936. Manduria, th:, prov. Lecce, Apulia, Italy, 22 m. s.E. of Taranto; has a celebrated well. Its ancient walls are still standing. Pop. (1901) 13,190. Mandvi, seapt. on the s. of peninsula of Cutch, India, 36 m. s.w.. of Bhuj. Pop. (1901) 24,

Manes, the name given to the spirits of the dead by the ancient Romans. See LAREs. Manet, EDouard (1832–83), French realistic painter, whose study of the quiver of light on objects in the open air paved the way for the later impressionists. He was born at Paris, and studied under Couture, concerned solely with ‘the veritable art of the thing seen.” The novel, realistic treatment of his Olympia (in the Luxembourg, Paris), which reveals his endeavor, to give purity of outline, awoke bitter hostility. His influence was deep and lasting on the development of French art. One of the best of his paintings, The Boy with the Sword, is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. See Bazire's E. Manet (1884), and Beckwith, in Van Dyke, Modern French Masters (1896). | Manetho, an Egyptian priest and historian, who flourished in the third century B.C. He wrote in Greek two great works, one on the religion and theology of the Egyptians, the other on their history; only fragments exist of either. There is a translation. made by Whiston and published in New York in 1824, of quotations made by Josephus in Contra Appionun. that relate to the occupation and expulsion of the Hyksos. Best edition by Unger, in Chronologie des Mametho (1867). Manettia, a genus of tropical evergreen, climbing plants belonging to the order Rubiaceae. They bear white, red, or blue infundibuliform flowers, and are useful plants for greenhouse or conservatory, especially the common Manettia vine (M. bicolor) with scarlet tubular yellow-tipped flowers. Manfred (c. 1231–66), king of Sicily, where he was born, natural son of the Emperor Frederick II.; reigned from 1258. Excommunicated (1259) by Pope Alexander Manfredonia


Iv., Manfred with his Saracens overran Tuscany, and won the battle of Monte Aperto (1260), and subsequently met at Benevento (1266) Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis Ix. of France to whom Pope Urban Iv. ha offered the crown of Sicily. Manfred fell in the battle. Manfredonia, seapt., prov. Foggia, Apulia, Italy, 23 m. N.E. of Foggia, on the Gulf of Manfredonia. The town was founded in 1263 by Manfred, king of Sicily. It has an old castle and a cathedral. Figs and almonds are exported. Pop. (1901) 11,549. Mangalore, seapt., municipality, and military station, dist of S. Kanara, on the w. shore of Madras, India, 127 m. N.w.. of Calicut. The roadstead is open; export trade with Arabia and the Persian Gulf.” The town is the headquarters of the Basel Lutheran mission in India. Weaving, printing, binding, and tile manufacture are the chief industries. It has a Roman Catholic bishop and an ecclesiastical college. Pop. (1901) 44,108. Mangan, JAMES CLARENCE (1803-49), Irish poet, was born in Dublin. He ranks high among Irish poets, there being fine spirit and quality in his verse. He also wrote German Anthology (1845), and The Poets and Poetry of Munster (1849). An edition of his Poems, by D. J. Q'Donoghue, appeared in 1903. See Life by M’Call (1887). Manganese, Mn 55.0, is a metallic element principally found as pyrolusite (black oxide of manganese, MnO2). The metal is obtained by reducing the oxide with aluminium, and resembles iron, but is harder and very brittle, has a reddish tinge, and is more easily soluble in acids. Its specific gravity is 7.4, and it melts at 1,245° C. Pure manganese is used in the manufacture of very hard steel, and to alloy with copper, brass, and nickel. Whilst alloyed with iron as ferromanganese and spiegel-eisen, it is largely used in the preparation of mild steel. Manganese ores are found in the United States in Arkansas, California, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Virginia. The total production in 1907 was 5,604 long tons, valued at $63,369, of which 4,604 tons game, from Virginia, 800 tons from South Carolina, and 100 tons each from California and Tennessee. During 1907 there were 209,032, long tons of manganese ore, valued at $1,793,143, imrted for consumption in the nited States, by far the largest uantity being obtained from In| where considerable American capital has been invested in the

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Brazil . . 1905 . . 233,950 Germany . 1906 . . 52,500 Russia . . 1905 . . 426,813 Spain . . 1905 . . . 26,020 India . . ... . 253,896

19 he compounds of mangañese are extremely varied, for , it unites with oxygen to no less than five different degrees. Manganous salts, derived from MnO represent the lowest stage of oxidation. . They are , pink, well crystallized, and soluble in water, and , are precipitated by... ammonium sulphide and alkalis. Manganese dioxide, MnO2, is the source of manganese and all its derivatives. It is a black solid with feeble basic properties, forming unstable salts: that given by hydrochloric acid, MnOli, decomposes on heating, and yields chlorine, a process by which chlorine is largely prepared on the commercial scale. Manganese dioxide is also employed to improve the color of glass and as a depolarizer in the Léclanché and dry cell. The higher oxidation derivatives of manganese— vic. manganic and permanganic acids—are best known in their alkali salts. The manganates are green, and are converted into permanganates by the action of acids. Sodium and potassium permanganate have a deep purple color and powerful oxidizing action, which is made use of in analysis and for disinfecting purDOSes. Mangatarem, pueb., Pangasinan prov., fużon, Philipines, 18 m. s. of Lingayen. Pop. 1903), i2,895. Mange. See Dogs—Diseases of. Mangel Wurzel. See BEET. Manghishlak, region of Transcaspian prov., Russian Central Asia, bounded E. by Khiva, and w. by Caspian. Area, 60,000 sq. m.; pop. 150,000, mostly Kirghiz. Capital, Fort Alexandrovsk. Manglaur, th:, Saharanpur dist., United Provinces, India, 48 m. N. by E. of Meerut. Pop. (1901) 10,763. Mangonel, an engine formerly used in war for battering down walls and hurling missiles. It was worked by counterpoise, and possessed great accuracy in aim. Mangosteen, the delicious fruit of a tropical evergreen tree, Garcinia mangostana, belonging to the order Guttiferae. The tree is a native of the Straits Settlements, being cultivated in Java and in other tropical countries,


and its round fruit is orange-like, with a brown, spotted, thick rind. The interior is divided into segments, holding a juicy, cooling pulp, delicate in flavor, and both sweet and acid. Mango Tree (Mangifera indica), an East Indian evergreen tree of the order Anacardiaceae so almost 60 ft. high, and aring in summer panicles of ellow-streaked white flowers, folowed by kidney-shaped, red-andellow fruit, with a smooth skin. nimproved varieties of mango are fibrous and have a turpentine flavor; the bean-shaped seed embedded in this resinous pulp is nearly as long as the fruit, roughshelled, and is itself edible when roasted. In spite of its turpentime-like odor and taste, the mango is a favorite food of the tropics, being eaten raw when ripe; and made into various preserves. It is widely cultivated in the West Indies, and somewhat in the southern parts of Florida and California. The fruits ripen from June to September, and are often exported to the United States. Mangrove (Rhizophora Mangle), a genus of tropical trees belonging to the order Rhizophoraceae. It grows in swampy ground, and gradually reclaims land from the ocean's edge, both by the advance of its root and by the habit of the seeds, which germinate whilst still attached to the parent tree, the young trees ready formed with roots and branches dropping into the water in advance of the parent stems. The fruit is edible, and the bark used for tanning. It is common along the coasts of southern Florida. Mangum, vil., Okla., co. seat of Greer co., 40 m. N. of Quanah Tex., on the Chi., Rock I. an Pac. R. R. It is surrounded by a cotton-growing country, and has manufactures of cotton, lumber, flour, beer, etc. Pop. about 2,000. Mangum, . WILLIE PERSON (1792-1861), American, politician, rominent in the Whig par w orn in Orange co. - He graduated at the tjniversity of N. Carolina in 1815 and was admitted to the bar the next rear. . After becoming a mem}. of the legislature in 1818 he was elected judge of the Superior Court in 1819, but served only one year. He entered Congress in 1823, and was re-elected, but resigned in 1826 and again became judge. He became U. S. senator in 1831, but being unwilling to obey instructions from the legislature, resigned in 1836. The next year he received the electoral vote of South Carolina for President of the United States, and again was a member of the

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incorporated under . its present title by the Regents of the University of the State of New York in

1863. It comprises the college #. with , arts and science epartments, the academic department, the commercial department, and the reparatory school. Grad: uates ...? a number of affiliated schools in New York and New England are admitted to the college without examination. NonCatholic students are received but must conform to the general regulations. The college has a library of about 12,000 volumes, and in 1909 had 263 students and 25 instructors. Its income was $50,177. Manhattan Island, isl., 13. m. long and from 3 m. to 24 m. wide, situated at the mouth of the Hudson R., bounded on the N. by the Harlem Ship, Canal (before its construction, by Spuyten Duyvil creek), on the E. by the Harlem and the East Rs., on the s. New York §. #a , and on the w. by the Hudson. Its area is 22 ...} m. It constitutes the borough of Manhattan in the City of New York, and contains more than half the population of the municipality. he rocky heights in the

northern portion rise to an eleva

tion of about 240 ft. See NEW


Manichaeism, a dualistic system of religion which originated in Persia in the early 4th century. Its originator was one Mani, who was born in Babylonia c. 216 A.D. He won the recognition of the Emperor Shapur, exercised considerable influence under Hormizd I., and was finally É. to death by crucifixion and flaying by Bahram I. He composed the #. of Secrets, the Book of Precepts for Hearers (or Epistola Fundamenti), and the Book of Making Alive (or Thesaurus

Wol. WII.-Jan. '10.

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Vitae). His teaching is founded on the dualism characteristic of Persian speculation, and is indeed only a materialization of it. Manichaeism is a syncretism of Persian and Christian ideas, and Buddhist elements are not wanting. It made great progress in its native region, its chief centre being Babylon and, later, Samarkand; was prominent in N. Africa in the age of Augustine; and lasted well into the middle ages. See F. C. Baur's Das Manichäische System 1831); Geiler's Manichaismus u. uddhism us go; Flügel's Manis Lehre u. Schriften (1862); Harnack's History of ogma (1897 ft.); and fragments of Mani's writings in ... the Bib. Graca of Fabricius, vii. 323 ff. Manifest, or SHIP's MANIFEst, a document signed by the master, owner, or agent of a ship at the place of lading, and lodged with the proper customs officer. It must give a description of the vessel, crew, passengers (if *} ports of destination, and a til account of all the cargo, with marks, descriptions, consignors' names, ets.; if for a foreign port, the coal or fuel for use on the voyage must also be stated. anihiki, or PENRHYN, group of twelve coral islands in Pärifié, N. of Society Is...; annexed (1888) by Great Britain, and including aroline or Thornton I., Manihiki, Penrhyn, and Suwarrow. Included in New Zealand, 1901. Area, over 50 sq. m. Pop. 1,700.

Manihot, a genus of American shrubs and herbaceous plants belonging to the order. Euphorbi

aceae. The roots of M. utilissima and M. Aipi are the sources of cassava meal and tapioca. See CASSAVA. Manikaland, country of S. Africa, divided between Portu. uese E. Africa and Rhodesia oil. - The railway rom Beira to Fort Salisbury runs through it. The country is noted for its gold fields. Manila, the capital, largest city, and chief commercial emporium of the o: Islands situated on Manila Bay and isl. o Luzon; lat. 14° 35' 31" N., long. 12° 58' 08" E. It stands on a level o on both sides of the Pasig R., surrounded by a distant semicircle of mountains. The old city, with its bastioned walls church towers, and balconie houses, preserves a mediaeval air, and the sarge public buildings in a heavy and sombre style suggest the dominance of the religious orders under the former regime. At the time of the American occupation the chief buildings within the walls were the offices of the military government, artillery, cavalry, and infantry barracks, general offices of the civil administration, the archbishop's


palace, cathedral (Roman Byzan

tine style), several churches and convents, the University, the College of San Juan de Létran, a college of medicine, and other colleges and seminaries. The walls have a circumference of 24 m. and , are , pierced by six gates. Further defences were the bay on the w:, the Pasig on the N., and a moat on the landward side. Breakwaters extend into the bay from the mouth of the river. The S. one is 2,000 ft. long. . Avenue Santa Lucía extends along the beach and terminates in a monument to Governor Anda. The Luneta, an elliptical drive further S. on the shore, is the most §: promenade. The Paseo ão. allanes, extends along, the river under the walls. An obelisk here commemorates the discoverer of

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ping houses, and hotels. The upper rt is inhabited by the native Chinese. Indian, and half

caste artisans, the jewelers, enannelers, painters, and confectioners. Here also are the places of public amusement, gaming houses, and popular resorts. La Escolta, the chief street, has European and American shops. Between Binondo and the toy is San Nicolás with the U. S. custom-house, commissary depot, dock and port works. Tondo occupies the shore of the bay to the N. It is the most populous quarter, having 40,000 inhabitants. The streets are narrow, but traffic is facilitated by a great number of interlacing streams which are utilized as canals and give the district the appearance of an oriental Venice. A, military building is situated at the Plaza de Felipe (Philip II.). Other points of interest in the quarter are the station of the Manila-Dagupan R., a fine church, a convent, theatre, market-place, and cemetery. . 'The *#. built of cane and nipa pain, r1shing, weavin and truck gardening . the §§ industries. Santa Cruz, N. of Binondo, is the second most populous quarter; contains Bilibid, which is a famous government jail, St. Lazare, the leper hospital, the Chinese cemetery; and is noted for its handicrafts. Quiapo, a small suburb on the river, §s a suspension bridge 350 ft. long. The street of San Sebastian presents a picturesque scene with porticoed native houses. San Miguel, to the E., another small district, conManila

tains the residence of the former captains-general of the Philip#. and other elegant villas. ere also are several public buildings. Another residential district, Sampaloc, adjoining on the N.w.., has the widest avenue and one of the handsomest in Manila. Pandacan is a small and almost insular suburb. Paco, or San Fernando de Dilao. S. of the river, is the chief seat of the cigar industry. Ermita and Malate, occupying the bay shore S. of the city, are residential districts with well built modern houses. The observatory and normal school are situated in the former. These two are the quarters chiefly, favored by American families. river boats and shipping support a population of 16,000. n 1907 Burnham, of Chicago, visited Manila and mapped out a plan for the improvement of the city, which was adopted as the basis for subsequent development. The harbor works were practically completed in 1907, and two new wharves have more recently been completed. Following, the Burnham plan, 200 acres, behind, the Luneta, were filled in with dredged matter from the harbor, and improved by the construction of two new roads from the Malecon drive. During 1908 the city purchased more than 300,000 sq. meters of land for street widening, pumping stations for the new sewer system, and for school sites and parks. The streetage maintained and kept in repair in Manila is 1463 kilometers, covering an area of 1,360,229 sq. meters, of which 1,307,989 are macadamized. A new water o system is in construction, which, with the completion of the Montalban Dam and the reservoir at San uan del Monte, will considerably increase the present capacity. During 1908, 7,364,985 cubic meters of water were pumped for consumption. There were 4,407 house water installations in 1908, an increase of 162 over 1907. The sewerage is conducted by the pumping system, according to lans of O. L. Ingalls and D. itzgerald, drawn up in 1904. The streets (1908) are lighted by 402 arc and 327 incandescent lamps. The police department comprises 459 men and the fire department 142 men. In 1908 there were 324 teachers in the ublic schools (262 Filipinos and § Americans), the enrollment being 9,166 in the day schools and 1,181 in the night schools., Special attention is given to handicrafts in the public schools. The total value of taxable property in Manila (1908) is 81,943,694 pesos; the total revenue is 2,226,226 pesos; the revenue from taxes being 1,282,007 pesos; , from licenses 226,076 pesos, and from markets WOL, WIL.-Jan. '10.


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283,150 pesos. The total expenditure of the city (1908) is 1,897,858 pesos. During, 1908 Manila was twice visited by the Asiatic cholera. On July 1, 1908, a new charter for Wins; went into effect. The city had formerly been governed by two boards, viz., a municipal board and an advisory board. The new charter substituted one municipal council of 8 elective and 5 appointive members. The leading industries of Manila are the manufacture of cigars liquors, distilled and malt, sowed lumber, ships and boats, brick and tile, boots and shoes, clothing, rope, cord, thread, and ice. Others are represented by foundries machine shops, stone cuttin and wood working shops, etc. There is a cotton mill equipped with modern machinery. In 1902 there were 876 industrial establishments with an output of 23,591,807 pesos (about $9,500,000 at the average rate for the year) or 67.2 per cent. of the manufactures of the Philippines. Manila handles about 82 per cent. of the imports and 68 per cent. of the exports of the archipelago. Ships of every nation may be seen in the roadstead and consuls of 21 different countries have their residence here. Arrivals and clearances of vessels to or from the other ports of the Philippines are of daily occurrence. A native village, called Maynila, from a species of shrub which grew there, occupied the site of the city at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards. Cebu was the first headquarters of the western nation, however, and it was not until 1571 that i.egaspi took and

fortified Manila. In 1590 the foundations of the present fortifications were laid. In 1603 a fire

destroyed one third of the city and an uprising of the Chinese resulted in a general massacre disastrously to themselves. Taken and sacked in 1762 by a stron expedition of the Engsish, whic appeared j. the city was not restored until two years later, after a period marked by unprecedented T. disorders. The great earthquake of 1863, destroyed 46 public and 570 private buildings and killed or injured 2,500 people. Dr. José Rizal, the Filipino patriot, was executed at Manila in 1896. he next year the city was declared under martial law, following a skirmish, with the insurgents on the outskirts. On May 1, 1898, an American fleet under Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. The city capitulated to American forces on Aug. 13th. Pop. (1876), 93,595; (1887) 176, 777; (1907) 223,542. . Of the 28,250 o born (in 1907) 18,028 were Chinese, 5,199 Amer


icans, 2,903 Spaniards, 977 cther Europeans, and 1,143 of all other miscellaneous origins. For the climate of Manila, its commerce, bibliography, etc., see PHILIPPINE

*ēśīa. Bay, an arm of the China Sea, at the middle of the w. coast of Luzon. It is 30 m. in extent from the N. shore to Manila at the E. and from Manila S.W. to the entrance. Its entrance is 11 m. wide. Five provinces and the city of Manila touch its shores. The Rio Grande de la Pampanga flows into the bay *# a large delta in the N.E. part. There are many other rivers, among which the Pasig at Manila, the Orani, and the Imus are the most noted. Numerous small estuaries and tidal lakes intersect the low, marshy, shores. Small islands divide the entrance into two channels. The land is high here on both sides. An artificial port is under construction at anila. The roadstead, o capable of accommodating the largest vessels, is exposed, by the size and openness of the bay, to the violence of the s.w.. monsoon. Vessels of 300 tons are afforded shelter by the Pasig R., which is 500 ft. in width in its lower course, and larger ships take refuge at Cavite, 9 m. s.s.w. The o: connects Manila Bay with Lana de Bay in the interior. The attle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898, resulted in the destruction of the Spanish ships by theámerican fleet. Manila Bay, BATTLE OF, a naval battle fought in Manila Bay, P.I., on May 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War, between an American fleet under Com, George Dewey, and a Spanish fleet under Admiral Montojo. The battle lasted from about 5.40 A.M. until about 12.30 P.M. (including an intermission from 7.30 until about 10.30), and ended in the destruction of the Spanish fleet, the American, fleet being practically uninjured. No one was killed and only 6 were wounded on the American side; the Spanish lost fully 630 in killed and wounded — probably more. Dewey's fleet consisted of the protected cruisers Olympia (Captain C. V. gridlo). Baltimore (Captain N. - §: Raleigh (Captain J. B. Coghlan), and Boston (Captain F. Wildes), the fourth-rate cruiser Petrel (Commander E. P. Wood), the gunboat Concord (Commander Asa Walker), the revenue-cutter Hugh McCulloch, and the supply vessel *; ; Montojo's, of the cruisers Reina Cristina, Castilla Velasco, Don Juan de Austria, and Don Antonio de Ulloa, and of ten small gunboats. The American vessels were overwhelmingly superior to the Spanish in many ways, having vastly better arma

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Manilius, two Romans of note. (1.) GAIUS MANILIUs, tribune in 66 b.c., who proposed the Manilian law which gave Pompey full command in the Mithridatic war. Cicero delivered a speech, Pro Lege Manilia, in support of this law. (2.) MARcus or GAIUs MANILIUs, a Roman poet, who lived most probably in the Augustan age. He is known solely by his m Astronomica. Editions: ło, (1739), R. Ellis's Noctes Manilianae (1891). Manilla Hemp, or ABACA, a name given to the fibre obtained from a plantain (Musa tertilis) or banana plant common in the Philippines... It is exported...in large quantities, and used like true hemp for cordage, for binding-twine, sail-cloth, and other fabrics. In 1902 846,520 bales were exported, of which 399,099 went to the U. S. and 380,161 to Great Britain. The greatest production of the islands was in 1901, when 913,349 bales were exported. See HEMP. Manin, DANIELE (1804–57), Italian patriot, was born at Venice. From 1831 he became a leader of liberal opinion in Venice, and was imprisoned; but the outbreak of 1848 set him at liberty, and he was made head of the Venetian republic, and is counted as the last doge. He organized the defence against the Austrians for five months. Man in the Iron Mask. See IRoN MAsk. Manioc. See CASSAVA. Man ipur, or IMPHAIL. (1.) Feudatory state of Assam, India, between Assam and Upper Burma. Area, 8,300 sq. m. . It consists mainly of an extensive valley; its products are tea, cotton, rice, tobacco, opium, and indigo. It has been under British control since 1825; in 1891 some British officials were treacherously murdered, necessitating a punitive expedition. Pop. (1901) 284,465. (2.) Capital of above state, 226 m. N.w.. of Mandalay. Pop. (1901) 67,093. Manis. See PANGOLIN. Manissa, th:., Asia Minor, on 1. bk. of Gediz-chai, 21 m. N.E. of Smyrna by rail. It contains the palace of Kara Osman Oglu. Manufactures cotton goods. At one time it was noted for lodestone. Pop. 38,000. Manistee, city, Mich., co. seat of Manistee co., 100 m. N.N.W. of Grand Rapids, on the shore of L. Michigan, at the mouth of the Manistee R. and on the Pere Marq., the Manis. and Gr. Rap. and the Manis. and N. E. R. Rs. The chief manufactures are lumber, salt, furniture, machinery,

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etc. An apparently inexhaustible jo, of brine, pumped from wells 2,000 ft. deep, is the source of the salt. The quantity shipped amounts to 250,000 tons annually. The brine is also esteemed in the treatment of rheumatism and other diseases. Cement is another natural resource of the region. The public institutions include the Mercy Sanatorium, the city hosital, Carnegie Library, and the anistee County Normal School. The chief pleasure resort is Orchard Beach, 24 m. N. of the city. Manistee was settled in 1841. . It was completely destroyed by fire in 1871. Pop. (1904) 12,708. . Manistique, city, Mich., co. seat of Schoolcraft co., 43 m. E.N.E. of Escanaba, on L. Michigan, at the mouth of the Manistiue R., and on the Ann Arbor and ere Marquette S. S. lines, and the Man., Marq. and N. and the Minneap., St. P. and Sault Ste. M. R. §. It is the ?"o. of the N. peninsula of Michigan which is open o the year and ships considerable quantities of grain and lumber. here are large lumber, lath, shingle and tie #. tanneries, lime kilns, wood alcohol works, etc. The fishing interests are considerable. Manistique was settled about 1860 and incorporated in 1901. It enjoys repute as a summer, and sportsmen's resort. Pop. (1904) 4,596. Manitoba, a province of the Dominion of Canada, situated between 49° and 52° 50' N. lat. and between 95° and 101° 30' w. long. It is bounded on the S. §. the states of Minnesota and N. Dakota, on the N. by the district of Keewatin, on the E. by the lat

ter and by the province of Ontario and on the w. by the province of Saskatchewan. Area, 73,732 sq.

m., of which 64,327 sq. m. are land and 9,405 sq. m. are under water. In 1908 the Dominion House of Commons adopted a resolution to extend the boundaries of Manitoba, but the resolution has not }; (March, 1909) been enar; into o: nd Geol Th

opography a eology.- line land E. of the E. ...of Lake Winnipeg is comparatively sterile and rocky. In the w. and s.w. stretches an undulating plain of greater altitude than the central prairie region and river, valleys and , known as the Riding and Duck mountains, the former bein thickly covered with forests o pine. The northerly portion of the province is better wooded, the central and southern prairie region having comparatively few trees except along the banks of the rivers. The province is abundantly watered by Lakes Winnipeg (270 m. long by from 20 to 60 wide), Manitoba (130 m. long by 20 m. wide), Winnipegosis (150 m.


long by from 6 to 20 m. wide). and Dauphin, and by the Red, Winnipeg, and Kissol. rivers and their tributaries. All the rivers flow into Lake Winni and thence into Hudson #. Underneath the Red river and Assiniboine valleys are limestone deposits of the Silurian and Devonian riods. Cretaceous rocks underlie the more elevated region to the W. of these valleys. Soil and Climate.—The rich mould or loam of the Red river and Assiniboine valleys is noted for production of grain, especially wheat, of which Manitoba No. 1 hard is the most widely famed yariety and is unexcelled in quality: P. of the N. the land is hilly and comparatively poor, in the E. the thin soil j’t. rocky Laurentian region prevails. The climate is cold in winter, the temperature falling occasion: ally to 40°, below zero; but the severity of the cold is modified by plentiful sunshine and dry, bracing atmosphere, and the winters are healthful. The heat of summer is moderated by slight but steady winds, and the nights are cool. In midsummer the duration of sunshine reaches eighteen hours, leaving a larger margin of light and warmth for plant life than in lower latitudes; while the retention of moisture in the surface soil during ...; and early summer often obviates the danger of drought. The mean in of ico is 33°, and the extremes are 95° in summer to between 40° and 50° in Winter. . Industries.—The chief industry is agriculture, though the rapid growth of Winnipeg and o: towns indicates considerable manufacturing development in the future. heat is the chief cereal, and oats, barley, hay, and flax are largely raised. in sooo there were 4,041,370 acres under cultivation in all crops, as compared with 2,752,843 acres in 1901 and 1,219,129 acres in 1891. In 1906 there were produced 54,472,198 bushels of wheat, 44,643,300 bushels of oats, and 11,979,554 bushels of barley, averaging respectively 16.52, 38.80, and 30.54 bushels to the acre. There were also 4,150,012 bushels of potatoes, 235,596 tons of hay, 63,465 tons of forage crops, and 2,403 tons of sugar beets, besides good crops of flax, rye, corn, and peas. Stock-raising and dairying are being cultivated with much success. On Jan. 1, 1906, the province had 163,867 horses; 349,886 cattle, of which 141,484 were milch cows; 29.464 sheep, and 126,459, pigs. There are many creameries o the province, and the value of the dairy products in 1907 was $1,217,582. Commerce and Railways.-The exports are chiefly cattle, wheat,

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