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turies. From the Volga steppe took place, in 1771, the famous migration of the Kalmuks (70,000 families) from Russian to Chinese territory, described by Pallas, De Quincey, and others. At present 160,000 Kalmuks are reckoned under Russian rule. In Chinese territory their number is estimated at from 250,000 to 850,000. See Howorth, History of the Mongols, 1877. See Mongols. Kalnoky, GUSTAv SIEGMUND, Count (1832–98), Austrian states: man, born at Lettowitz, of an old Transylvanian family; was ambassador at St. Petersburg (1880), and minister of foreign affairs (1881–95). He was especially instrumental in bringing about more amicable relations between Russia and Austria, but his friendliness did not prevent him from effectively opposing the intrigues of Russia in Bulgaria (1886). . Kalocsa, th: and archiepisc. see, Hungary, co. Pest, near 1. bk. of Danube, 86 m. by rail S. of Budapest. It possesses a fine cathedral, an archiepiscopal palace, and an observatory. Pop. (1900) 11,372, mostly Magyar Catholics, who are chiefly engaged in the fisheries in the Danube. Kalpass tras, a series of manuals of ceremonial in connection with the Vedic sacrifices. Toether they form one division of the 'edóngas, treatises supplementing the Vedas and Bráhmanas.

Kalpi, or CALPEE, th:, Jolo. dist., United Provinces, India, on r. bk. of Jumna, 45 m. s.w...of Cawnpur. It was connected with incidents in the mutiny. It has manufactures of cotton, paper, and sugar. Pop. (1901) 10,139.

Kaltenborn, FRANz P. (1865), American musician, was born in Hamburg, Germany, and was brought to the U. S. in 1870. He studied under distinguished masters of the violin in New York, and made his début in that city at the age of fourteen. He was first violin of the Metropolitan Opera House , orchestra at its formation, and held the same position in the N. Y. Philharmonic Society and Seidl's orchestra. He organized the Kaltenborn quartet in 1896, and his orchestra of fifty instruments in 1900, having gained a leading 3. as a conductor. He has

one much to encourage chamber music in this o,

Kalubich, gov., Lower Egypt on E. of Nile and N. of Cairo. Area, 352 sq. m. Pop. (1897) 371,465

Kaluga. (1.) Government of coloss. bounded by Moscow on the N. Area, 11,940 sq. m. Pop. (1897), 1,185,726. The country is mostly level. The Oka, is the chief river. Iron, coal, chalk, ochre, lime, limestone, potters' earth, and phosphorites are ex

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Kāma, or KAMADEva, the Indian god of love. He is represented as riding on a sparrow holding in his "h. a bow of sugar-cane and five arrows—the five senses.

Kama, riv. of E. Russia, the most important affluent of the Volga, having a length of 1,170 m., and a basin of 202,600 sq. m. It rises in Vyatka government, and flows almost due N., then N.E., and after entering Perm makes a sharp turn to the s., and so continues (navigable from Solikamsk) to Perm city. From Perm to its junction with the Byelaya it flows s.w.., and its depth reaches fifty feet. After meeting with the last-named tributary (navigable from Ufa), which

the small glands and hairs from the surface of the capsules of the Indian tree Mallotus philippinensis. Its value in medicine as an anthelmintic depends on a resin, which constitutes four-fifths of its weight. It is a powerful gastrointestinal irritant. Kamchatka, peninsula in E. Siberia. A range of mountains averaging from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. runs down the centre. Volcanoes are very numerous, twelve being active, among them being Klyuchevskaya (over 16,000 ft.). Sheveluch, Belaya Sopka (the most imposing of the extinct volcanoes), and Avacha, near Petropavlovsk. The slopes of the central range consist of swampy valleys, separated by elevated forKame


ests, and in the N. of bush-covered plains. The Kamchatka R. (300 m.) is the longest stream, and is navigable by boats to Sheromi. Iron, copper, and coal exist. Chief occupations: fishing, seal and walrus hunting, and the chase — especially . sable: . The climate is severe. The winds are very violent, and snow falls to a great depth....The cap. is Petropavlovsk. The population consists principally of Kamchadales, with a large proportion of Russians and a few Koryaks. Area, 104,300 sq. m. Pop. 8,400. Kame. A low hill or ridge of glacial origin. It is characterized by its component materials, which consist of stratified sands, gravels, and boulders deposited by the streams that issue from under the ice. Kames are very common in the areas that were overrun by ice during the glacial period. See DRIFT. Kamenets-Podolsk, th:., S.W. Russia, cap. of Podolia gov., 250 m. N.w.. of Odessa, on a tributary of the Dnieper. It has a brewery, and tobacco, wadding, and mineral water manufactories. The town was annexed by Russia in 1795. Pop. (1897) 34,483, of whom more than 10,000 are Jews, many of whom suffered in the riots and massacres of 1905. Kamenskaya, th:, territory of the Army of the Don, S. Russia, 65 m. N. of Novo-Cherkask, on the r. bk. of the N. Donets. Pop. (1897) 23,576. Kamenz, th:, kingdom of Saxony, 32 m. by rail N.E. of Dresden; birthplace of Lessing (172981). The chief products are cloth. pottery, and glass. Pop. (1900) 9,726. Kamerun, or CAMERoon, German colony of W. Africa. 191,130 sq. m. in area; extends for some 200 m. along the Bight of Biafra. Its boundaries touch the Benue, Lake Chad, and the Shari valley. The coast lands are low, but the interior is reported to be a grassy plateau, rising rapidly from a narrow and fertile strip of coast-land. North of the plateau region there are mountain masses and dense forests. Kamerun Mt., or Monga-ma-Loba, is an isolated volcanic mass rising some 13,700 t. on the coast. Coffee, cocoa, tobacco, rice, maniocs, and yams are grown. The rainfall is ex: tremely heavy in the cool period from June to September. The natives are Bantus on the coast lands, and Sudanese in the interior. Rubber, palm kernels, palm oil, ivory, cocoa, copal, copra, and kola nuts are exported. Kamerun was made a German protectorate in 1884. The seat of government has been at Buéa since April, 1901, but the chief town is Duala (Kamerun). Pop. 3,500,000.

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Kames, HENRY Home, LoRD (1696-1782), Scottish judge and metaphysical writer, born at Kames, Berwickshire, and was elevated to the bench (1752). He was a voluminous writer, with a considerable knowledge of law and a taste of metaphysics; but his books are badly written and superficial, though ingenious. See Tytler's Life and Writings of Hon. Henry Home of Kames (1807). Kaministiquia, a Canadian riv., one of the largest affluents of Lake Superior, rising in s.w. of Lake Nipigon, Ontario, and flowing s. and E. to enter by three arms into Thunder Bay at Fort William. The scenery along its banks is attractive, and about 25 m. from its mouth is the picturesque and striking cataract known as Kakabeka Falls (150 ft. wide and 130 ft. high). The great water-power which this riv. is capable of affording is attracting (1906) much attention from the manufacturing interests located at and near Fort William and Port Arthur. Kamishin, or KAMYSHIN, th:, E. Russia, Saratov gov., 110 m. s.s.w.. of Saratov city. on r. bk. of Volga. Pop. (1897) 15,934. Kamloops, th:, Yale dist., B. C., on the C. P. R. R., at the junction of the N. and s. Thompson Rs., 224 m. E. of Vancouver. On account of its dry and equable climate it is a well-known health resort, especially for those afflicted with , lung troubles. Its position as the centre of supplies for a rich agricultural and mining district gives it a large trade with farmers, miners, and ranchmen, and among its manufactures are lumber, machine-shop and leather products. It gives its name to a variety of “steelhead ' trout found in the Thompson and other rivers. It has several civic buildings, being the seat of government for the district of Yale. Pop. (1905) 2,000. Kampen, th:, prov. Overijssel, Netherlands, near mouth of the Ijssel, 8 m. by rail N.w.. of Zwolle. Here is the theological seminary of the Christian Reformed community. Pop. (1899) 19,664. . Kam per du i n, coast vil., Netherlands, prov. N. Holland, 27 m. N.w.. of Amsterdam. Here Admiral Duncan defeated the Dutch fleet, Oct. 11, 1797. See CAMPERDown, BATTLE of.

Kam t c hat ka. See KAMCHATKA. Kamyshin. See KAMISHIN.

Kanagawa, seapt., Honshiu, Japan, on Tokyo Bay, on the East Sea Road and on the R. R., 14 m. N.N.w.. of Yokohama. As a treaty port it was superseded by Yokohama in 1858. Pop., 11,345.

Kanakas, general term , for Polynesians, used by the whites


of Australasia and Polynesia. It usualy designates coolies and contract laborers. Kanaka labor was formerly largely employed in Australia, especially in the ueensland sugar industry, where there were about 9,000 in 1903. From the end of 1906, their importation will be prohibited. Kanara, a strip of country on the w: shore of India, between the W. Ghats and the Arabian Sea. It embraces (1.) N. KANARA, with capital harbor, and an area 9f 3,910 sq. m., in the Bombay Presidency; (2.) S. KANARA, with cap. Mangalore, and an area of 3,902 sq. m., in the Madras Presidency. Pop. (1901): N. Kanara, 454,490; S. Kanara, 1,134,713. Kanarese, Dravidian people of S. India, some, ten millions in number, and inhabiting the plateau of Mysore, part of S. Bombay, and the Kanara country. They possess an alphabet and a written literature, with works dating back to the 12th century. See DRAvid IAN. Kanaris, CoNSTANTINE (1785– 1877), a Greek naval hero who figured in the war of independence; born in the island of Psara. In 1822 he twice blew up the

Turkish flagship, and in 1824 all but burned the whole fleet at Alexandria. He was minister of

marine (1854-5), and for short periods in 1862, 1864, and 1865 head of the government. Kanauj, ancient city, Farukhabad dist., United . Provinces, India. 49 m. N.w.. of Cawnpur. Now in a ruined condition, it was up to the 12th century A.D. a most important place. In 1018 it, was taken by Mahmud of Ghazni, and again, in 1194, by Mohammed Ghori. Here, in 1540, Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah. The population has dwindled to a small number of very poor people. Kanawha, GREAT, riv. of W. Va., l. bk. trib. of the Ohio; rises in the w- part of N. Carolina under the name of New R., flows N. across S.W. Virginia., and then N.W. across W. Virginia to its junction with the Ohio at Point leasant... Its length is nearly 400 m., and the area of its drainage basin 16,690 sq. m. It is navigable to Kanawha Falls, W. Virginia. Kanazawa, cap. of prefecture of Ishikawa (which includes Kaga and Noto provs.), on w. coast of mainland of Japan, 125 m. N.E. of Kyoto, about 36° 30' N., 136° 40' E. . Manufactures porcelain (Kutani), fans, silks, and inlaid bronzes. Pop. (1904) 99,657. Kanchanjanga, or KINCHINJUNGA, highest point of the Nepal Himalayas, N. India, rising to more than 28,000 ft. In 18991900, it was visited by Mr. Douglas...W. Freshfield. See his Round Kangechenjunga (1903).

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General Nott in 1842. It was again entered by the British in 1879, and the following year was besieged by Ayub Khan, being relieved by General (now Lord) Roberts in August, 1880, after a magnificent march from Kabul. Pop. 25,000 to 50,000. Kandy, the old cap. of Ceylon, India, lies near the centre of the island, on an artificial lake, 75 m. by rail N.E. of the new cap., Colombo. The temple of the sacred tooth of Buddha attracts crowds of pilgrims. Much has lately been done to restore and preserve the unique Kandy, decorations. Three miles distant are the botanic gardens of Peradenia. Tea, cocoa, pepper, cinchona, vanilla, areca nuts, cocoanuts, and coffee are cultivated. Pop. (1901), 26,519.

Mount Kanchanjanga, from Phalut. (Photo by Johnstone & Hoffmann.)

at the University of Virginia and in the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1842, writing a thesis on Kyestein which attracted considerable attention. In 1843 he accompanied Caleb Cushing to China as physician to the Chinese embassy, exploring the Philippines en route; became an assistant surgeon in the U. S. navy in the same year, and then travelled extensively in the East

conducted explorations in Brazi

and in the interior of Africa (1846– 7), and served in the Mexican War (1847). He is remembered, flowever, chiefly for his Arctic expeditions and his writings concerning them. In the first Grinnell expedition (1850-1), in search of Sir John Franklin, he was surgeon of the flag-ship, the Ad

so greatly to the knowledge of the world as did that of Kane's. In ethnology it contributed the first full account of the northernmost inhabitants of the world, the Etah Esquimaux; in natural history it supplied extensive and interestin information as to the flora j fauna of extreme western Greenland, . . . ; in physical sciences the magnetic, meteorological, tidal, and glacial observations were extremely valuable contributions; in geography it extended to a higher northerly point than ever

fore a knowledge of polar lands; and it opened up a practical and safe route for Arctic exploration, which has been more persistently and successfully extended poleward than any other’. Kane, however, apparently with justice, has been charged with Kane


having greatly over-estimated distances travelled, and with having given latitudes much too far to the north. He Dublished The United States Grinnell Expedition (1854) and The Second Grinnell Erpedition (1856). See Life by Elder (1857), and a chapter in Greely's Erplorers and Travellers (1893). Kane, John KINTZING (1795– 1858), American jurist, born at Albany, N. Y. e graduated at Yale in 1814, was admitted to the bar in 1817, and became a prominent lawyer and an influential politician, as a Jacksonian Democrat, in Philadelphia. He


the Royal Dublin Society (183447); president of the Royal Irish Academy (1877). His chief publications were Elements of Practical Pharmacy (1831); Elements of Chemistry (1841-3; published in the U. S. in 1843); and Industrial Resources of Ireland (1844). Kanea. See CANEA. Kanem, former state of Sudan, Africa, now part of French Chad territory. Area, from 27,000 to 30,000 sq. m. It lies along the N. and E. shores of Lake Chad. The Kanembus number some 100,000, and have their chief settlements at Mao, to the E. of the lake, and at Ngigmi, near the N.w.. end.


only four, and these strangely modified. The first (great) toe is absent; the second and third are long, but very slender, and are bound together by skin (syndactylous); the fourth is enormous, and takes the chief part in the support of the body; while the fifth, though only half its length, is also strong. With the claw of the fourth toe a kangaroo can inflict a terrible wound. The head is small, with pointed muzzle and large ears. In accordance with its purely vegetarian habits, canine teeth are absent in the adult. The incisors are powerful, with a cutting edge. The fur is soft

was a member of the commission appointed (1832) by Pres. Jackson to investigate individual claims for the spoliation indemnity due from France in accordance with the treaty of 1831 between France and the U. S.; supported Pres. Jackson's attack on the Second U. S. Bank; was attorney-general of Penn. (1845–6); became U. S. judge for the district of Penn; in 1846, and was president of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia (1856-8). He was the father of Elisha Kent Kane. Kane, SIR Robert John (1809– 90), Irish chemist, born at Dublin, and from 1831 to 1845 was professor of chemistry at the Dublin Apothecaries' Hall; professor of natural philosophy to

Kandy: the Lake and the Town. (Photo by Skeen.)

From the 12th to the 14th century it was the centre of an extensive Mohammedan empire. It became French in 1899 and now is part of the military district of the Chad.

Kangaroo, a marsupial specially modified for progression by leaping ; is confined to the Australian region, and taking the place there of the grazers of other regions. The great kangaroo, or “boomer,” or ‘old man’ (Macrofus giganteus), attains a height of about five feet when standing upright. The fore limbs are very short, the hind long, with powerful and elongated feet. The tail is long, thick, and tapering, and helps to support the body when the animal stands upright. The fore limbs bear five digits armed with strong claws; the hind have

and woolly, and lighter in tint below than above. In the female there is a large pouch, in which the young are placed at birth, and become attached by their immature mouths to the nipples. At this time they are minute—not more than an inch in length— and, being too immature to suck, have milk pumped into them by the mother. They remain within the pouch until able to run by the side of the parent. Not until some eight or nine months after birth are they left to shift entirely for themselves. Only one young one is produced at a birth. As regards internal organs, the stomach is large , and complex; and the characteristic marsupial or epipubic bones are present. The giant kangaroo is an inhabKangaroo Apple


itant of open plains, and occurs throughout most of Australia and Tasmania. The flesh was for: merly an important article of diet among the natives. In feeding, the kangaroos often go down on all fours; but the habitual method of progression is by enormous leaps. They are social animals—timid and inoffensive, save when brought to bay. In addition to the giant kangaroo, there are several allied species of Macropus, which inhabit rocky districts, such as the red kangaroo of Southern and Eastern Australia. The name wallaby, or brush kangaroo, is given to a group of small and highly colored species which 9ccur in the dense scrub found in certain parts of Australia. An example is the red-necked wallaby (M. ruficollis) of New South Wales and Victoria. To the kangaroo family (Macropodidae) there also belong a number of smaller and much modified forms, such as the tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus) of New Guinea and Queensland, the rat kangaroos potoroos), and others. Consult Ingersoll, Life of Animals: Mammals (1906). Kangaroo Apple, an Australian shrubby plant (Solanum aviculare) which grows to a height of about six feet, and bears oval yellow fruits that are edible, and not unpleasant when ripe, but acrid when immature. Either raw, or cooked, it is an important food. Kangaroo Grass, a tall leaf grass (Anthisiria, ciliata) whic is common in Eastern tropical regions. It is characterized by having long, bent awns. It is valued as fodder for stock. Kangaroo Hound. An Australian breed of dogs evolved from the greyhound, crossed with the collie, with P. a strain of the aboriginal wild dog, or ‘dingo." It stands about twenty-eight inches high, is shaped like a thick greyhound, but carries a bushy tail. In addition to hunting the kangaroo, this hound is a singularly intelligent cattle-dog. Kangaroo Island, S. Australia, at s. of Gulf of St. Vincent, separated from Yorke's Peninsula by Investigator Strait. Its greatest length is 85 m.; greatest breadth, 30 m.; and area, 1,680 sq. m. Kangaroo-rat, a small, handsomely marked, long-tailed, nocturnal rodent of the southwestern plains of the United States and adjacent parts of Mexico. It dwells in colonies in connecting underground galleries, feeds upon seeds, hibernates in winter, and derives its name from the enormous development of the hind limbs, giving it the appearance and gait of a miniature kangaroo. Several species form the genera

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