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and dairy products. . In 1904 the imports were valued at, $14,234,000. Manufacturing has onl well begun, but the rapid growt of Winnipeg and the smaller towns promises, much in this respect. A hydro-electric power plant, is now (1906) being built 5n the Winnipeg river which will be capable of expansion to 50,000 horse-power when required, and at present affords 17,000 horse-power. o, evelopment in the province has been marked in recent years, and continues to proceed rapidly. Besides the Canadian Pacific and Canadian Northern Railways and their numerous branches, the new Grand Trunk Pacific, now beng constructed from Monckton, N. B., on the eastern side of the continent,...to Prince Rupert on the Pacific coast, will traverse the province and open up new tracts to settlers. Mr. T. J. Hill has also announced (1906) his intention. to build another railroad from Winnipeg to the Pacific coast, Game and . Fisheries.--There are many varieties of wild animals, including the moose, antelope, Virginia deer, prairie wolf, timber wolf, , bear, rabbit, fox, Arctic hare, beaver (rare), and mink. The flook animals have been driven northward by advancing settlement. Among birds are the prairie chicken, wild goose, swan, crane, grouse, snipe, plover, and many varieties of ... Sturgeon, pike, whitefish, pickerel, and other varieties of fish are plentifully found in the rivers and lakes. Religion and Education.—In 1901 #. numbers of the various religious denominations were as follows: Presbyterians, 65,348; Methodists, 49,936; Church o England, 44,922; Roman Catholic, 35,672; Lutheran, , 16,542; and , Baptist, 9,166., Separate schools were abolished in 1888 but under the present system of undenominational public schools there is provision for , religious instruction. The various denominational colleges—Episcopal Methodist, Presbyterian, an Roman Catholic – have been affiliated with the University of Manitoba at . Winnipeg. The larger towns have collegiate in: stitutes. There is, a provincial normal school at Winnipeg. Government and Finance.— The legislative assembly is elected every four years, by manhood suffrage vote. he government is administered by a , lieutenantgovernor, appointed by the governor-general in council, and a ministry of five members, responsible to the majority of the legislature. Manitoba is represented by four senators at Ottawa and 10 members in the House of

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Indians. Recent immigration has been very...large. The population of Winnipeg, and of the

smaller towns has increased very rapidly between 1901 and 1906, the figures for the former, year being 72,641, and for the latter 134,548. Winnipeg has increased from 42,340 in 1901 to 90,216 in 1906, and Brandon from 5,620 to 10,409. Other towns ... are Portage la Prairie, St. Boniface, and Selkirk. The most important elements in the recent immigration are the British and but there are also large numbers of Swedes, Galicians, Germans, and Roumanians. There are as yet few immigrants from the eastern and southern parts of Continental Europe. History. — Verendrye, the French, explorer, visited this region in 1738, but no permanent settlement was made until the Hudson Bay Company in 1812 ranted 116,000 *::: miles of their o to Lord Selkirk. Scotchmen, chiefly from Sutherlandshire, were sent out to colonize these lands and a settlement near what is now Winnipeg was founded. The Hudson Bay Company hao again acquired the lands, ... jealously guarded them and all the other territory under their control, discouraging settlement in order to foster their fur ... monopoly. The resulting conditions induced the Canadian government to purchase the com5any's rights and property for $1,500,000. Upon the admission of Manitoba as a province of the Dominion of Canada in 1870, discontent was shown by the French half-breeds, who considered their rights violated, and under the leadership of Louis Riel they rebelled and formed a P.” government. The rellion was suppressed by the Canadian overnment. Riel, who had taken refuge in the United States, returned and fomented another rebellion in 1885. . After a brief but arduous campaign this was suppressed and Riel captured and executed for high treason.


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and Pike's Peak R. R. It is situited amidst grand scenery at an elevation of 6,400 ft. and is a noted resort. Monument Park, the Garden of the Gods and Pike's Peak are all in the vicinity, the last being ascended by a cog railway from Manitou Iron Springs. There are also soda springs here. The town lies at the junction of three gorges, one of which is the famous Ute Pass. Large caverns are a special attraction. Pop. (1900) 1,303. Manitou, the great spirit of the Algonkin Indians, who figures in the legend of Hiawatha, as presented by Longfellow. But there are many manitous in the Algonkin pantheon. Every tribe and every clan, has its own protecting god, and so also every individual. Yet the manitou is in reality a naive conception of the presence of, a mysterious property believed to exist everywhere in nature manifesting itself through animals, water, or the powers of the air. See Jones, The Algonkin Manitou, “Journal of American Folk-Lore,’ 1905. Manitoulin, group of islands in Lake Huron. Except for Drummond I., which belongs to Michian, they are Canadian. The argest is Grand Manitoulin, or Sacred Island, 90 m. long and from 5 m. to 30 m broad. Many of the villages on the islands are summer resorts. Pop. 2,000. Manitowoc, city, Wi. CO. seat of Manitowoc co., 76 m. N. of Milwaukee, on L. Michigan, and on the Chi. and N. W. th; Wis. Cent., the Pere Marq. and other R. Rs. It is situated at the mouth of the Manitowoc R. and has a good harbor. It ships vast quantities of grain and consider

able coal is handled. The chief manufactures are agricultural or schools

o: seatings and churches, malt, vessels (steel and wooden), aluminum products, clay products, Christmas tree ornaments, boilers and digestors, marine machinery, canned goods, bricks, beer, cigars, flour, leather, etc. Manitowoc is the seat of a training school for teachers, a business college, county insane asylum and orphan asylum and has two hospitals and a public library. It was settled in 1843.

Pop. (1905) 12,733. Manizales, th:, #". Colombia, 72 m. s. of Medellin ; exports gold, coffee, and cocoa. Pop. 20,000. . Mankato, city, Minn., co. seat of Blue Earth go., 75 m. s.w.. of St. Paul, on the Minnesota. R. at the mouth of the Blue Earth, and on the Chi., Mil. and St. P., the Chi. and N. W., the Chi. and Gt. W. and the Chi, St. P., Minn. and Oma. R. Rs. It has quarries of building stone, cement works, brick yards, cigar and candy fac

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tories, etc. It is an important distributin int for the southern part of M.o. A state normal school is situated here and there is a Carnegie Library. Sibley Park and Minneopa #. are points of special interest. It was settled in 1852. It was the scene of considerable excitement during the Sioux War, 1862–3. Several massacres were perpetrated in the vicinity and thirtyeight offenders were hanged here in 1862. Pop. (1905) 10,996. Manley, {". (1733–93), American naval officer, born in Torquay, England. He came to Marblehead, Mass., and, at the opening of the Revolution, as captain of the state cruiser Lee, o in privateering and intercepted supplies destined for Boston. On Aug. 22, 1776, he was commissioned _captain by Congress, and in October was assigned to command, the , Hancock, of 32 guns. With this he captured the British vessel Fox, but was in turn captured by the Rainbow and the Victor. After his imprisonment he engaged in privateering, and afterward in the government ship, The Hague, narrowly escaped capture. On his return he was tried on charges brought by subordinates, and was not continued in the service at the end of the war. Manlius, MARCUs, was consul of Rome in 392 B.C. When the Gauls captured the city in 390, he took refuge in the Capitol, and one night, when the Gauls attempted to scale the rock, Manlius was awakened by the cackling of the sacred geese. Six years afterwards he upheld the cause of the plebeians against the patricians ; he was accused of treason and executed.

Manlius, TorquaTUS. See ToRQUATUs. Mann, HoRACE (1796–1859),

American educator, was born at Franklin, Mass., and graduated so at Brown University, where e remained as tutor until 1821. He then attended the famous law school at Litchfield, Conn., was admitted to the bar in 1823, and began to practise at Ded, Mass. e was a member of the Mass. legislature and senate from 1827 to 1837, and devoted himself to educational and other reforms. During 1837– 48 he was secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, and visited Europe in its behalf, in 1843, preparing reports of foreign school systems, on his return which were of influence in other states than his own. Mann was a member of Congress from Mass. from 1848 to 1853, being re-elected as an anti-slavery candidate. From 1853 until his death he was É. of Antioch College, O. e wrote Lectures on Education

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1840), *::::: of an Educational our in Germany, Great Britain, and Ireland o and Letters and Speeches on ławery (1851). His works and biogra o are collected in 5 vols. by § { Mann 1867). See Lives by Mrs. Mann #: new dioso. A. Winship 1896); A. Hindsdale's Mann and the Common School Revival in the United States (1898); G. A. Hubbell's Horace Mann in Ohio (1900). Manna, a saccharine exudation from the stem of two deciduous trees, the flowering ash (Frairinus ornus) and the round - leaved flowering ash (F. rotundifolia), natives of Sicily. The manna is obtained in summer by making incisions in the bark. Flake manna consists of stalactiform pieces of a pale yellowish color, with a faint, sickly smell and a sweet taste. Other forms of manna are the small, or talfa, in tears; while fat manna is noncrystalline, viscid, and full of impurities. Manna is used medicinally as a demulcent and laxative. The manna eaten by the Israelites in the wilderness is generally considered to have been the saccharine exudation of a species of tamarisk (Tamarir mannifera), the sap being set flowing by an insect of the Coccus genus. Other plants exude manna, or a similar substance, such as the Eucalypti, and other Australian trees, in which country manna is used for food. A bamboo furnished enough of a similar exudation to form an important food during a famine in India. The European larch, and an Armenian oak, also contribute manna. In America the secretions of the sugar-pine, and that of the common reed, afford mannas, the latter being a useful food for the Californian Indians. . Mann argudi, th:, Tanjore dist., Madras, India, 24 m. E.S.E. of Tanjore; has a fine pagoda much resorted to by pilgrims. Pop. (1901), 20,449. Manners. "See RUTLAND and GRANBY. Mannheim, th:, grand-duchy of Baden, Germany, at the confluence of the Neckar with the Rhine, 39 m. by rail N. of Karlsruhe; one of the principal trading centres of S. Germany. . Its industrial establishments include iron foundries, machine shops, sawmills, chemical, woollen, carpet, and glass works. A large palace, built in 1720–9, formerly the residence of the elector of the palatinate, faces the Rhine to the s.v. of the town. Founded at the beginning of the 17th century, Mannheim suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, and was again destroyed in 1689 by 'i French. Pop. (1900) 141,


Manning, DANIEL (1831–87), American journalist and politician, born in Albany, N. Y. He began work at the age of ten as a printer's apprentice in the office of the Albany Atlas, afterwards becoming so reporter for the Albany Argus. In 1865 he became editor and part owner of the Argus, with so wide a circle of acquaintances among public men as to make him a o in the Democratic party. n 1876 he was a member of the New York Democratic State Committee, its secretary in 1879, and chairman in 1881, contributing much to the election as governor of his personal friend, Grover Cleveland, in 1882. He was likewise active in forwarding Cleveland's interests as a presidential candidate in 1884. From 1885 to 1887 he was secretar of the treasury under. Cleveland, retiring on account of ill-health.

Manning, HENRY EDWARD (1808-92), English cardinal, was born at . Totteridge. Hertfordshire. He was appointed rector of Woollavington, Sussex (1833), became famous for his eloquence, and upheld the Tractarian movement with vigor. He was appointed archdeacon of Chichester (1840), and for some time was a leader of the High Church party; but eventually he join the Church of Rome, and was or

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poral and the Internal Mission of the Holy Ghost (1865), and he Eternal Priesthood (1883). See Manning's Cardinal Manning §: Maynell's Memorials {{:}; ; and Lives by Gasquet 1895), Purcell (1896), and Rosmer (1896).

Manning, JAMEs (1738–91), American clergyman and educator, was born in Elizabethtown, N. J., and graduated (1762) with honors at Princeton. The following year he was ordained a Baptist minister, and was selected by the Philadelphia, association to organize in Rhode Island a Baptist college to be ‘free from any sectarian tests.” Obtainin a charter in 1864, he establishe a Latin school at Warren, R.I., the same year, and organized in the same town a Baptist church, whose services he conducted. The college, which received the name of the College of Rhode Island (now Brown University), was started with Manning as president in 1766, and was removed to Providence, where it afterward remained in 1770. He continued his collegiate duties at Providence until 1790, .# in that year. Dr. Manning serve in the Confederation Congress of 1786. His report concerning free schools, made shortly before his death, was the foundation of the school system of Providence. See Guild's Life (1864) and BRowN UNIVERSITY.

Man n in g, Robert. See MANNYNG. Manning, THOMAS Court

LAND (1831–87), American jurist, born in Edenton, N. C. e attended the University of North Carolina in 1842–43, studied law, and became a successful practitioner. In 1855 he removed to Alexandria, La., and in 1861 sat in the secession convention as a “'states rights’, Democrat. He entered the Confederate army as a lieutenant and in 1863 became adjutant-general with the rank of brigadier. From 1864 until the state government was overthrown he was a justice of the Supreme Court, was chief justice from 1877 to 1880, and in that year was ap ointed Demo: cratic claimant #. the seat in the U. S. Senate held by William P. Kellogg. . From 1882 to 1886 he was again a member of the Supreme Court, and from 1886 to H. death was U. S. minister to Mexico. Mannite, or MANNItol, Cahs (HO), the simplest of the hexahydric alcohols, occurs in many plants, particularly , Frairinus ornus, from the dried exudation of which, or manna, , it is ex; tracted by solution in alcohol and crystallization. It may be prepared by reduction of dextrose or levulose with nascent hydro

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gen, and occurs in dextro-rotatory (the natural variety), levorotatory, and inactive forms, the latter obtained synthetically. Mannite forms colorless crystals that have a sweet taste and are soluble in water and alcohol. It can be oxidized to levulose, and on heating forms anhydrides. Manns, SIR AUGUSTUs (1825), musical conductor, born in Pomerania. After considerable experience in regimental bands and in Gungl's orchestra in Berlin, he became conductor and soloviolin at Kroll's Gardens, then bandmaster in a crack regiment at Königsberg, and finally (1855), conductor of the Crystal Palace Orchestra, London, which he raised to the highest pitch of excellence. He originated the renowned Saturday concerts. In 1895 he resigned the conductorship, and was knighted in 1903. Mannyng, Rob ERT (?1260– 1340?), English poet, commonly known as Robert of Brunne, was born at Brunne or Bourne in Lincolnshire, and was a canon of the Gilbertine order of Sempringham. In 1303, under the title of Handlyng Synne, he translated, with additions, the Manuel des Pechies of William of Wadington, illustrated with rude tales. Between 1327 and 1338 he produced a rhymed Chronicle, the first part of which is a pretty close translation of Wace, the second a translation of Piers of Langtoft. The Handlyng Synne was edited by F. J. Furnival for the Roxburghe Club, (1862). Manoeuvres are those military exercises, on a more or less extensive scale, which complete the course of instruction of troops in peace by imitating as far as pos

sible the circumstances of war. ,

The German successes in the Franco-German struggle of 1870-1 drew attention to the importance of manoeuvres and their especial value in the training of officers, and all European states now practise them every year. In Germany, in addition to regimental, brigade, and divisional manoeuvres, there are also special manoeuvres on a larger scale, in which several army corps and cavalry divisions are assembled. The reserves are not called out for the annual manoeuvres. In France the autumn manoeuvres are carried out at the period when the reserves are serving with the colors. In the United States combined manoeuvres of the coast artillery of the army and the navy are held each year in one of the more important harbors, and portions of all other arms except the coast artillery are assembled together with the national guards of the various states, in two or more camps of instruction for combined exer


cises. In 1905 there were three of these camps, while no fewer than seven were planned for 1906. See Reports of various Commanders and of the Secretary of War. See NAVAL MANOEUVREs. Man - of-War Bird, a term sometimes applied to the frigate bird, and also sometimes to the albatross and the skua. Manometers are instruments for measuring liquid or gaseous pressures. In general they act on one of three principles: the pressure in question is balanced against either (1) the hydrostatic pressure of a column of liquid. (2) the pressure of a gas, or (3) the force required to deform, a spring or raise a weight. In the first class the pressure exerted is proportional to the product of the height into the density of the liquid balanced; and in metric units, pressure in gm. per sq. cm. = ht. in cm. -- density. Manometers of this type, as a rule, give the difference of pressure above or below that of the atmosphere; the liquid being exposed on the one hand to the unknown pressure, and on the other to the atmosphere, and they require a reading of the barometer to get the true pressure. . This difficulty may be got over by closing one end of the tube and exhausting it of air, when the true pressure is

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This type of instrument is particularly useful in, experiments on the compressibility and crit

Bourdon Pressure-gauge.

ical point of gases; but allowance may have to be made for any deviations which the gas used in the manometer may exhibit from Boyle's law, and for any difference of level of the confining liquid that may be set up. Manometers of the third class, in which, as a rule, a spring is de; formed, are the ones most used for commercial purposes—e.g. as steam and vacuum gauges. A good type is that of the Bourdon pres: sure - gauge, in which a curved tube of elliptical section tends to straighten itself as its section becomes rounder when subject to internal pressure. This straightening is magnified and transmitted by suitable mechanism to a hand moving over a dial. Such instruments require to be calibrated by comparison, eventually, with a manometer of one of the other classes, and are not capable of such a high and permanent degree of accuracy, as the elasticity of the spring is not perfect or permanent. This is evident in the aneroid barometer, which is a manometer of this class. See Ostwald’s Physico-chemical

Measurements (trans. Walker, 1894). Manor. In English law, an

estate in fee simple in a tract of land granted by the sovereign to a subject in consideration of some service to be performed by him, the land being in its turn parceled out among subordinate tenants in fee, to be held of the lord of the manor. As the process of subinfeudation, by which a tenant in fee simple granted his land or any part thereof to others in feud to be held of himself as landlord, was abolished by the statute of Quia Emptores in 1289, it has been impossible to create any new manors since that date. A manor usually includes a manorhouse, with demesne lands, freehold tenements, copyhold tene

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ments originally carved out of the demesne lands; waste and common of the manor; a court baron, of which the freeholders are the judges; and a customary court baron, of which the lord or his steward is the judge. The chief officer of a manor is the steward, who transacts on behalf of the lord the legal business of the manor, and receives the customary fees. Inside the manor all questions are determined by reference to custom, and the laws of inheritance and the like are often quite different from the common laws. A manor becomes extinguished if it ceases to have two freehold tenants. In the colonial period of American history a few manors existed in New York and some other colonies, but they have long since died out. See FEUDAL SYSTEM; TENURE; CopyHOLD. Manresa, city, prov. Barcelona, N.E. Spain, 30 m. N.W. of Barcelona. It is an ancient Roman city (Minorisa), and famous for its heroic defence (1808-11). Here is the cave of St. Ignatius, where Loyola saw his visions. There are manufactures of cotton, woollen yarns, and silk goods. Pop. (1900) 23,225. Manrique, Gomez (?1415–91),

Spanish poet, many of whose best

works were rediscovered in 1885, and published by Paz y Melia in 1886. His contemporary fame rested mainly on his didactic verse in the Italianate style of Juan de Meña and the Marquis de Santillana, his uncle. The best are Regimiento de Principes, Consejos di. Diego. Arias and Prosecución de los Vicios y Virtudes. He also wrote a sacred and a secular play, which are among the first true dramas in the Spanish language. Manrique, Jorge (1440–78), Spanish poet, nephew of Gomez Manrique, wrote a set of elegiac couplets on the death of his father, which rank amongst the great poems of the world. Longfellow has translated (1833) them into English. The poet was killed in the civil wars under Isabel the Catholic. Mans, LE, th:, cap. of Sarthe dep., France, on riv. Sarthe, 30 m... s.E. of Allençon. The cathedral contains the tomb of Berengaria, queen of Richard, Coeur de ion. The principal manufactures comprise ironmongery, machines, clocks, and watches, linen goods, and chemicals, especially sulphuric acid. The town was the birthplace of Henry II. of England, and the scene of a battle in 1793 between the French republican troops and the Vendean forces. On Jan. 10 - 12, 1871, Chanzy was defeated by the Germans under Prince Frederick


Charles. Pop., including its suburb Pré (1901), 63,272, Mansard Roof, ascribed to the

French architect François Mansart (1598-1666), is composed of two superimposed planes on each side, the lower two being the steeper. It thus enlarges the attic space in the interior. Manse, legally the dwellinghouse of the minister of the Established Church in Scotland in a landward (i.e. rural) parish, or a parish that, is partly landward and partly burghal. Originally the term manse was applied to the piece of land set apart for the clergyman, which is now called “the glebe.’ The manse must be built and repaired by the heritors or landed proprietors of the parish. An incumbent is entitled to have a manse put in proper repair on entry, and it may then be declared a ‘free manse,” and the incumbent will then be liable for ordinary repairs for fifteen years. Mansel, HENRY LoNGUEv1LLE (1820–71), English metaphysician, was born at Cosgrove, Northamptonshire; elected reader on moral and metaphysical theology at Oxford (1855); appointed Bampton lecturer (1858), . professor of ecclesiastical history (1866), and dean of St. Paul's (1868). In metaphysics Mansel followed Sir William Hamilton in maintaining the relativity and conditioned nature of knowledge. His chief publications were Prolegomena Logica (1851), Man's Conception of Eternity (1854), On the Philosophy of Kant (1856), Bampton Lectures (1858, 1859, and 1867), and The Gnostic Heresies (1874). Mansfeld, ETER ERNST, Count (1517-1604), imperialist soldier, who, during the war which followed the revolt of the United Provinces from Spain, proved himself one of the most successful of the generals on the Spanish side, and was for a short time entrusted with the government of the Spanish Netherlands. —His illegitimate son, Count PETER ERNst (1580–1626), was even more famous as a military leader. He served first the king of Spain in the Netherlands, then the emperor in Hungary, but received no adequate recognition of his services. Thereupon he became a Protestant (1610), and was engaged in war in Bohemia and in the Rhine provinces on behalf of the Count Palatine, and in 1622 inflicted a crushing defeat on Tilly at Wiesloch. In 1624 he raised an army, with the aid of French and English subsidies, but was defeated by Wallenstein, at Dessau in 1626. He raised another army, and marched into Hungary to join Bethlen Gabor, but died suddenly near Sera

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