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Markirch

Markirch, tm., Upper. Alsace, Germany, 36 m. s.w.. of Strassburg; has manufactures of cotton, woollen, and silk goods. Pop. (1900) 12,372. Marks. HENRY STAcy (1829– 98), , English painter, born in London. A versatile artist, he designed subjects for stained glass, and did decorative work of all sorts. He possessed much dry humor, was a student of natural history, and particularly excelled in depicting birds and their humorous, ways... He published Pen and Pencil Sketches (1894). Mark System, for long the accepted explanation of the general agricultural organization at the beginning of the middle ages. The manor or the village community, had originally been an association of free men, cultiyating in common the land which belonged to all. The lord of the manor was imposed on this com: munity by the feudal system, and the freemen were reduced to serfdom or villeinage. This doctrine is associated particularly with the names of Kemble in England and Maurer in Germany: To the support of this.theory Sir Henry Maine in his Village Communities (1871), and Laveleye in his Primitive Property (1878), brought a huge mass of miscellaneous evi. dence from the history of other races. Subsequent historical investigation has shown that much of the evidence on which the theory rested is worthless. BadenPowell in his Land Systems § British India (1892) demolishe Maine's theory; and Seebohm and Fustel de Coulanges have shown that much, if not nearl all, of Maurer's case for the mar of free men is an exercise in historical imagination. See VILLAGE CoMMUNITY and MANOR. Mark Twain. See CLEMENS. Marlboro, city, Middlesex co., Mass., 25 m. w. of Boston on the Bost. and Me. and the N. Y. N. H. and H. R. Rs.”the chief manufactures are boots and shoes, shoemaking . machinery, electric lamps, carriages and wagons, foundry and machine-shop products, etc. . The chief buildings are the city, hall, state armory, and high school. The educational institutions include St. Ann's School. The first settlement was made in 1656. Marlboro was incorporated as a town in 1660 and as a city in 1890. . It includes several villages, and formerly included Westboro, Southboro, and Hudson. It was .# destroyed in 1676, during King Philip's War. Pop. (1905) 14,073. Marlborough..., (1.) Municipal bor., Wiltshire, England, 27 m. N.N.E. of . Salisbury. A parliament which of the ‘Statutes of Marlbridge’ was held here b Henry III. {i,0}. Marlboroug

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1689 to 1691, his capture of the two ports of Cork and Kinsale severed the communications of France. He made his mark also in the war in the Low Countries. But he was disliked by William and his Dutch favorites. This and a strong feeling of ..". with his old master caused Marsborough to enter into plots with King James at Saint-Germain. He was arrested, kept in the Tower (1692), and was for a time in disgrace. But when a rupture with France appeared impending, the king took him to Holland to negotiate for the Grand Alliance. After the death of William in 1702, , he was made, , largel through the influence of his §. with the new Queen Anne, captain-general of the British army. Marlborough also commanded the forces of the Dutch republic. The career of Marlborough in

Marlin

the field was one of peculiar splendor. In 1702–3 he seized the line of the Meuse. In the following year he arranged with Eugene the operations that saved the empire. "After a march of extraordinary skill he struck down the veteran French and Bavarian armies, under Tallard and Marsion, on the field of Blenheim (1704), piercing the enemy's centre by finely designed attacks. He had Villars, an adversary worthy of him, in his front in 1705; and he feli back in retreat before the marshal in Lorraine, having been left in the lurch by a colleague, Louis of Baden. . In 1706 he won the great battle of Ramillies, the grandest exhibition of his, tactical gifts. Marlborough , and Eugene triumphed again at Oudenarde, another battle won by a single stroke of tactics; and having captured the great fortress of Lille, they made preparations for the invasion of France. Villars, sent to defend his country, was defeated on the terrible day...of Malplaquet (1709), but the allies only won a doubtful victory. Their losses, especially those of the Dutch, were enormous; the league against France was severely shaken. In 1710 the marshal covered the northern borders of France by, a system of skilfully constructed lines. Marlborough, whose influence in England had been greatly weakened, became cautious, and would not attack; and though he turned the lines by a fine manoeuvre, in 1711, he fo only insignificant success. n 1712, on the accession to power of the Tories, he was deprived of all his commands. Marlborough had strategic gifts, but he usually conducted war on too narrow a theatre to have an opportunity to make them manifest; but as a tactician Mariborough has not been sur. passed. More than this, Marlborough was the first diplomatist of his age, and the soul of the coalition, against France. He reconciled its jealousies, composed its discords, made its quarrelsome princes and statesmen agree. As a diplomatist he excelled even William III. As a statesman Marlborough holds a much lower place. The ignoble love of pelf was the most distinctive fault of his character. See Life, by Saintsbury (1885); Memoirs of John, Duke of Marlborough }. Coxe (1819); he Duchess of Marlborough, by Mrs. A. Colville ...} Life of the Duke of Marlborough, b ord Yolo (1894); Green’s History of the English People (1879); and odge's Gustavus Adolphus and #: * of the Art of War 1895). Marlin, city, Tex., co. seat of Falls co., 100 m. s. of Dallas, on the Houst. and Tex. Cent. and the

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Marlitt

Internat. and Gt. N. R. Rs. It is a shipping point for cotton, grain, and live-stock. Cottonseed oil is manufactured. A feature of interest is an artesian well 3,350 ft. deep. The waters have a temperature of over 140°F. and possess medicinal properties. op. (1900) 3,092. Marlitt, E. (1825–87), udonym of Eugenie John, German novelist, born at Arnstadt, in Thuringia. She began her career as a singer on the stage, but an affection of the ear forced her to retire. She was the author of popular romances, notably Goldelse (1866); Heideprinzesschen (1871); and Die Zweite Frau (1874). Marlowe, CHRISTOPHER (1564– 93), English poet, was born at Canterbury. It is possible that he served as a soldier in the Netherlands. In 1587 he comes into clear light as a dramatist, writing for Alleyn and his comi. ... In the two parts of Tam%ine (1587) he wrote the first eat blank verse tragedy, and his drumming decasyllabon' earned him the satire of the more oldfashioned o Robert Greene, and of his friend Thomas Nash. Tamburlaine was followed by Dr. Faustus (c. 1588) and The ew of Malta (after 1588); but the extant texts of all three plays have been subjected to o: lations, mainly comic, by other men. In Edward II. (c. 1592) he essayed historical tragedy, and in The Massacre at Paris (1593) contemporary tragedy. His only other surviving play, Dido Queen of Carthage, was finished by Thomas Nash. Other plays o Marlowe have been lost, and some have been ascribed to him on insufficient grounds. It is, however, possible that he may have had a hand in one or more of the plays which formed the basis of Shakespeare's Henry VI. Marlowe's private life bore an unenviable reputation, not only for moral laxity, but also for socalled “atheism.” In 1593 he was summoned before the privy council to answer a charge of heresy arising from some papers of his found among those of Thomas Kyd. Before, however, his case could be fully considered, Marlowe was dead-slain, accordin to one account, in a drunken braw at Deptford. His paraphrase of the Hero and Leander of Musaeus was completed by George Chapman. The influence both of his dramatic and non-dramatic work upon his contemporaries, notably Shakespeare and Donne, was considerable. . His poems include A mores, in “Epigrammes and Elegies;’ Hero and Leander (1598); First Book of Lucan (1600). Collected works, ed. G. Robinson (1826); ed. A. Dyce (1850, 1870); ed. F. Cunningham (1870); ed.

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A. H. Bullen (1885); ed. H. Ellis (incomplete, 1887); ed. H. Breymann and A. Wagner (incomplete, 1885). See A. W. Verity's Marlowe's In#. on Shakespeare (1886), and ngram's Marlowe and his Associates (1904). Marlowe, JULIA (Sarah Frances Frost). (1870), American actress, born in Caldbeck, Cumberland, England. Her parents came to the U. S. in 1875 and settled in Cincinnati, where she was educated in the public schools. At the age of twelve she joined a juvenile 9pera company which gave Pinafore, Patience, The Chimes of Normandy, etc., and after three years of such work, part of the time with a dramatic, company resenting Rip Van Winkle, she o serious study in New York, and made her début as Parthenia in Ingomar in 1887, using for the first time the name of Julia Marlowe. . During that season she o Juliet, Pauline in The dy of Tyons, and Julia in The Hunchback, but met with small success until the following year, when Boston received her Parthenia with applause. During the next ten years she added to her repertory. Viola in Twelfth Night, Rosálind, Galatea, Beatrice, Imogene in Cymbeline, Constance in The Love Chase, Kate Hardcastle in She Stoops to Conuer, and Lydia Languish in oseph Jefferson's company, her opularity growing steadily. Her É. work has been done in Shakearean parts, particularly as osalind, Viola, and Beatrice, in which her marked personal beauty, good, voice and diction, and long training in the best stage traditions have placed her in the front rank; but she is also popular in modern romantic plays, such as Colinette. For two seasons she played leading parts with E. H. Sothern, and again in the spring of 1906, she appeared with him in New York city

Marls, soft, friable clays containing an admixture of calcium carbonate. They are often full of shells, shell marl being a deposit of fresh-water lakes in which fine mud has gathered along with the shells of Mollusca. Certain, species of water plants also aid in extracting the lime from the lake waters and finally add materially to the accumulation, which in many northern inland lakes is very extensive and occasionally above 99 per cent; calcium carbonate. It is used to improve peaty or acid soils. Clay, soils, which contain finely divided calcium carbonate, are also known as marls; but the use of the term to designate clays which are not calcareous is to avoided. “Marlstone” is a name given to the middle Lias of England. The calcareous and glau

Marmion

Conitic beds of cretaceous age in New Jersey are also called marls and are used as fertilizers. Some of the fresh-water lake marls of Indiana and Michigan are so uniform and pure, in composition, and so extensive that they have been made the basis of large portland cement-works. Marmaduke, John SAPPINGToN (1833–87), American soldier and politician, born near Arrow Rock, Mo. After studying both at Harvard and Yale, #. was appointed to West Point and graduated in 1857. He served in the Utah expedition of 1857–58, and in 1861, was appointed first lieutenant in the Confederate army, but was almost immediately promoted to lieutenant-colones, and then to colonel before the end of the year. At Shiloh he captured the first prisoners, was severely wounded the second day, and before his recovery was appointed brigadier-general. He served in Arkansas and Missouri, commanded the cavalry at the defence of Little Rock (Sept. 10, 1863), and captured valuable stores at Pine Bluff. After his promotion to major-general in 1864 he was captured while leading one of the three columns in Price's Missouri raid, and held until after the war ended. In 1871–74 he was interested in three newspapers, became secretary of the Board of Agriculture in 1874, and was a railroad commissioner 1875–80. He was elected governor of Missouri in 1884, and died while in office. Marmalade, . a kind of jam, usually made from oranges or lemons, though the term is sometimes extended to that made from uinces, crab apples, and other ruits. Marmaros-Sziget. See MARAMAROS Szig ET. Marmier, XAVIER (1809–92), French author, born at Pontarlier, died. h. Paris. First as professor of foreign literature at Rennes, and afterwards (1847) as keeper of the Sainte-Geneviève Library, he did much to interest his onto in northern literature. e visited America in 1849. Works: Lettres sur le Nord (1840); Histoire de la Lit

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Canada (1874); translations from
Schiller and Goethe. Theatre de
Goethe (1839) and Théâtre de
Schiller (1841).
Marmion, SHACKERLEY (1603–

39), English dramatist, born near Brackley, Northamptonshire. After service in the Low

Countries, he became a Fo: in London. In 1638 he accompanied Sir John, Suckling's, exi." into Scotland. His best own works are three comedies. Marmont

Holland's Leaguer (1632), _A Fine Companion (1633), and The Antiquary (1640), and the poem Cupid and Psyche (1637).

Marmont, AUGUSTE FREDfRic Louis VIEsse DE, DUC DE RAGUSA (1774–1852), French marshal, was born at Châtillonsur-Seine, and distinguished himself in the Italian campaigns, notably at Lodi and Castiglione. He accompanied Napoleon, to Egypt, and was made general of a. #s. for his management of the guns in the battle of Marengo (1800). In 1801 he was inspector-general-in-chief of artillery, and for his victory over the Russians at Castelnuovo (1805) was created Duke of Ragusa. In 1809, after the battle of Wagram, he defeated the flying Austrians at Znaim, and was in consequence made a field-marshal. In 1811 he became commander-in-chief in Portugal, where he was opposed, to ellington, but was severely wounded at Salamanca (1812). At the head of an army corps he participated in the great battles of the retreat from Russia, and in 1814 prolonged the contest on behalf of Napoleon against the allies outside of Paris. From 1830 he lived mostly abroad, at Venice and Vienna. See his Mémoires (9 vols. 1856–7). Marmontel, JEAN FRANÇois 1723–99), French writer, , was rn at Limousin; devoted himself to literature by advice of Voltaire, and went to Paris, in 1745. There, through the influence of Madame Pompadour, he secured an official position (1753) at Versailles, and in 1758 was appointed editor of Le Mercure, in whose columns appeared many of his stories or romances. His chief story was, Bélisaire (1766), a kind § possić novel, whic brought him into conflict with the jous. He was elected to the Academy in 1763, became 1783) its secretary, and (1771) istoriographer of France. His Mémoires (new ed. 1891) contain an interesting account of the 18th-century French literary salons. His CEuvres Complètes appeared in 7 yols. (1819–20). armora, LA. e LA MARMORA. Marmora, SEA QF (anc. Proontis), between Asia Minor and urope, communicates with the Black Sea by the Bosporus, and with the AEgean Sea by the Dardanelles. # is 175 m. in length and 50 m. in breadth. The E. shore is broken, by the gulfs, of Ismid and Indjir. Liman, but there are no good harbors. The chief island is Marmora or Marmara, famous for its marble. Marmosets constitute the family Hapalidae, and are the lowest .# the monkeys. They are confined to Central and S. Amer

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ica and are gentle and dainty little creatures, not unlike squirrels in appearance, and often with projecting tufts of hair on the sides of the head. They are less

Silky Marmoset.

highly organized than the monkeys; they bear three oung ones at a time; the hind and fore limbs are less unequal in length, and, except the great toe, all the digits bear pointed claws. The tail is not prehensile, there are no callosities over the ischia, and no cheek-pouches. Though the total number of teeth is 32 there are three premolars and § two molars; whereas in the Old World monkeys and in man this condition is reversed. Marmosets are entirely aboreal, and their diet consists of a mixture of insects and fruit. An example is the silky marmoset (Midas rosalia) of S.E. Brazil. Though several sorts are kept as pets in their own country, they rarely survive the winter when taken to Europe or N. America. Marmots (Arctomys) are rodents found in the northern parts of both hemispheres. They are heavily, built, rather clumsy-looking animals, living high up on mountains in the case of most species. They feed on roots and

leaves, and in many cases hibernate for the whole of the winter; Social in their habits, they feed

Alpine Marmots.

in companies, and a number collect in the same burrow for the winter sleep. The ears and tail are short, as are also the legs;

Marocco

cheek-pouches are absent or rudimentary; on the fore limbs, the first digit is rudimentary and bears a flat nail. The American forms differ in some respects from their Old World allies; the commonest is the woodchuck, and its western cousin the siffleur. (See Woodchuck.) In Europe occurs the Alpine marmot (A. marmotta), often heard, but rarely seen, in the Alps. It is about twenty inches long, and has a eculiar shrill alarm whistle. In . Europe and in Siberia occurs A. bobac, a rather smaller form. Asia has a number of species. See E. Ingersoll's Life of Mammals (1906). . Marne. (1.) River, France, rises on the §." of Langres

dep. Haute-Marne, and flows northwest and west for 326 m. ast Châlons, Epernay, and

eaux, to join the Seine on r. bk. at Charenton, 2 m. S.E. of Paris. It is navigable as far as St. Dizier, but a lateral canal stretches from #.o. to Vitry (where the

arne-Rhine canal goes off to the E.); it is continued thence to beyond St. Dizier. The HauteMarne canal starts at . Donjeux and connects the navigation of the Marne with that of the Saône. o Department, France, part of old prov. of Champagne, is bisected by the river Marne. The centre is gently-rolling country; the rest flat and monotonous. The climate is dry and sunny, and well suited to the cultivation of wheat and wine (champa *} in which last the wealth .# the department chiefly consists. The wine is matured in the cellars of Rheims, Epernay, and Châlons, this last the capital of the department. There is a prosperous woollen industry, which centres at Rheims. There are also tanneries and iron

foundries. Area, 3,167 sq. m. Pop. (1901). 432,882.

Marne, HAUTE-. See HAUTEMARNE.

Marnix, PHILIP vaN (1538–98), Dutch writer, born at Brussels; studied theology at Geneva, an on his return to his native land actively forwarded the reformation, and was a sworn foe of the Spanish government and the inuisition. When the Duke of lva was made governor of the Netherlands (1567) Marnix fled to Germany. He represented William of Orange in missions to England and France, and took a prominent part in the formation of the Union of Utrecht. He was mayor of Antwerp, durin the thirteen months' "siege o 1584–5. He wrote the Wilhelmus of the hymn of Dutch liberty; and be Romsche Bijen-korf (1566), a prose satire on the Roman Catholic, church. ... See Life, in French, by Juste (1858). Marocco. See Morocco.

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Marochetti

Marochetti, CARLo (1805–68), Italian sculptor, born at Turin; settled in Paris (1827), and received the j. of Honor (1839). His chief productions were A Girl playing with a Dog, The Fallen Angel, The Battle | Jemappes (a relief upon the Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoise), a memorial for Bellini's tomb, and various equestrian statues. Removing to England on account of the revolution (1848), he became R.A. (1866) and executed statues of Richar Coeur de Lion in London, and § Victoria and the Duke of ellington in Glasgow. Maronites, a body of Christians, numbering about 300,000, who have their centre in Mt. i.e5! anon and are found throughout all the Lebanon and its borders, in Egypt, and Cyprus; they have congregations in New York, Boston, and Buenos Ayres. They derive their name from a supposed early monk, Maron, whom they revere as a saint. Throughout the Mohammedan conquest the Maronites preserved their ancient faith, but recognized the Roman Catholic church in 1182, and in 1445 formally united with the church of Rome. In 1584 Gregory XIII. established , in Rome a college for the training of their o In many, things they still hold to their traditional usages; their sacred, tongue is the ancient Syriac. They have suffered severely at the hands of the Druses, and in 1860, the savage of both sides reached such a pitc as to necessitate the intervention of the great powers. . See, Bliss's Essay on Sects. ... of Syria: The Maronites (Palestine Exploration Fund, 1892); Beth's Orientalische Christenheit (1902). See DRUses. Maroons, a term applied to runaway negro slaves taking ref: uge in the inaccessible parts of the W. Indies. Here they sometimes became strong enough to form independent republics, which long held out against the constituted authorities. In Jamaica, after the British occupation so some 1,500 slaves, joined by others escaping from the English planters, continued in rebellion, and were not finally reduced till the year 1795, when many, of the survivors were removed to Nova Scotia, whence later most of them found their way to Sierra Leone. In Dutch Guiana, where they are now known as Bush Negroes, the Maroons were never reduced. See Lady Blake, North American Review (Nov., 1898); W. G. Palgrave's Dutch Guiana (1876). Maros-Vásárhely, th:, Transylvania, Hungary, cap. of Marosorda co., on ño. of Maros, 47 m. E.S.E. of Klausenburg; has a citadel and a fine Gothic church (1446). Sugar, spirits, and to

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bacco are manufactured. Pop. (1900) 17,715. Marot, CláMENT (1496–1544), French poet, born at Cahors, was page to Marguerite d'Alen#. afterwards queen of Navarre. e took part in the expedition to Italy; was wounded and taken risoner at the battle of Pavia: ut, soon released, he returne to Paris, where he began to show the anti-Catholic tendencies which made him, , many enemies and gave considerable trouble to his friends. He was repeatedly arrested and imprisoned—once in the Châtelet, which he describes in L'Enfer. He published a version of the Psalms, which, set to favorite secular airs, became popular at the French court if with the Huguenots. . His poems are distinguished for graceful satire, a singularly light touch, and natural expression. The distinctive style Marotique, as it is called, has had much influence on French literary language. His CEuvres Complètes appeared in 1538 (new ed. 1881). Marozia (d. 938), a Roman woman notorious for her infamous life, daughter of the Empress Theodora and of Tolo “consul and senator of the Romans.” As mother or grandmother of three popes (John x1. John XII., and Leo v1.1.), she ha entire control of Rome for some years. She styled herself ‘senatrix of all the Romans' and ‘Patricia.” Marprelate Controversy, a amphlet warfare carried on § by certain Elizabethan uritans against the established church and .# The pamphlets were generally issued under the pen-name of Martin Marprelate...They were personal and scurrilous, Łut for this very reason were holy Fo A Welshman, John Peury (hanged as a traitor, May 29, 1593), had the chief part in printing and distributing them, and was probably the chief writer, although others participated. These pamphlets were met by others defendin episcopacy, and Bacon intervene to make peace with an essay in favor of moderation and tolerance. See W. Maskell's Hist. of the Marprelate Controversy (1845); Dexter's Congregationalism (1880); and Arber's English Scholar's #!"). Nos. 8, 11, and 15 (1879– Marquand, HENRY GURDoN (1819–1902), American capitalist was born in New York joi. was educated at Pittsfield, Mass. He represented his brother Frederick, a prominent New York jeweller, as agent in the care of several large landed estates for twenty years, then became interested in the development of rail

Marquette

roads in the Southwest, and in the early 70's, formed the banking firm , of Marquand & Dimock, which continued business under that name for about ten years. Subsequently he organized a new firm, as Marquand & Parmly. He became very wealthy, and, taking a deep interest in art mat: ters, was a founder, trustee, from 1878 to 1890 treasurer, and from 1890 until his death president, of the Metropolitan M. of Art in New York city. His gifts in money and objects of art to the museum amounted to about $1,200,000. He gave, and shared in the giving of, several buildings to Princeton and Yale universities, and was a benefactor in other directions. Marque, LETTERs of. LETTERs of MARQUE. Marquesas, or Mendaña Islands, archipelago in the Pacific between lat. 8° and 10° 30's. an long. 138°30' and 140° 40' w., annexed, to France (1842), and included in the Tahiti administra. tion. Total area, 480 sq. m. The largest, Nukahiva, has an area of 186 sq. m., and it reaches an altitude of 3,840 ft. All the islands are mountainous, and lie in deep water. Productions: oranges, copra, yams, and mother-of-pearl. Pop. 4,300. Marquetry, wood mosaic, veneering or inlaying common white wood with slices of rare and costly woods or other material. The art was known in Egypt and the East two thousand years ago, is mentioned in the Odyssey (“Penelope's bed'), and was introduced from Persia into Venice (14th century), whence it spread to . Florence, France, Germany, and Holland. As intarsia it is conspicuous in church woodwork of the 15th century. Charles André . Boule 1642–1732) produced his beautiul “boule-work In the 18th century Reisner and David Roentgen were famous ébénistes. Varieties are moresco (black and white), certosina (cypress or walnut inlaid with so boule (tortoiseshell ground with design in metal), counter., (metal ground with tortoiseshell § écailline (imitation tortoiseshel pokerwork, and §. urniture. See turck's arqueterie for Amateurs (1899), and F. H. Jackson's intarsia and Mar y (1903). Marquette, city, Mich., co. seat of Marquette co., 100 m. N. of Menominee, on the s. shore of L. Superior, and on the Dul., S. shore and Āti and the Marq. and S. E. R. Rs. It is situated on Iron Bay and is a shipping point for iron mines. The ore shi in 1905 amounted to 1,556,389 tons. The chief industries are iron-smelting and the manufacture of mining machinery, gas engines, powder, and lumber,

See Marquette

There are also large railroad shops. The waterworks and electric light, and power plant are owned and operated by the municipality. The principal, buildings are the city ñal. federal building, court house, and the Peter White Library. Presque Isle Park is a feature of scenic interest. The first settlement here was made about 1846. Pop. (1904) 10,665. Marquette, JACQUES (163775), French Jesuit missionary, born at Laon, dept. of Aisne, France, June 1, 1637, son of Nicolas Mar: quette, prominent citizen and principal adherent of Henry Iv. in Laon and Rose de la Salle. Jacques was entered in the Jesuit college at Nancy as a novice in 1654. He became a member of the Society of Jesus, taught in Reims, Charlevisle, and Langres, and won #. reputation as a linguist. He was ordered to New France (Canada) as missionary to the Indians in 1666, and arrived in %. on September 20th. His final mastery of no less than six difficult Indian dialects was considered by his colleagues a remarkable achievement; he became an adept, as well, in aboriginal characteristics and customs. He left Quebec for Sault Ste. Marie on April 21, 1668, and on Sept. 13, 1669, arrived at La Pointe mission, Chequamegon Bay, Lake, Superior, near the present Ashland, Wisconsin, there succeeding Claude Allouez. In the spring of 1671, the La Pointe

Indians . Ottawa and Huron, originally driven westward from ‘i ako Huron by the

Iroquois) were threatened by the west-lying Sioux and retreated— the Huron going to the Manitoulin Islands (Lake o and the Ottawa to Mackinac Island. Marquette, following the Ottawa, set up a new mission on the island, but soon removed it to Point St. Ignace, on the mainland four miles northwest. Louis Jolliet, dispatched by Jean Baptiste alon, intendant of New France, to discover the Mississippi river for the French, arrived here on Dec. 8, 1672, bearing orders to Marquette from the Jesuit authorities to accompany the civil explorer on his trip, and do what he might to Christianize the wild tribes. The lower Mississippi had been discovered by Dc Soto in 1541; Pierre Radisson may, have been upon its upper reaches in 1655; and there are those who contend for La Salle’s presence thereon in 1670—but it is quite unlikely that either Mar: uette or . Jolliet had heard of these claims. . The expedition (consisting of Jolliet, Marquette, and five other Frenchmen as as: sistants), started from St. Ignace in two birch-bark canoes, May 17, 1673. They crossed Lake Michi:

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