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Marquez

before Marquette could start for the valley of the Illinois, to establish the mission he promised the Indians of that region. He left De Père October 25, 1674, with two French assistants, reached the Chicago river, December 4, after an exceptionally stormy passage, , and there wintered. In March they portaged to Des Plaines river, thence descending the Illinois. Although successful in his mission, Marquette's almost constant malady (a form of dysentery) soon compelled him to attempt the return to St. Ignace. . While encamped on the site of Ludington, Michian, on the east shore of Lake ichigan, he died on May 18, 1675, after much suffering. The original MS. journal of this second ‘expedition, continued through April 6, is at St. Mary's College, Montreal. At first buried on the spot, the father's body was a year afterward removed by Indians to St. Ignace, and buried within the Jesuit chapel. . After all traces of the site had been lost, the few remaining bones were discovered Sept., 1877, and reinterred near by, save some fragments taken to and still resting at Marquette (Jesuit) College, Milwaukee. Marquette's missionary career was brief, and save for the last two years unconspicuous; , but his share in, and journal of the French, discovery of the P. Mississippi, and the story of his sufferings, have appealed strongl to the popular imagination, whic perhaps is more generally centred upon him than upon any of his #". colleagues of New France. e was an accomplished linguist, a preacher of undoubted capacity had acquired unusual powers Öf mastery over the minds of savages, and bore a saintly character. A marble statue of No. (idealized, for no accepted portrait is extant), by Gaetano Trentanove of Florence, Italy, is in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington, the gift of the state of Wisconsin. Marquez, LEONARDO (1820) Mexican, general. He serve against the U.S. in the Mexican War, was a strong supporter of Santa Anna, and after his downfall opposed, Juarez. . With the coming of the . French he was favored by Maximilian o who placed him at the head of the army. On the withdrawal of the French troops he raised a force to support the emperor, but was defeated. He then attempted to set up a government in the south, esieged in Mexico City, but escaped to Cuba, where the city surrendered June 21, 1867. He was expressly excluded, by, the amnesty of 1870 and his later life is unknown. See Bancroft's History of the Pacific States (1882– 90).

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Marquis, or MARQUESS, the second order, in the peerage of England, ranking below a duke and above an earl. The title was originally applied to certain officers , appointed to defend the marches or borders of Wales. The eldest son of a marquis is generally by courtesy an earl, and the younger sons and the daughters are styled lords and ladies. His wife is a marchioness. Marquis is often the courtesy title of the eldest son of a duke during his father's lifetime. Marr. See MAR. Marradi, GIovaNNI (1852), Italian poet, was born at Leghorn. In Florence he founded, with Ferrari and others, the short-lived but brilliant review, Nuovi Goliardi. He was then made inspector of schools for the province of Massa-Carrara. Though a poetic disciple of Carducci, arradi struck out a line for himself. He impresses .# his elegant, style and his love of nature. His poems were collected at Florence in 1902. Marrakesh. See MoRocco CITY. Marriage consists, essentially in the cohabitation of males and females. for the purposes of reproduction and the care of offspring. Among animals the sanction of marriage is rooted in instinct; among the lower, human races it is founded on the slow growth of customs and traditions; among the higher human races marriage becomes an institution in which the sanction of legal enactments is superimposed on to that of custom, and tradition. The care of offspring is an essential element in the constitution of marriage. Primitive Human Marriage.— Among the higher vertebrate animals—birds as well as mammals— monogamy, and occasionally polygamy, prevail, though the union may persist for no more than a single breeding season. It has

been argued that the marriage

of earliest man must have corresponded to the monogamy and polygamy prevailing among modern anthropoid apes. . To this it may be replied that it is highly probable that the earliest, men, in raising themselves to a higher level than that of the apes, may well have developed qualities of self-restraint which involved a more complex system of marriage, such as we indeed seem to find survivals of among some primitive, races to-day. e are not entitled to state confidently that the earliest form of human marriage was either a more or less regulated promiscuity (as Morgan, M'Lennan, and Lubbock believed) or an individual marriage resembling that of the higher apes. The theory of primitive

Marriage

Fo was mainly o! y the existence of supposed “survivals,’ but it has always to be remembered that there is no true *:::::: between such survivals and the vestigial remains in bodily structure. There , is, , however, some reason to think that, whatever the most primitive form of human marriage, actual pairin was probably mainly periodica and influenced by season. We may perhaps believe (with Schurtz) that individual marriage has prevailed more or less from the first, but that side by side, with this other sexual habits and customs, grew up and sometimes reacted on individual marriage. Courtship.–Among many animals and among most savages courtship is a necessary prelimii. to sexual union. It may be defined as the process whereby both the male and the female are brought into the state of psychic desire and physical tumescence which is essential to sexual conjugation. Courtship is thus an essential preliminary to marriage, in the biological sense—not a meré social custom—and it is rooted in physiological and psychological demands. Group Marriage.—The most primitive form of marriage system of which any trace can now be detected—though even here the evidence is far from complete, or altogether satisfactory—is that known as group marriage, which has been carefully investigated in, Australia. In group marriage all the women of one class are regarded as the actual, or at all events the potential, wives of all the men of another class. Early inyestigators, such as Morgan, fell into the mistake of regarding the “classificatory system” of relationship with which this kind of marriage is associated as sound evidence in favor of the actual or former existence of such marriage. This cannot, however, be accepted, for systems of relationship among primitive peoples are much less § dependent on actual blood ties than later became the case. Even, however, when this kind of evidence is discarded, it would appear that sometimes— as the careful... investigation of Spencer and Gillen has shown to be the case among the Australian Urabunna-‘a group of women of a certain designation are actually the wives of a group of men of another designation.’ Polyandry, occurring especially in #. by which usually, all the brothers in a family are the husbands of one wife, ma regarded as a restricted kind of group marriage on a small scale. Among many primitive peoples descent, is reckoned not in the waternal but in , the maternal ine. Bachofen, who first showed Marriage

the wide o of this custom, founded on it his theory of the matriarchate. He regarded the universal original state of human society as one of promiscuity, in which fatherhood was unknown, and authority, rested mainly with the mother, through whom alone descent could traced. This theory can no longer be maintained in its original form. We do not know that female descent has been universal; it is by no means necessarily associated with ignorance of paternal descent, nor is the supremacy of women involved, although female descent seems favorable to the high social standing of women. Marriage by Capture.--On the whole, it may be said that individual marriage, more or less permanent and usually monogamous, has been the prevailing human type. . Considerable , importance was floor'. attached to the distinction tween endogamy (marriage within the tribe) and exogamy (marriage outside the tribe), but, as a rule, marriage is at the same time both endogamous in its avoidance of racially remote groups, and exogamous, in its avoidance of union within the family, although it may, tend to sway more in one direction than the other—usually in the direction of exogamy. This is favorable to marriage by capture, which has certainly been a widespread method of obtaining wives among uncivilized peoples. , M'Lennan and others who emphasized the importance of marriage by capture, have, however, gone too far in asserting its universality, and also, in including with it, as survivals, many, customs which required , a wider explanation. Crawley has shown that a large number of these customs must really receive a psychological and religious interpretation, and are to regarded as “a ceremonial use of force,” which is at the same time a concession to female modesty and bashfulness, often allowing the woman also to avoid marriage if she really wishes to do so. “Marriage by capture’ must therefore be regarded as only in rare and sporadic cases a brutal rape of women who may or may not be willing, but more usually a recognized and accepted form of courtship. Marriage by Purchase and Polygamy.—It is commonly held that with the growth of social order marriage by capture slowly gives way to marriage by , purchase. They frequently overlap, , however; and it has also to be remembered that, as Crawley points out, among primitive peoples ‘purchase' has not so narrowly commercial a significance as , it has with us, and that the price given on receiving the bride has

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a compensatory and often ritual significance, and is not necessarily a mere barter which degrades the position of the wife. Polygamy, either in its simple form or in its modified form of concubinage, is frequently associated with a developed marriage-by-purchase §.". It is not common "...# the lower savages, but is foun more frequently in the more advanced stage of barbalism, when civilization is beginning to develop, and when a great deal of authority is centred in the husband and father who is the head of the family group-the , patriarch. Polygamy, is found only among the richer individuals even in the social groups in which it occurs, and it dies out as civilization still further progresses. The marriage system in Europe during historical times has been a monogamy in which the patriarchal authority has shown a constant tendency to decrease. Modern Marriage.—The modern tendency is to regard marriage as primarily a civil contract, entered upon with the free consent of the contracting parties. . In many parts of the United States a simple agreement, even without witnesses, has even in, recent years been held to constitute a valid marriage, provided that the parties thereto were not incapacitated for marriage under the law. In New York such marriages were not abolished until 1902. Even under the present law a written contract, signed before witnesses, and recorded within six months in

the office of the Clerk of the town

or county in which it is made, is a valid marriage. Owing to the social significance of the marri contract, however, almost l modern governments require an extraordinary degree of publicity respecting it. In the United States great diversity of practice exists. In most states a license or certificate must be secured from some competent public authority; the marriage must be solemnize by a minister of religion, clothed by law with the power of solemnizing marriages, or by a mo or other public official. Further state interference in the marriage contract appears in the provisions relating to prohibited, void, and voidable marriages. Marriage is always forbidden within certain degrees of consanguinity. In the United States, marriage, between those nearer of kin than first cousins is prohibited; in some states first cousins are permitted to marry, but in over one-third of the states they are not. Marriage between step-parent and , ste child is generally prohibited. . In many of the states, also, marriage of whites with negroes or mulattoes is prohibited. This is true of all the Southern and South West

Marriage

ern states and territories except New Mexico and the District of Columbia, and of many of the Northern and Western states. In some of the states, as Mississippi Oregon and Nevada, unions .# whites with, Indians or .Chinese are also prohibited or void. The various states which prohibit unions of white persons with nes do not, however, agree upon e degree of African blood necessary to invalidate marriage. In Georgia marriage between a white person and any person of African descent is void. In Mississippi marriages between , a white person and a person having one-eighth or more of negro or Mongolian blood is void. In Nebraska white persons are forbidden . to marry persons, having one-fourth or more of negro blood. , Attempts to specify the exact degree of blood have naturally. proven very confusing in practice. Social reformers have, in recent years, persistently, urged the restriction of marriages of those unfit for the rearing of socially desirable oft as paupers, criminals and the insane. Recent laws of Connecticut, Minnesota and Kansas prohibit the marri of couples either one of whom is feeble-minded or, epileptic. In Delaware the marriage of a pauper is forbidden under penalty, and Maine and Vermont.forbid the issue of a marriage license to a §. A Michigan law of 1899 eclares that no person afflicted with certain venereal diseases shall be deemed capable of contracting marriage. "Violation of the law is a felony, punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000, or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both. ... Laws for the prevention of socially undesirable marriages have not, however, been very systematically enforced. and no attempt is generally made by the states having such saws to prevent persons thus forbidden to marry from removing beyond the jurisdiction of the state and there contracting marriage. Bibliography.—As a general biological introduction to the subject, the best book is probably. The Evolution of Sex, by P. Geddes and J. Arthur Thomson (1889; revised ed. 1901). On the §§ cal side see Studies in t sychology of Sex (1897), by Havelock. Ellis, more especially the studies entitled #. of the Sexual Impulse,’ ‘Sexual Periodicity,' ...and “The Sexual Impulse in Women. For . riage amon rimitive es, £on. †. #jo”; ture (4th ed. 1904) may be recommended. . On the general sociological side an excellent guide, with summaries of ...the more important studies, will be found

Marriage

in Durkheim's sociological yearbook, L'Année Sociologique, from 1896 onwards. The best general history of marriage is Westermarck's History of Human Marrtage .# ike for its wealth of reliable facts, its clear presentation of theories, and, above all, its judicial and scientific spirit; the subject, was here first placed on a sound biological basis, although it is possible to dissent at o points, and some revision in the light of more recent investigation is now needed. For the history of marriage in England and America, the best work is G. E. Howard's #istory of Matrimonial Institutions (1904). Letourneau's Evolution of Marriage (Eng. trans. 1891), though less authoritative and reliable, is a convenient ethnographic summary of the main facts as found among the various peoples of the world. As an admirable example of detailed investigation of marriage customs among primitive pop; reference may be made o The Native Tribes of Central Australia, by Baldwin Spencer and F. j. Gillen }} {s; Frazer's Golden . Boug 1890; new ed. 1900) embodies a wealth of instructive facts concerning the relations of the sexes among primitive peoples,... emphasizing “specially the significance of religious sentiment. The most not.#. of recent contributions to the subject of primitive marriage is. Crawley's Mystic Rose (1902). The Journal of the Anthropological Institute contains valuable contributions, to the facts and the theories of marriage. Marriage in law involves the o union of a man and woman in the relation of husband and wife. By the common law, such a union to be valid must be voluntary both parties must be unmarrie at the time and the union must be entered into for their joint lives. Temporary, unions, however, solemnly , celebrated, are void as being immoral, meretricious and contrary to public Fo It is on the same grounds, reinforced by the teachings of the Christian religion, that polygamy is forbid: den; and a marriage contracted by one who has a husband or wife living, or a polygamous marriage 3; a man to two or more women, simultaneously, is not only void but subjects the offender to the penalties of the criminal...law. marriage, in which either party is, united to the other against his or her will, or in which either or both parties are non composmentis, is a mere nullity. So, of course, are mock marriages, even though celebrated by a minister or priest, the element of a real consent being lacking. Intoxication of a party to a marriage, on the other hand, does

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not invalidate the union, though it may, if the intoxication was complete and , there was, no previous consent, be a ground for annulling the marriage by legal action. arriages prohibited by law on grounds of public policy or in the interests, of the parties thereto may nevertheless be valid and binding unless set aside by judicial decree. Of this character is the marriage of a person under the age of consent, of persons within the , prohibited degrees of relationship to one another, and of persons physically incapable of procreation. In England, however, the union of persons within the forbidden deees of kinship or affinity have en declared absolutely null and void by statute (5, & 6 Wm. Iv., 1835). Matrimonial relations were for centuries, regulated by , the church and the ecclesiastical or canon law prohibited marriages even to the seventh degree of relationship by blood (consan#o or by marriage (affinity). his has in England, and generally in the United States been reduced by statute to the third degree, and in this country reop by affinity is no longer regarded in the computation of the prohibited degrees. . Thus while the marriage of brother and sister, uncle and niece and of aunt and nephew is forbidden as incestuous, first cousins may marry, as being without the prohibited o: In England notwithstanding long-continued efforts to abrogate the prohibition, marriage of a man with a deceased brother's wife or of a woman with a deceased sister's husband is still forbidden. The age of consent at common law was fourteen for the husband and twelve for the wife, but this has in most of the United States been raised, to sixteen, and fourteen or to fourteen and sixteen years, respectively. As from the point of view of the state the object of marriage is progreation, impotence, on the part of either the husband, or the wife is still a ground for the dissolution of the marriage tie. The efforts made by the church in the middle ages to render all marriages ... ceremonial and to deny validity to such as were contracted without her sanction were never completely successful and to-day in most of the United States, as formerly in England, a present agreement for a marriage (known as, a ‘common-law marriage’) is valid and binding though attended with no ceremony. In England and a few of the states to-day a public ceremony of some kind, ecclesiastical or civil, is necessary for the validity of a marriage, while in other states a license or a written

Marrow

agreement . in the presence of witnesses is called for in the absence of a ceremonial union. he common law, marriage , is probably, the only form in which the old doctrine of the betrothal survives in our law. his was to the effect that a betrothal which was intended to effect a present union (sponsalia per verba de presenti) was in itself sufficient to accomplish that object, while an agreement for a future marriage (sponsalia per verba de futuro) did, not result in a legal union. until ‘consummated’ cohabitation. In this latter form the doctrine still survives in Scotland. See BETROTHAL; HANDFASTING. It is an almost universal rule that, a marriage contracted according to the form recognized in the country or state where it takes place will be recognized as sufficient everywhere. But there is no such general agreement as to the universal, validity of marriages prohibited in some countries, but allowed in the country where they are celebrated. The general European view is that the law of the domicile should govern; that of the U. S. that the capacity of the o: to marry is determined by the law of the place where the marriage takes place...Thus if a British subject marry his deceased wife's sister in America, the mar: riage, though , perfectly legal here, will not be recognized as valid in England; but if a divorced erson who has been forbidden y the courts of New York to marry again, nevertheless marries in another state or country, the marriage will be perfectly valid here also. The canon law regarded a valid marriage, especially , when , celebrated by the church, as indissoluble for any, cause. ...The marriage tie might be annulled for any antecedent cause of invalidity– such as lack of consent or consanguinity—within the Fo: degrees, but, assuming the validity of the oil; both parties were irrevocably und by it. The modern transformation of, marriage from an ecclesiastical to a civil institution, from a sacrament to a contract, , has profoundl affected its legal position as well as the attitude of the parties with reference to it, and one of the results of this change has been the very general recognition of the right, of either party to secure a dissolution of the marriage tie because of the misconduct of the other. See DIvorce; HUSBAND AND WIFE. Marrickville, suburban bor., Co. Cumberland, N. S. W., Aus! tralia, 34 m. s.w.. of Sydney. . It contains" factories and market gardens. o 18,820. Marrow, soft tissue which

Marrow Controversy

fills the hollow shafts of the long bones. It is very vascular, made up of areolar tissue (loose delicate network, with numerous interstices), fat and marrow cells, and many blood-vessels. It lies not only in the hollow shafts and in the spongy ends, but also in the larger Haversian canals. (See Bon E). Its function is apparently to produce red blood corpuscles. For that reason red marrow has of late years, been given in anaemia, particularly in pernicious anaemia, with temporary success. Various forms of inflammation (osteomyelitis) are the commonest marrow diseases; also tumors may originate in the hollows of the bones. Marrow Controversy, a dis

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Captain Marryat, was born at Brighton. Love's Conflict (1865) was followed by seventy-five other novels, four of the latest (1891–94), dealing with spiritualism, in which she firmly believed. Her works have been successfull dramatized in nine cases. y Own Child would seem to be her most o. and There is no Death her most remarkable book, it being “a transcript of her own experience’ in spiritualism.

Marryato. FREDER1ck, (1792– 1848), . molish novelist, born in Westminster; entered the royal navy under Lord Cochrane (1806), and took part in all his exploits till invalided from the Walcheren expedition (1809). He served in the war of 1812, took part in the

Mars

the sun, travels round it in a É. of 687 days, at a mean istance of 1414 million miles. Its orbit is considerably eccentric (e = 0.09326), and is inclined to the ecliptic at an angle of 1° 51’. At , favorable oppositions, when within 35% million miles of the earth, Mars shines as a red star of more than twice the brightness of Sirius. ... The globe of Mars has a mean diameter of 4,230 miles, and rotates in a period of 24 hrs. 37 min. 23 sec. on an axis inclined 24° 50' to the orbital É. Seasonal variations are ence strongly accentuated, and their effects are visible in the melting and re-formation of polar snow-caps. The atmosphere is thin, and usually transparent.

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cussion current in the Church of Scotland (1718–27) over the orthodoxy of a work, e Marrow of }}... Divinity, published in 1646 by Edward Fisher, an English Puritan, which refuted the errors of Antinomianism and Neonomianism in a series of dialogues. Reprinted by Thomas Boston (1718), it was condemned as heterodox by the General Assembly in 1720–Boston, the two Erskines (afterwards the founders of the Secession Church), and Hog of Carnock dissenting. It was long popular among Scottish evangelicals. Marryat, FLORENCE - MRs. FRANCIs LEAN–C1838–99), English author, actress (fifteen years) and journalist, youngest child o

11. Bandusiae Fons. 12. Nodus Gordii. 13. Cirenius Lucus. 14. Titanis Lucus. 15. Augila.

16. Propontis.

18. Charontis Lucus. 19. Chassotis Fons. 20. Lucrinus Lucus.

action on Lake Pontchartrain in 1814, and later was made a captain and given command of a vessel. He afterwards took part in the war in Burma. Settling at Hammersmith (1830), he took to literature. He was editor of the Metropolitan Magazine §: His chief novels were Frank Mildmay (1829), The . King's Qwn Ç. which won o; from

ashington Irving idshipman Easy (1834), Jacob Faithful (1834), and Children of the New Forest (1847). He also wrote a record of travel in the U. S. entitled A Diary in America o and The settlers in Ca (1843). See Life and Letters of Captain Marryat (1872), by Florence Marryat.

Mars, the fourth planet from

pon 17. Trivium Charontis.

21. Minor Lucus. 26. Hipponis Lucus. 22. Aquae Calidae. 27. Sabaeus Sinus. 23. Copais Lucus. 28. Sirbonis Lucus. 24. Pseboas Lucus. 29. Ismenius Lucus. 25. Casuentus Lucus. 30. Arethusa Lucus.

The general surface is reddish but three-eighths of it is covered by blue-green tracts, in the main permanent, though subject to minor variations. They were long regarded as seas, but are now thought by many to represent areas of vegetation. ey are connected by an intricate network of on.' detected by Schiaparelli in 1877, some of which appear at times to be double. But their objective existence is not universally admitted, and Mr. Maunder's recent experiments (Monthly Notices, June, 1903) lend partial support to the opinion of their optical product tion... In May, 1905, Percival Lowell issued a bulletin (No. 21) with photographs of Mars, which

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or Mavers; the Oscan form of the name was Mamers. Mars, ANNE FRANÇoise HIPPolyte BouTET-MoUVEL (1779– 1847), #. known as Mdlle. Mars, French actress, was born in Paris. In 1799 she joined the Comédie Française. With many natural gifts, she succeeded in classical and contemporary plays and created more than a hundre characters. She retired in 1841. ..Marsala, a light-colored Sicilian wine of the sherry type but more delicate in flavor an somewhat sweeter. Its alcohol content varies between 20 and 25 per cent. Marsala, fort. seapt. th;, prov: Trapani, Sicily, 102 m. by rail S.W. of Palermo, is noted for its wines. It has a cathedral and fo. the site of the ancient Lilybaeum, the chief fortress of the Carthaginians in Sicily. Pop. (1901) 57,824. Marsden, WILLIAM (1754-1836), British author, and coin collector, born at Dublin, Ireland. He served in the East india Com. any at Bencoolen, Sumatra o, and on his return home ecame secretary to the Admiralty (1795–1804). He presented his Oriental books and Mss. to King's College, London, and his splendid collection of coins to the British Museum. He wrote History of Sumatra (1783), Dictionary (1812), Grammar of the Malayan Language (1812), and Numismata Orientalia (1823–5). Marseillaise, the French national hymn, composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, a young engineer officer at Strassburg, in 1792. From being sung by the volunteers of Marseilles when they entered Paris, and later at the storming of the Tuileries, it was designated by the Parisians the Hymne des. Marseillais, and later La Marseillaise. Its use was forbidden during the restored French monarchy and the empire. Mars e i l l es, chief th of dep. Bouches-du-Rhône, France, stands 27 m. E. of the Rhône mouth, round a landlocked natural basin (the Old Port). Marseilles has been a place of commercial importance from ve early times, and now shares § Genoa the commercial supremacy of the Mediterranean. e town is girt in by hills covered with vineyards and , olive-groves, and dotted with white country houses. The port, is entered and cleared annually by over 14,500,000 tons. The value of the trade done announts o to nearly 400 million dollars, the proportion of o to imports being about 2:5. The leading articles of trade are coal, , oil-seeds, grain, soap, and petroleum. The chief, imports consist of cereals, petroleum, oilseeds, copra, groundnuts, coal

Marsh

(averaging annually 1,000,000 tons), wine and spirits oils (olive, cotton-seed, an paim), flour, sugar, coffee, and pepper; while the chief exports include brandy grain and flour, semolina and macaroni, oils, (vegetable and mineral), oil-cake, soap, refined sugar, and wine. . The manufacturing industries yield sugar, soda, metals (especially of, lead-smelting), macaroni, and leather; but arseilles's specialties are oilrefining and soap-making. The fishing industry, especially for tunny, is flourishing. The headquarters of the French Messageries Maritimes and the Fraissenet Steamship Co., Marseilles is also touched at by the British Peninsular and Oriental and many other, lines. The city has been atly improved since 1853. Of the older structures the most interesting is the church of St. Victor, with its 11th-century crypt. The mariner's church of Notre Dame de la Garde surmounts a hill (480 ft.) between the city and the sea. The Cannabière, the main street of the city, is a source of pride to the inhabitants. Off the port lies the Château d'If, associated with Dumas's Count of Monte-Cristo. Qriginally perhaps, settled by Phoenicians, Marseilles owes its historical foundation to a Greek colony of Phocaeans (600 B.c.). Having espoused the cause of §Po it was besieged and capture y Caesar (B.C. 49), and under Roman domination was famous alike for its commerce and its culture. Semi-independent through the middle ages, Marseilles, was deprived of many of its privileges as a free port by Louis XIV. (1660). In 1720 it was fearfully ravaged by the plague. At Marseilles were to: Pytheas, Petronius Arbiter (d. 66), Puget the sculptor (d. 1694), the Girondist Barbaroux (guillotined 1794), and Thiers (d. 1877). Pop. (190i) 491,161. Marseilles, city, Lasalle co., Ill., 70 m. s.w.. of Chicago, on the Ill. and Mich. Canal, the Chi., Rock I. and Pac. R. R. and the Ill; Val. Interurban Ry. Agricultural implements manufactured here find a market in all parts of the world. There are four paper mills, a wood pulp mill, three printing plants, and a large box factory. Coal is mined in the vicinity. The city has a public library. A concrète dam,930 ft. long across the Illinois R., it is estimated, will, supply. 25,000 horse-power to the manufacturing plants. Pop. (1900) 2,559. Marsh, EoRGE PERKINs (1801–82), American philologist and diplomatist, was born at Woodstock, Vt., and graduated (1820) at Dartmouth. He was admitted to the bar, served in the

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