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Kankakee

R., and on the Illinois Centra, and other R. Rs. 56 m. s. of Chicago. It is the seat of important educational and charitable institutions, of which the chief are St. Viateur's College (Roman Catholic Theological), and the Eastern Illinois Hospital for the Insane, with accommodation for 2,300 patients. Among other features of interest are the public library, a conservatory of music, opera house, and two parks. It is situated in a good farming and stock-raising district, with an abundance of limestone, and its industries, fed by , the water-power of the river, include the manufacture of plows, pianos, starch, flour, organs, knit goods, horseshoe nails, paper, iron bedsteads, etc. Pop. (1900) 13,595; est. (1903) 14,966. Kankakee, riv., a tributary of the Illinois R., which is formed by the union of the Kankakee and Desplaines Rs. in Grundy, co., Ill. It is about 230 m. in length. Kano, th: and trading centre, N. Nigeria, Africa, 220 m. S.S.E. of Sokota. According to the report of Sir F. D. Lugard (1903), its walls are 11 m. in perimeter, 40 ft. thick at the base, and from 30 to 50 ft. in height. The king's palace is in an enclosure of some 33 acres. The distinctive manufactures are cotton cloths, Hausa gowns or ‘tobes,” embroidered shoes, slippers, riding-boots, and saddles. It was occupied by a British punitive expedition in February, 1903. Kansas (commonly called the “Sunflower State ’). A North Central state of the United States situated between the parallels of 37° and 40° N. lat. and between the meridians of 94° 38' and 102° w. long. It is bounded on the N. by Nebraska, on the E. by Mis; souri, on the s. by Oklahoma, and on the w; by Colorado. The total area is 82,158 square miles, of which 81,774 square miles are land. Topography.—Kansas belongs to the group of Prairie States. The surface presents a succession of elevations and depressions, and tends to slope gradually from the western border to the east and south. The highest land is in the extreme west, where an altitude of almost 4,000 feet, is reached. In the eastern part the elevation is about 1,000 feet, except in the river bottoms, where it falls to about 750 feet. High bluffs dominate many of the rivers, those along the Missouri attaining a hei É. of over 200 feet. The timber resources are not extensive, being restricted to a small area in the eastern part and to the river bottoms. he state is drained chiefly by , the Arkansas, the Neosho, and the Verdigris rivers in the south, and by the Kansas,

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the Republican, the Smoky Hill, the Saline, and the Solomon rivers in the north. The Missouri, on the northeastern boundary, is, strictly speaking, the only navigable waterway, although the Cansas may be ascended by small steamers. Climate and Soil.-The mean annual temperature of Northern Kansas is about 52° F., and of Southern, about 58°. A temperature of 100° is often recorded in summer, and in the winter the mercury sometimes falls to 10° below zero. As a general rule, however, the winters are mild, and the hottest weeks of summer are tempered by cool evenings. The percentage of clear days is large. In the central part of the state the annual precipitation is about 30 inches, in the eastern about 40, and in the extreme western about 15. The soil is well adapted to agriculture, consisting mainly of a rich loam and having a high percentage of mineral constituents. In the west, however, the lack of sufficient rain militates against the natural productivity of the soil, and irrigation is necesSary. Geology.—The coal measures of Eastern Kansas underlie an area of about 20,000 square miles and have an estimated total thickness of 3,000 feet. They are classified as belonging to the Pennsylvania series of the Carboniferous. Western Kansas is characterized by Tertiary for: mations, consisting chiefly of Pliocene sandstones and containing numerous fossils of mammals. To the east of this section, and occupying the north central art of the state, are Cretaceous ormations, yielding large quantities of chalk. The Mesozoic is also represented by a small area of Jura-Trias formations in the south central part. Mineral Resources.—Though the chief source of wealth in Kansas is agriculture, yet the mineral deposits are varied and valuable. he most important mineral is coal. This has been mined more or less since 1869, and the output, has almost steadily increased. A product of 4,467,870 tons in 1900 was increased to over 6,300,000 tons annually in 1904 and 1905, valued at over $9,600,000, the number of men employed in coal-mining being over 12,000. In each of these vears over 3,000,000 tons came from Crawford co. and over 2,300,000 tons from Cherokee co. The coal is bituminous, and is mostly non-coking. Ranking second, in importance is petroleum. This was first discovered in 1889, but the output was very small until 1900, when 74,174 barrels were produced. This increased to

- Kansas 932,214 bbls. in 1903 and to 4,250,779 bbls. in 1904. This product comes entirely from the southfastern part of, the state, which lies in an oil field embracing 12,000 %. m., extending from Miami Co., Kans., to the Arkansas river in Qklahoma. The oil ranges in ''. from poor to very good; long with the petroleum is found natural gas. Its product in 1889 was valued at $15,873, and increased gradually in value to $356,900 in 1990 and to sl,517,643 in 1904. A number of wells with a total daily capaci of 10,000,000 cu. ft., have ‘.... opened, and indications are that

the product will greatly increase

for some years. ansas is by far the largest producer of zinc in the United States. The output of the Kansas smelters increased from 20,759 tons in 1896 to 62,136 tons in 1900 and 107,048 tons in 1904, when it was 57.3 per cent. of the total for the country. The development of the Kansas smelters is largely accounted for by the presence of natural gas, which is used as fuel. Much ore is shipped to these smelters from the Missouri portion of the field. The field extends over southeastern Kansas and southwestern Missouri. , Lead is found incidentally with the zinc, though the output ; 546 tons in 1904) is decreasing: he combined vide of the ij and zinc ores from the Kansas Fo of the Missouri-Kansas eld was (1904), $851,605 or 44.8 r cent. of the total for the nited States. Among the most important mineral resources are the extensive deposits of limestone and sandstone suitable for building purposes; the values of these stones quarried in 1904 were respectively $810,056, and $130,516. The production of cement, of both the Portland and naturalrock varieties, has increased rapidly since 1900. There are also extensive beds of clay, and the state is a leading producer of gypsum. Large deposits of chalk are found in some of the northern counties. The mining of salt from deep wells is carried on extensively in the central part of the state. The annual output approaches 2,500,000 barrels of 280 pounds each, giving the state third rank in its production. A griculture.—Kansas now ranks as one of the foremost agricultural, states. . Owing to the scant rainfall in the western part, and the desertion of many farms in that section between 1890 and 1900, the census of 1900 showed the farm land to be only 79.7 per cent. of the total area; .# the farm land 60 per cent. was improved. The average size of farms increased from 154.6 acres in 1880 to 240.7 acres in 1900. During the same period the proportion of

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Kansas

rented farms increased from 16.3 per cent. to 35.2 per cent. This increase was due to the purchase of the farms of their neighbors by the more prosperous farmers, who then rented them on shares or for cash. Though a number of crops are §§. throughout, the state is ivided agriculturally, into three belts of about equal size. In the east the soil and climate are suited to a great variety of crops, but corn is the predominant product. The middle third is the wheat belt. The western third is best suited to grazing, though the wheat area is gradually extending westward, and along the Arkansas river irrigation enables the production of considerable alfalfa and other crops. The most valuable crop is corn, in the production of which the state frequently ranks second (next Iowa). The acreage in 1905 was 6,977,467 and the value of the crop was $63,781,026. In the same year the state ranked first in the production of wheat with an acreage of 5,536,103 and a crop of 77,001,104 bushels, valued at $54,670,784. Kansas is by far the largest producer of winter wheat, the acreage (1905) being 5,289,740 and the crop 73,527,386 bushels or about one-sixth of the country's total. As a producer of flaxseed the state took fourth rank in 1905, with an acreage of 110,555, and a crop valued at $734,114. This crop is confined to the eastern third of the state. The acreage of oats declined from almost 1,500,000 in 1890 to about 900,000 in 1900, and to 857,868 in 1905. , Barley, rye and buckwheat are cultivated to some extent. The acreage devoted to tame hay and forage increased from 3,723,000 in 1890 to 4,337,000 in 1900, but in 1905 was o 1,760,000. In acreage devoted to principal crops the state ranked fourth in 1905. Kaffir corn, broom-corn and castor beans are valuable crops in the drier portions of the state. Kansas is one of the foremost producers of apples, which are grown very extensively in the northeast and eastern parts. Peaches, pears, and the smaller berries are all grown with success. Stock - Raising. —With its extensive prairies and its great crops of corn and hay, Kansas is naturally suited to stock-raising. The numbers of stock in 1905 were as follows: horses, 1,056,752; mules, 113,539; milch cows, 751,829; other cattle, 2,628,653; sheep, 233,581; swine, 2,495,721. Their total value was $170,000,000, of which $79,000,000 represented the value of horses, and $69,000,000 that of dairy and other cattle. The ‘....". changes in the numbers of stock since 1900 were a marked increase in the

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number of dairy cows, and marked decreases in the numbers of other cattle and swine. The value of dairy products, milk, cream, farm and factory-made butter, and cheese, is very large. The cattle, swine, and sheep of the farms supply most of the raw material for the extensive slaughtering and meat-packing industries of Kansas City. Manufactures. – Though , of minor importance in comparison with riculture, manufacturing has made a notable advance since 1890. For the seven leading industries there was an increase from 1890 to 1900 of 51 per cent. in the number of establishments of 59 per cent. in the number of wage-earners, and of 69 per cent. in the value of products. The census of 1900 showed a total of 7,830 establishments, with 35,193 wage-earners, and products valued at § Of these establishments, 2,299, employing 27119 wage-earners, and manufacturing products valued at $154,008,544, were of the same class as those included in the census of 1905, when the number of establishments reported was 2,474, the number of wage-earners 35,410, and the value of the products $197,394,992. By far the most important industry is o and meatacking, which is concentrated at Kansas City, Kans., and to which is credited fully half of the totai yalue of products. The figures increased from $44,696,000 in 1890 to $77,411,000 in 1900 and to $96,375,639 in 1905, placing Kansas City next to Chicago as a meat-packing centre. The utilization of the by-products of this industry, especially for soap and candles, constitutes the basis of important , manufactures. The second industry in rank is flour and grist, milling. . The value of the milling product increased fully 25 per cent. from 1890 to 1900, and almost doubled from 1900 to 1905, when the value was $42,034,019. Ranking , third among the state's industries in value of products is car and shop construction and repair by steam railroad companies, the value in 1905 being $11,521,144, which was an increase of 70 per cent. over 1900. Fourth in rank is the refining and smelting of zinc. The value of the product increased from less than $1,000,000 in 1890 to $5,790,144 in 1900, and to $10,149,468 in 1905. The presence of natural gas is of great importance to this industry. Next in importance is the production of factory-made butter, cheese and condensed milk, the output of which increased in value 400 per cent. from 1890 to 1900, and 8 per cent. from 1900 to 1905, when the value was $3,946,349. ôther important

Kansas

industries are printing and pub

lishing, and the manufacture of foundry and machine-shop products, brick, and tile.

. Transportation.—Before the beginning of railway construction in 1868, there were a number of important wagon-roads traversin the state. e most famous o these was the ‘Santa Fe Trail,’ over which, from 1840 to 1870, an immense trade was carried on between the Missouri river and the Southwest. The railway mileage reached 2,000 in 1872, and increased from 3,400 miles in 1880 to 8,892 in 1890. The mileage lo. 1, 1906, was 8,880. The arge mileage is due to the number of trunk lines which traverse the state from east to west, although the eastern half of the state has excellent local facilities in all directions. . The principal lines are the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, the Union Pacific, the Missouri Pacific, the Rock Island, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and the Frisco System.

Finance.—The receipts in all the state funds for the year 1903– 04 were $4,553,879, and the disbursements were $3,918,995, leaving a balance of $634,884. The general fund, derived almost entirely from taxes, showed a balance } ly 1, 1903, of $339,816, receipts during the year of $2,584,998, and disbursements of $2,555,234, leaving a balance July 1, 1904, of $361,550.

The state debt has fluctuated considerably. At the close of the Civil War it amounted to $517,000; this sum was increased by about $900,000 in the next six years. After 1880 this was rapidly reduced, being entirely extinguished in 1900. Since 1901, however, a debt of $632,000 has been held by the school fund.

Banks.--In June, 1906, the national banks numbered 184, having a capital of $10,722,500, with $51,338,837 loans and $55,903,703 individual deposits. On !. 30, 1905, there were 550 state anks, with $9,459,500 capital, $2,200,000 surplus, $3,588,000 cash, $50,218,000 deposits, and $40,627,000 loans. At that time there were also 22 private banks with $279,000 capital, $2,560,868 deposits, and $2,038,000 loans. Government.—The present constitution went into operation on January 29, 1861. A majority vote of the electorate may amend the constitution, providing the desired amendments have been duly proposed and concurred in by each branch of the legislature. Suffrage is granted as usual to male citizens, and women are allowed to vote at city and school elections. Kansas has eight representatives in the lower house of the national Congress. Topeka is the capital.

Kansas

The executive department consists of a Governor, Lieutenant

governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorneygeneral, and Superintendent of

Public Instruction, all elected for two years. The Governor has the pardoning power and the right to veto any item of an appropriation bill. In case of vacancy in the governorship, the LieutenantGovernor, President pro tempore of the Senate, and speaker of the House, form the line of succession. The legislature consists of a Senate, limited to 40 members, elected for four years, and a House of Representatives, limited to 125 members, elected for two years. Members of each body receive $3 per diem and mileage. Sessions are held biennially. The judicial power is vested as follows: a Supreme Court of seven justices, elected by the state at rge for six years; 37 District Courts, , each with , one judge, chosen by his district for four years, and holding quarterly sessions in each county of his district; Probate Courts, in , each county, the judge being chosen biennially; and two Justices of the Peace in each township, chosen biennially. There are 106 counties, each of which chooses the usual officers, all of whom serve two years, except the three commissioners, who serve three years. Population.—The population at

the dates indicated has been as follows: 1860, 107,206; 1870, 364,399; 1880, 996,096; 1890,

1,427,096; 1900, 1,470,495; 1905, 1,543,818. The largest cities in 1905 were: Kansas City, 67,613; Topeka (capital), 37,817; Wichita, 31,078; Leavenworth, 20,924; Atchison, 18,159. In 1900 nativeborn Americans constituted 91.4 r cent. of the total population. he F. of illiteracy was 2.9, the lowest of any state except Iowa and Nebraska. Charities and Corrections.—An act of 1905 provided for a Board of Control of State Charitable Institutions. This board has entire charge and supervision of the state institutions, whereas the Board of Trustees, which it supplants, merely maintained a general oversight. The institutions under State control are: Hospitals for the insane at Topeka and Osawatomie; Hospital for Epileptics at Parsons; School for Feebleminded Youth at Winfield; School for the . Blind at Kansas City; School for the Deaf at Olathe; Soldiers' Orphans' Home at Atchison; Boys' Industrial School at Topeka; Girls' Industrial School at Beloit; Industrial Reformatory at Hutchinson; State Penitentia at Lansing; and Soldiers' Homes at Leavenworth and Dodge City. The annual

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cost of maintenance for these institutions is about $850,000. There were also 27 independent charities receiving state aid in amounts ranging from $200 to $1,500 per annum. Education.—The Superintendent of Public Instruction is the chief executive of the public school system. There also is a State Board of Education, consisting of the Superintendent, the Chancellor of the State University, the President of the State Agricultural College, the President of the State Normal School, and three others appointed by the Governor with the concurrence of the Senate. Financial support is derived from a permanent school fund, resulting from the proceeds of the public lands. School districts also are permitted to levy annual taxes. Attendance of children between the ages of 8 and 15 is compulsory, although a child of fourteen or over, who is regularly op;"| for the support of himself, or those dependent upon him, is not required to attend longer than eight consecutive weeks. In 1904 the population of school age was 500,894; the enrolment in the public schools, exclusive of those in cities of the first and second class, 295,776; average daily attendance, 199,828; number of teachers, 10,103; average monthly salary of male teachers, $46; of female, $39; average length of school term, 26 weeks; total expenditures for school purposes, $5,684,579. The returns for the enrolment in cities of the first and second class for 1904 were incomplete. In 1903 the enrolment in these schools was 86,162, and the average daily attendance 62.715. There is a State Normal Śchoosat Fm ria, with a Western Branch at Havs. Other institutions for higher learning are; University of Kansas (State), Lawrence; State Agricultural College, Manhattan; Baker University (M. E.), Baldwin; Bethany College (Luth.), Lindsborg ; Campbell College (Nonsect.), Holton; Cooper College so Presb.), Sterling ; College of Emporia (Presb.). Emporia; Fairmount College (Cong.), Wichita; Friends' University (Friends), Wichita; Kansas Wesleyan University (M. E.), Salina; McPherson College (Gen. Bapt.), McPherson; Ottawa University (Bapt.), Ottawa ; Southwest Kansas College (M. C.), Winfield; Washburn College (Cong.), Topeka. History. — Kansas takes its name from the Kansas or Kaw Indians, an Osage tribe belonging to the Siouan stock. The entire region now known as Kansas, with the exception of the extreme southwestern section, was originally included in the Terri

Kansas

tory of Louisiana, which was acquired by the United States from the French in 1803. In 1812 Congress passed an act substituting the name Missouri for that of Louisiana. The southwestern section was a part of Mexico until Texas won its independence, when it passed under Texan control. It was acquired by the United States Government in 1850. Coronado, a Spanish explorer, passed within the confines of the present state in 1541, and in 1719 a French expedition visited the region. . In 1804 the Lewis and Clark expedition, which was sent out by the Federal Government to explore Louisiana Territory, traversed Kansas. Subsequent expeditions explored the region in 1806, and in 1819, and in 1827 a military post was established at Fort Leavenworth. On May 30, 1854, Kansas was set off from Missouri and organized, as a territory under the provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. This bill, by declaring the restrictions placed upon slavery by the Missouri Compromise ‘inoperative and void,” thus upholding the principle that the people of the territory themselves should decide upon the question of allowing slavery, led to a prolonged and fierce struggle between the pro-slavery and the anti-slavery adherents. A large number of immigrants from both the slave and the free states poured into the territory, the towns of Leavenworth and Atchison being founded by the proslavery men and Lawrence, Osawatomie, and Topeka by the Freestate men. A Federal governor, Reeder, reached Kansas in October, and in November the election for a delegate to Congress took place. In this election the pro-slavery element, assisted by organized bands from Missouri, which took possession of the polls, cast much the larger vote. In the spring of 1855, in the election of members to the legislature the same tactics were followed, and a body, consisting entirely of pro-slavery men, was chosen. The returns of certain districts were contested by the anti-slavery men, and the governor ordered new elections in some instances, which resulted in the choice of a few Free-state members. The legislature, which met in July, however, expelled the Free-state members and drew up a state constitution largely based upon that of Missouri. The Free-state supporters, in convention at Topeka in September, declared the existing government illegal, and drew up a state constitution prohibiting slavery after July 4, 1857. This constitution was submitted to the people, and, as the proKansas

slavery men refrained from voting, was adopted. State officers also were elected, and Congress was asked to admit Kansas as a free state. In January, 1856 Pres. Pierce formally recognized the pro-slavery government as legal. The conflict now became more serious, and civil war resulted. On May 21, 1856, Lawrence was attacked and partially destroyed by a pro-slavery force, and this was followed by the massacre of five pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie (May 23), and by the sacking of the Free-state town of Osawatomie (Aug. 30). In 1857 Governor Walker effected a compromise, by the terms of which the Free-state party agreed to join in the election of a legislature. At this election the pro-slavery party was defeated, but a previously elected proslavery convention in session at Lecompton proceeded to draw up a state constitution. This constitution guaranteed the right of slaveholders to their slaves, prohibited the passage of any eman: cipation act, and also prohibited any amendment before 1864. The constitution in its entirety, howeyer, was not submitted to , the electorate, but was presented in such a way as to preclude all possibility of doing away with slavery, even though a majority of the votes were cast against it. The Free-state men declined to vote until, finally, the legislature ordered an election in which the whole constitution could be voted upon. In this election, which was held in January, 1858, the Lecompton Constitution was overwhelmingly defeated, and the Free-state men for the first time secured the reins of government. A constitution prohibiting slavery was proposed by a convention at Wyandotte in July, 1859, and, when submitted to the people, was adopted by a large majority. On January 29, 1861, Kansas was admitted to statehood. During the Civil War the Confederates carried on a guerilla warfare in Eastern Kansas, and their bands of marauders swept over the entire section. On August 21, 1863, one of these bands under Quantrell almost completely destroyed the town of Lawrence and shot down 123 citizens. After the war the state developed rapidly and attracted a large immigration. Kansas is classed as a Republican state. In 1882, however, a Democrat was elected governor as a result of a split in the Republican ranks over the liquor question. The Farmers' Alliance and Populist movements, also had a large following in the state. The influence of the former brought about important trust legislation, and a fusion of the

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Populists, and Democrats lost the state to the Republicans in 892 and 1896. In 1900 and 1904 Kansas chose Republican electors, Disputed elections in the fall of 1892, led to the organization of separate legislatures in 1893 by the Populists and Republicans, a state of all but internecine warfare between the factions being reduced by the state militia. The rapid development of the oil field after 1900 resulted in much bitter feeling between the independent roducers and the Standard Oil Company; Congress ordered an investigation, and the state legislature in 1904–05, fixed maximum freight rate charges, declared the Standard pipe lines common carriers, and voted to establish a state oil refinery in connection with the state prison. This project was, however, deglared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the state. See Spring, Kansas, in the American Commonwealth Series (1885); Robinson, The Kansas Conflict (1892). Kansas City. (1.) City, Mo., cQ. seat of Jackson co., on r. bk. of the Missouri R., opposite Kansas City, Kan., in lat. 39° 8’ N., long. 94° 37' w., and 235 m. w. by N. of St. Louis. It is an important railroad centre, over 20 systems uniting here. It is built partly on low and level and partly on high and uneven ground. As a distributing point for the commerce of the states to the s., w. and N., it is a trade centre of unusually large and varied interests and connections, especially with regard to grain and other farm products, live stock, flour, agricultural implements, slaughtering and meat-packing industries, etc. It is the largest winter wheat market and the second largest live stock market in the U. Its industrial establishments include iron foundries and machine shops, refiners and smelters, boot and shoe factories, oil paint works, printing, establishments, breweries, etc. According to the federal census of manufactures for 1905 there were in that year 612 establishments conducted . . under the factory system, with a total capital of $32,126,674, employing 11,039 hands, earning $5,920,442 in wages, and with a product valued at $35,573,049. his enumeration excludes , the neighboring industries and hand trades, especially so and meat packing. The chief industries and the value of their products for 1905 were: flour and grist mill, $5,515,749; printing and publishing $4,245, 190; bread and other bakery, industries, $3,461,587; malt liquors, $2,174,919; foundry and machine shop, $1,070,328. Among the many educa

Kansas-Nebraska Bill

tional and charitable institutions the most notable are the University Medical College, the Kansas City School of Law, the Scarritt Training School, the public library, the St. Joseph's, Alf Saints, and Scarritt. Hospitals. There are fine civic buildings, and the city is adorned with several parks. Pop. (1900) 163,752. (2.) City, Kan., Co. seat of Wyandotte co., at the junction of the Missouri and ansas rivers, opposite Kansas City, Mo., and on the Union Pac., Missouri Pac., and other R. Rs. . Being closely connected with the latter city by many important business interests, it shares its importance as a railroad and distributing centre. The site is also similar, being partly on elevated and partly on low ground. Some of the leading industries, especially slaughtering and meat packing, have immense establishments, which, with those on the Missouri side of the boundary, constitute a controlling centre for Western and Southern trade in those lines. As a grain-distributing point the place is notable, and it contains locomotive works, machine shops, flour mills, soap factories, etc. According to the federal census for 1905, the city had in that year 100 manufacturing establishments, with a total capital of $27,773,422, employin 10,529 hands, and products . at $96,473,050. he chief industry is slaughtering and meat #. the , product in 1905 aving been valued at $88,446,141. Its public school system, higher educational institutions, and charities keep pace with the material rogress. It is the seat of the ansas City University (Methodist Protestānt), the Baptist Theological Seminary, the Kansas University Medical College, , a public library (Carnegie foundation), the state institution for the blind, a well-equipped high school and free hospitals. Pop. (1905 67,614. Kansas-Nebraska Bill, a bill for the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska (with limits much larger than those of the present states of Kansas and Nebraska), passed by Congress in 1854. It embodied the principle of “squatter’ or popular sovereignty and repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, its most significant clause being that it is ... the true intent, and meaning of this act not to legislate slavery into any territory or state, nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the Constitution of the United States.” The bill was passed, chiefly through the efforts of Sen. Stephen A. Douglas,

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