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Chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories, and only after bitter and prolonged debate in both the House and the Senate. The bill reopened in all its rancour the slavery controversy, which had been temporarily checked by the Compromise Measures of 1850, it completed the disintegration of the old Whig party, led to the organization of the Republican party, probably did more than anything else to bring about the defeat of the Democratic party in 1860, and may fairly be said to have hastened the outbreak of hostilities (which was doubtless inevitable sooner or later) between the North and the South. For the text of the Bill, see vol. x. of U.S. Statutes at Large; for details concerning it, see vol. ii. of Rhodes's History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (1893- ), and vol. iv. of Von Holst's Constitutional and Political History of the United States (last ed., 1899). Kansas River, formed by the junction of the Smoky Hill and lomon Rs. near the boundary line between Saline and Dickinson cos., Kan., 10 m. w. of Abilene, whence it takes a northeasterly course to Manhattan, thence flows easterly and joins the Missouri R. at Kansas City, Kan. Its chief tributaries are the Republican, Big Blue and Grasshopper Rs. It is not valuable for navigation. On its banks are Topeka the state capital, Lawrence an Junction City. Length, about 275 m. Kan-su, prov. in N. W. China. Its area is 88,610 sq. m. (Williams), and it lies between lat. 32° 30’ and 40° N., and long. 98° and 108° E. It is traversed by different chains of the Nan-shan Mts. Opium, wheat, millet, beans, tobacco, sheep's and camels' wool, grapes, and rhubarb are among the chief products. Coal is common, but is not worked systematically. In the 8th century a large band of Mohammedan Turcomans settled in the province, and became known as Tungans or Dungans. In 1370 they were followed by a stricter sect known as Salars. These peoples have formented frequent rebellions against the Chinese, the more recent being in 1820, 1861-73, and 1895-6. These outbreaks have been attended with frightful massacres of both parties. Near Sining-fu are the large Buddhist lamaseries of Kumbum and Labrang. Lan-chau-fu is the capital. Si-ning, Kanthau, Liang-chau, Su-chau, and Ning-hsia are the chief cities. Pop. (1901) 10,386,000. Kant, IMMANUEL (1724–1804), one of the greatest of philosophers, whose system indeed is
the central fact in modern philosophy, was born at Königsberg on April 22, 1724. He believed himself to be of Scottish extraction, but doubt has been thrown upon this. His life was very uneventful. In his sixteenth year he entered the University of Königsberg, where he was taught the then dominant philosophy of the Wolffian school. After six years at the university, he spent the next ten as private tutor in several noble families of the province, and in 1775 returned to the university as lecturer. It was not, however, till fifteen years later (in 1770) that he was promoted to a chair of philosophy. Never strong, he regulated his life by a very rigid and careful system. Precise times of rising, working, walking, and dining were scrupulously observed, and he disliked very much to have the routine of his day disturbed in the slightest degree. The only notable event of his later life was the conflict into which he was brought with the Prussian censorship by his (published) religious views, and as a result of which he for the time being submitted to be silenced. In the last years of his life his mental powers had already begun to show signs of weakness and decay. It is usual to distinguish three periods in the development of Kant's thought—(1) The early period, in which he received and acquiesced in the current Leibniz Wolffian type of philosophy; (2) a period of reaction, during the 'sixties, against this philosophy, in which he was influenced partly by the English empirical philosophy and ethics; and (3) finally the period in which he developed his own critical philosophy, and which may be said to begin with his inaugural dissertation as professor of philosophy in 1770, though it was not till eleven years after (in 1781) that he published his chief work. The Critique of Pure Reason, and his position in the meantime had undergone an important change. The distinguishing feature of the critical philosophy is that it undertakes to investigate the faculty of reason or knowledge first of all, and to determine its limits before entering upon the work of systematic construction. Through the neglect of this preliminary investigation, a dogmatic philosophy of the LeibnizWolffian type essayed problems beyond the power of reason, and the result of such over-confident attempts is but to produce by their failures an equally extreme scepticism. The fundamental result of the critical philosophy, on the other hand, is to establish a thorough-going distinction between the sphere of phenomena
which are accessible to human knowledge, and that of noumena, or things - in - themselves, about which we can have no knowledge (strictly so called), not even that they exist. Kant accordingly rejects the old rational psychology, rational cosmology, and rational theology, all of which professed to attain a knowledge of superphenomenal realities—viz., of the soul as an immortal substance, of the world as a finite or infinite whole, or finally of God as a perfect Being, Architect, and Creator of the world. But while a duly self-critical reason is compelled to resign its pretensions to deal
with these high themes, its self
denial is not without reward. If, when it pretended to an unreal knowledge, it laid itself open to sceptical attacks, now, when it confines itself to the sphere of phenomena, it can establish the universal validity of its laws, and therefore the equal validity of the sciences based upon them. For phenomena, since they do not exist in themselves, but only in relation to mind, must conform to the laws of the mind's structure. And in the constructive part of his great work Kant exhibits by analysis the necessity of these essential laws of mind— first, the forms’ of space and time, or fundamental, truths of spatial and temporal , relation, upon which the mathematical sciences depend; and second, the fundamental laws, such as that of casuality, upon which the physical sciences depend. It was indeed, one of Kant's main philosophical interests to explain and defend the high scientific claims of mathematical and physical knowledge against the question: ings to which these were subjected by an empirical philosophy. But the vindication of science was not the only fruit of reason's self-denial. no less valuable benefit was the vindication of morality, and that religious faith which rests upon it. Kant rejected the high but empty pretensions of the old rational theology, , he seemed to himself to gain thereby that more real and accessible faith which springs from man's moral consciousness. f we do not and cannot know God as First Cause and Architect of the world, we can and must believe in Him as the moral Governor who will make the moral law finally prevail. But this religious faith, depends upon the absolute validity of the moral law, and Kant sought no less strenuously to establish in his ethical works (Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Ethics, and Critique of Practical Reason) the claims of a high and austere morality than he had formerly asserted the claims of science in IKant
his Critique of Pure Reason. At .
one time inclined to see, with the English moralists Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, the basis of morality in a moral sense or feeling, Kant later became convinced that the very slightest appeal. to feeling was a danger to morality, and that the purity of ethics could be guaranteed only when reason, alone gave the law. The only thing good without qualification is the good will—i.e., the will that gives itself in free submission to the moral law; and the moral law, which is reason's own law self-imposed, has but the one supreme commandment —to eliminate from our action every subjective or selfish motive, to follow no rule of action which we cannot will to be universally obeyed. Only a being who is free, able to rise above the pressure of motive and desire, can so will and act. Consequently we must postulate freedom of the will for man on the ground of his moral consciousness. “I ought, therefore I can.” Now if science, which brings all its objects under the inexorable law of causal necessity, were indeed an account of things-in-themselves, freedom would be impossible. But science tells us only of phenomena, while man—who as a moral being is no mere phenomenon or part of nature, but a free agent in whom reason itself becomes practical— belongs with his moral consciousness to the higher noumenal world. Hence the same self-denial of reason, which sets strict bounds to knowledge, and opens to faith the higher world of morality and religion. In the later Critique of Judgment Kant goes some way towards reconciling the dualism of the two other critiques, but the fuller development of his suggestions was left for his idealistic successors.
The chief works of Kant above referred to are translated: The Critique of Pure Reason by Max Müller (1881), by Meiklejohn (1852), and by Morris (1882); the ethical works by Abbot— Kant's Theory of Ethics (1873); the Critique of Judgment by Bernard (1892). The fullest English account of Kant's philosophy is Caird's Critical Philosophy (1859); a more compendious view is given in R. Adamson's Philosophy % Kant (1879), and Watson's The Philosophy of Kant as Contained in Ertracts from His Own Writings (1894); while the life of Kant is related in Wallace's Kant (1882, Philos. Classics); but perhaps the best general work is Paulsen's Immanuel Kant, sein Leben und seine Lehre (1898; Eng., trans., 1902). See also, Mahaffy's Kant's Critical Philosophy for English Readers (1872-4).
Kantemir, ANTIokH. See CANtemiR. Kaobang. See CAo-BANG Kaolin, or CHINA CLAY is a hydrated aluminum silicate, and is a fine, almost impalpable powder of pure white color, very soft, and slightly greasy to the touch; h. = 1, sp. gr. 2.2. It absorbs moisture readily, and when wet is plastic, so that it can be moulded in the solid. The chief source of kaolin is decomposed granite. After being suspended in water, it is allowed to settle in shallow ponds or settling tanks, is then dug out in o lumps, and dried over hot flues. It is used in the manufacture of porcelain and pottery (along with felspar, flint, and other sub, stances), and in the preparation of sizes for smooth-faced printing-paper, such as is largely employed for illustrated books with process engravings. It is also used for sizing and loading cheap cotton goods. Much alum is prepared from kaolin by the action of strong sulphuric acid. It is also used in making ultramarine pigment. The chief sources of kaolin are Cornwall (where the china-clay industry is important), Saxony, Limoges in France, and Thuringia in Germany. In the United States the domestic output is obtained largely from the Eastern states, Vermont, Virginia, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, and Georgia being the most important producers. In the Western United States kaolin is obtained from Arizona, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. In 1904 the output was 41,207 short tons, valued at $304,582. In the same time the imports, were 142,878 long tons, valued at $891,708. Kaolin is found also in China, Australia, and the E. Indies. Kapellmeister, director of any orchestra or choir; originally director of the private band of a German prince. Kapila, founder of the Sánkhya system of Hindu philosophy, and reputed author of the Sankhyasutras. When he lived is quite uncertain. For the tenets of his philosophy, see SANKHYA. Kaposvár, chief th: of co. Somogy, Hungary, 126 m. s.w.. of Budapest. It has several mills and a sugar refinery. Pop. (1900) 18,218. Kapp, FRIEDRICH (1824–84), German-American historian and lawyer, born in Hamm, Prussia. He practised law in New York from 1850 to 1870, was a commissioner of immigration there in 1867-70, and, having returned to Germany, became a member of the Reichstag in 1872. Deeply interested in certain phases of American history and a careful and painstaking investigator, he
Grosse und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (1871); Aus. und iiber Amerika: Thatsachen und Erlebnisse (1876); Life of John Kalb (1884); and Die Deutschen in Staate New York während des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts (1884), which deals with the history of the Palatine settlements on the Hudson and in the Mohawk Valley, and which Prof. Osgood has characterized as “one of the best social historical studies of which our literature can boast.’ Kappel. See CAPPEL. Kapuas. See Born Eo. Kara. (1.) Mining dist., S.E. Siberia, on a trib. of the Shilka, 300 m: E. of Chita. ... Its gold mines belong to the Czar. (2.) Sea, Russia, a branch of the Arctic Ocean, 170 m. by 300 m. Yugor Strait between the mainland and the island of Waigatz, Kara Strait (30 m. wide) between Waigatz and Novaya Zemlya, and Matochkin Shar, which divides Novaya Zemlya into two parts, are the entrances from the w; It is open for navigation from three to six weeks every year during July to September. (3.) River, 125 m. long, which forms the boundary between European and Asiatic Russia, falls into Kara Sea. Kara-Balgassun. KoruM. Kara chi, or KURRAcHEE, munic. th and cantonment, cap. of Sindh, Bombay Presidency, India, on the delta of the Indus, 12 m. from the river's most westerly outlet, and 90 m. s.w. of Haidarabad. It is the terminus of railways which tap Punjab and Rajputana, and has an excellent harbor, covering 237% ac., and protected by breakwaters. It has an active inland trade with Kashmir, Afghanistan, Turkestan, and Tibet. . The shipping quarter is on the former island of Kiamari. Clifton on the s., to which there is a good road, is a seaside resort. Carpets and silverware are manufactured. The exports include hides, tallow, oil. cotton, wheat, and tea. In 1903 the total trade reached a value of nearly $75,000,000. Pop. (1901) 116,663. See Baillie's
Kurrachee. Past, Present, and
Kara-George, or KARA-Jorj. The name given to a Servian patriot. See Czerny, GEORGE.
Hara-Hissar Kara - Hissar. See AFFIUMKARA-HISSAR. Karaites, a Jewish sect who adhere to the strict letter of Scripture, and reject oral tradition and depreciate the Talmud. The schism arose at Bagdad about the middle of the 8th century A.D., under the leadership of Anan ben David. He led his adherents to Jerusalem, whence they were scattered at the time of the crusades. They are most numerous in S. Russia, especially the Crimea. Karakoram Tsung-ling, or Mustagh Mts., a range of Central Asia, between E. (Chinese) Turkestan on the N. and India on the s.; connects the N.w.. angle of the Tibetan plateau with the s.E. corner of the Pamir, and divides the basin of the Tarim from that of the Indus. It is separated from the Himalayas by a long depression (PanggongShayok-Indus). On the N. the Upper Yarkand-Daria valley, almost parallel to the ShayokIndus, separates it from the w. Kuenlun. Its length is nearly 450 m. The pass of Karakoram, in lat. 35°53' N., and long. 80° 18' E., is the principal commercial route connecting India and E. Turkestan. It is traversable throughout the year, though it is 18,500 ft. above the sea-level. In the central portion of the range are Dapsang and Godwin-Austen, the second highest peak in the world (28.278 ft.). Close by are other peaks, all over 25,300 ft., as well as the vast Baltoro glacier. West of these are the Muztagh pass and range and Mustagh-ata. Towards the w- end of the chain, in the Gilgit region, the Karakoram system culminates in Rakapushi, over 25,200 ft. See Sir W. M. Conway's Climbing and Erploration in the Karakoram Himalayas (1894). Karakorum, properly KARAKUREN (“of the Mongols'), HoLiN, and Hola-Ho-LIN (“of the Chinese'), the ancient capital of the (Turkish) Uigur empire 7th9th centuries A.D. (Kara-Balgassun), and of the Mongol empire in the middle of the 13th century, forms a vast extent of ruins in the valley of the Orkhon (N. Mon: golia), principally grouped around two sites—(1) the Uigur capital, close to 1. bk. of Orkhon, in 47° 28' N., and 102° 35' E.; and (2) the Mongol capital, founded by Ogodai Khan in 1234, nearly 15 m. S.E. of the former, near r. bk. of Orkhon. , Heikel and Radlov in 1890 and 1891 explored the ruins and discovered very valuable (Turkish, Mongol. Persian, Tibetan, Chinese) historical inscriptions of the 8th century, which have been interpreted in a remarkably able way by Professor V. Thomsen of Copenhagen.
Karamania, or CARAMANIA, the central plateau of Asia Minor, between lat. 36° 50' N.-39° 10' N., and long. 31°-36° E. Karamzin, NicoLAI MIKHAILovitch (1766–1826), Russian historian, was born near Simbirsk on the Volga. He made his reputation as a stylist with Travels from Moscow (Eng. trans., 3 vols. 1803), and in the same year he was appointed imperial historiographer. Then, too, he began his great History of Russia (11 vols., 1816–29; 6th ed., 1850–3), which he continued till his death, bringing it down to 1613. It is the first systematic history of Russia. Karamzin was one of the creators of modern Russian prose. Kara-su. See STRUMA. Karasu-Bazar, tm. of the Crimea, S. Russia, gov. Taurida, 30 m.E.N.E.of Simpheropol. Pop. (1897) 12,966. . Karategin, dist. of Bokhara Russian Central Asia, lying s. of Fergana: is drained to the s-w. by the Wakhsh or Surkh-ab, and includes an area of about 4,000 sq. m. Shut in by lofty mountains, it has a severe climate, but nevertheless produces mulberries, apricots, peaches, cherries, api. and walnuts.” The chief town is Garm or Harm, on the r. bk. of the Wakhsh. Pop. c. 100,000, chiefly Aryan Tajiks, but including also 15,000 Kirghiz. Karauli, or KERowLEE, feudatory State in Rajputana, India, having an area of 1,242 sq. m. The country is hilly and rich in timber. Pop., (1901) 156,786, emÉ. in agriculture and cattlereeding. Sheepskin and furs are exported. The capital, Karauli, 55 m. s.w.. of Bhartpur, is surrounded by a sandstone wall. Pop. (1901) 23,482. Karawala, a small viper (Hypmale nepa) of Southern India and Ceylon closely related to the
American copperhead, and of similar appearance. Karczag, th:, . Hungary, co.
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, 37 m.s.w. of Debreczin. Pop. (1900) 20,886. Karelia. See FINLAND. Karenni, plateau (3,000–4,000 ft.) between Lower Burma and Siam. The country is divided into several petty states under the control of the British authorities. The country is well cultivated and fertile, and is inhabited by the tribe of Red Karens. Karens, a tribe of semi-aborigines on the E. frontier of Burma and the w. border of Siam, and in the Irawadi delta. Their prehistoric home seems to have been in S. W. China. Some of them have settled in the plains, and have adopted Buddhism; others are nomadic tribes, and retain their...primitive nature-worship. See Wade's Thesaurus of Karén Rnowledge (1847–50); Mac
mahon's Karens of the Golden Chersonese (1876); Smeaton's The Loyal Karens of Burma (1887). Karikal, French settlement on Coromandel coast, Madras, India; has an area of 52 sq. m. Pop. over 70,000. The town and seart of Karikal, 12 m. N. of egapatam, , exports rice, pottery, ground-nuts, and saffron. Pop. (1901) 18,038. Kariot, or NIKARIA, the ancient Icaria, isl., Asiatic Turkey one of the Sporades, 13 m. w. $f Samos. Area, 103 sq. m. Cap. Phanari. Pop. 13,000. Karli, renowned Chaitya cave temple, 25. m. s.E. of Bombay India. It is cut in a rocky wili 850 ft. high. The interior, 126 ft. §: 45% ft. broad, and 46 ft. high, is adorned with richlycarved columns. Karl in gs. GIANS. Karlocza) Karlowitz, uno. A arrocza tn. and o §ro Öriers' tal) see of Slavonia, Hungary, co. Szerém, on r. bk. of Danube, 45 m. by rail N.W. of Belgrade, famous for the treaty signed here in 1699 between the Turks on the one side and Austria, Poland, Russia, and Venice on the other. It makes very good wine and plumbrandy (slivovits). Pop. (1900) 5,639. Karlsbad, or CARLSBAD, th: and wat.-pl. of Bohemia, Austria, at the S. foot of the Erzgebirge, 116 m. w. by N. of Prague. It has more than 35,000 visitors yearly. The waters are warm (80.5°–136.5°F.) and alkalinesaline in o The season is at its height in June and July. The little town (1,225 ft. above sea-level) is squeezed into the narrow and romantic valley of the Tepl. and is surrounded by ine-clad mountains. Porceain, goldsmiths' work, liqueur needles, and ornaments (out of the petrefactions of the mineral water) are made. Salt from the springs is largely exported. The waters were first used for bathing about 1520. Pop. (1900) 14,640; or, including the suburbs, 24,938. Karlsburg, or GYULA-FEHERvár, fort, th and episc. see of Transylvania, Hungary, on the r. bk. of Maros, 33 m. w.N.w. of Hermannstadt. It produces wine, and has a cathedral (1443). Pop. (1900) 9,669. Karlskrona, or CARLSKRoNA, fort. seapt., on rocky isls. off s. coast of Sweden, cap. of co. of same name, 47 m. s.w.. of Kalmar. It has ship-building yards, an arsenal, nayal school, and hospital, and tobacco, hat, cloth, and match factories. Since 1680 it has been the chief station of the Swedish fleet. Pop. (1901) 23,955. Karlsruhe, or CARLSRUHE, th: Germany, cap. of grand-duchy of
Baden, 34 m. by rail s.s.w, of Heidelberg near the N. end of the Black Forest, 6 m. E. of the Rhine, on which it has its port of Maxau. In 1853 the grandduke founded here an academy of ... art. This, with , a picture allery and the exhibition of the §. Art Association, have iven the place some importance in the art history of Germany. The polytechnic was the first o of its kind, in Germany. he palace of the heredita rand-duke, the architects' school, industrial art school and museum cadet academy, conservatory of music, the polytechnic, figure amongst the chief features of interest. Of recent years. Karlsruhe has become an industrial centre, producing railway engines and carriages, machinery, firearms and explosives, cigars, furniture, silver wares, leather, cement ware, beer, carpets, and perfumery. Pop. (1905) 111,200. Karlstad, or CARLSTAD, cap. and episc, see of Sweden, co. Vermland, on isl. of Thingvalla, at N. end of Lake Wener. It has been rebuilt since a fire in 1865, and manufactures machinery, tobacco, and matches. Two large bridges join the island with the mainland. Here was signed, Sept. 23, 1905, the agreement dissolving the union of Norway and Sweden. Pop. (1900) 11,869. Karluk. See KodLAK. Karma. See BUDDHISM. Karmū, or CARMo, isl., w. coast of §o CO. Štavanger, opposite Bukn Fjord, 107 sq. m. in area; has herrin fisheries, and yields copper. The chief towns are Skudesmaeshavn and Kopervik. Pop. 12,000. Karnak. The great temple of Karnak in *† is situated about one and a half miles N. of the modern village of Luxor, on the r. bk. of the Nile, in 25° 50' N. lat. An avenue of krio-sphinxes leads up , to the great gateway of Ptolemy, Euergetes I. (247–222 #;" which opens on to the beautiful temple o excavated) of Chensu, dedicate § Ramses III. (20th dynasty). §§§ to the N.E. are the ruins of the main temple. The great propylaea leading from one court to another are of magnificent proportions, the , total breadth of the largest bei 379. ft., and , its height 142} ft., while its depth is 60 ft. The processional hall is the largest of any. There is a central avenue of twelve columns 80 ft. high, with nine lines of smaller columns on either side— 134 in all. The whole is carved and colored. It was erected by Seti I. and finished by Ramses II. (19th dynasty). East of the hall is a court surrounded by Osiride figures in which are two red granite obelisks, one of them the
second largest in the world; the other was erect ueen Hatshepsu (18th dynasty). Other temples lying near the main building are those of Ptah and Hathor, of Amenhotep III., and of Horemheb. Karnal, chief ... city, Karnal dist., Punjab, India, 7 m. from the r. bk. of the Jumna. It manufactures cotton cloth, blankets, and boots, Pop. (1901) 23,559. Kärnthen, Austria. See CARINTHIA. Karnul, or KURNool, cap. of Karnul dist., Madras, India, 88 m. N.E. of Beliary. Pop. (1901) 25,376. IKárolyi, Aloys, Count (1825– 89), Austrian statesman, Hungarian , birth; was sent in 1859 as Austrian minister to Prussia, where he conducted the Schleswig-Holstein negotiations and negotiated the preliminaries for the treaty of Prague (1866). In 1878 he was appointed ambassador in London. Karr, JEAN BAPTISTE ALPHoNse (1808–90), French novelist and journalist, born at Paris. His Sous les Tilleuls (1832), an autobiographical romance, full of originality, freshness, , and fantastic humor, o him fame, and was followed by Une Heure trop tard (1833); Fa dièze (1834), which furnished Jules Sandeau and Emile Augier with the ideas for their comedy, La Pierre de Touche; Vendredi Soir (1835) and Le Chemin le plus Court (1836), onio, autobiographical fragments. e also wrote on o; His reminiscences, ivre de Bord, were published in 1879–80. Karroo, the table-lands which form successive terraces between the sea shore and the ho veld of the interior of Cape Colony. The Little Karroo is the first terrace, its N. buttress being the Zwarteborg. Northward of the Zwarteberg is the Great Karroo (average width 60 m.), bounded on the N. by the Nieuwveld Mts. In summer the Karroo is a desolate, arid plain, its only trees being a species of acacia. When the rains come “the whole surface of the Karroo appears one immense ocean of dark green, spangled, with flowers most brillfant and innumerable.’ See H. A. Bryden's Kloof and Karroo (1889). Kars. (1.) Russian prov. of Transcaucasia, ceded to Russia by Turkey in 1878. The country is elevated, being part of the
Armenian plateau. me of the peaks reach 10,000 ft. It is drained chiefly by the Kura.
The climate is extreme. Agriculture and trade with Turkey are the chief occupations, thoug
the Kurds are o people. Salt is obtained. Area, 7,308
sq. m., Pop., (1897) 292,49s. (2.) Capital of above prov., 115 m. S.W. of Tiflis. The cathedral was built in the 11th century, Kars is strongly fortified, and has an ancient citadel. During the 9th and 10th centuries it was the capital of an independent Armenian principality. Fortified by the Sultan Amurath III. in 1579, it fell before the Russians under Paskevitch in 1828, but was restored, , Kars, was brilliantly defended by the Turks under the British general Williams, for six months in 1855, but had finall to surrender to the Russians. f was again carried by storm by e Russians in 1877. Pop (1897) 20,891. Karshi, th: and oasis, Bokhara,
Russian Central Asia, 100 m. s.E. of Bokhara city. It produces tobacco. It was taken by the
Russians in 1868. Pop. 25,000. . Karst, a name given, to the limestone plateau which joins the E. Alps to the Dinaric Alps E. of Istria, but the term has been extended to include the whole of the porous limestone mountain system from the Laibach depression to the Morea (Greece). The surface contains many sinks or swallow - holes, called dolinas. Where the separating walls between the dosinas break down, we have various trough-line depressions known as uvalas (Karst. mulden) or polyes (sunken fields). Karst phenomena, with sinks cañons, and caverns, are found wherever soluble limestone exists in regions which are not too dry—e.g. in Derbyshire, and the Câusses which border the central plateau of France. Kartarpur, munic. th:, Jalandhar dist., Punjab, India, 4 m. S.E of Amritsar; founded in 1588 by Guru Arjun, whose handsome residence and gardens are its chief feature. jo. 10,840. Kartikeya, the Hindu god of war, was the second son of Siva. Karun, riv. of W. Persia, rises in the Bakhtiari Mts., flows w. and s, past Shuster and Ahwaz, and joins the Shat-el-Arab at Mohammerah, 45 m. from the Persian Gulf. It is navigable as far as Shuster, though navigation is impeded at Ahwaz by rapids. It has been open to foreign commerce since 1888. Karur, or CARooR, munic, th:, Coimbatore dist., Madras, India 44 m. N.W. of Trichinopoli, an near the Cauvery. It was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Chera or E. Kerala. Pop. (1901) 12,769. Rarwar,
Bombay, India, 54 m. s.E. of Goa. Formerly one of the principal harbors of the Bombay Presidency, its importance has been reduced since the opening of