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Kaschau (Hung. Kassa), royal free th and episc. see Hungary co. Abauj-Torna, in the valley &# the Hernad, 58 m. by rail N. by E. of Miskolcz. A remarkably fine cathedral (14th to 15th century), the museum for Upper Hungary, and mineral springs are the principal features. It has steam mills, and manufactures tobacco, paper, machinery, fur: niture, textiles. One of the chief national strongholds, it was captured by the Austrians in 1848. Pop. (1900) 40,102. Kasganj, munic. th:, ... Etah dist., United Provinces, India, 60 m. ow."of Bareilly. Pop. (1801) 19,686. Kashan, th:, Kashan prov., Persia, 95 m. N.W. of Ispahan, and on route between Teheran and Ispahan. It manufactures silks, satins, brocades, copper ware, glazed tiles, and carpets. An earthquake in 1895 caused great destruction. Pop. 30,000. Kashgar, chief th: of E. 'rur. kestan, on the Kashgar-Daria or Kizil-su, one of the head-streams of the Tarim, nearly 100 m. N.w. of Yarkand. It stands at the meeting-place of several important and ancient routes, and thus has considerable strategical, commercial, and social importance. It is composed of two parts—the Kuhna-hahr, , or old town, and the Yanghi-shahr, or new town, 5 m. E. on the other side of the Kashgar-Daria. The old town built about , 1513, is encircled with a high clay wall. The governor's palace and a caravanserai. both built o Yakub. Bey (1867–77), are the chief buildings. Two miles to N. is the mosque of Hazrat Afak (d. 1693). The new town built in or , about 1838, is also fortified with massive clay walls. Its chief edifice is the palace of the amban, or Chinese governor. It manufactures carpets, cottons, cloth, and gold and silver ware. Adolph Schlagintweit, the European traveller, was murdered here (1857). Pop. estimated 60,000 to 70,000. Kashgar-Daria. See TARIM.

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Kashgaria, a name used in the wider sense for Chinese Turkestan or Sin-kiang, and in the narrower sense for a district in its w. extremity. The latter includes a population of about 120,000 people. Kashmir and Jammu, also CASHMERE, feudatory state of India; is bounded on the N. by the Karakoram Mts., on the E. b Tibet, on the s. and w: by Punja and the N.W. Frontier Province. Area, 81,000 sq.m. Except at the extreme s.(Jammu), the country is very mountainous. The Indus is the chief river. The soil is fairly fertile. Besides shawl-weaving, saddlery, woollen fabrics, silk embroideries, gold and silver ornaments, and copper ware are manufactured. Kashmir, enjoys a salubrious climate, varied and picturesque scenery, and a good supply of game. he capital is Srinagar. At , one time Nagas o the Kashmiris came unde uddhist influence about 245 B.C., and the subsequent corruption, and decay of Buddhism paved the way for Hinduism. With the Mogul §o invasion the country Å. into the ssession of fghanistan, and Mohammedanism became paramount, and is still the faith professed by the bulk of the population. In 1846, in return for his assistance, Golab Singh, chief of Jammu, was allowed by the British to purchase Kashmir, and received the title of Maharajah. The country, is, to all intents and purposes, a ‘buffer; state, though subject to British control. Pop., (1901) 2,905,578 (1,542,057 males, 1,363,521 femaies. See Bellew's Kashmir and Kashgar (1875); Wakefield's The Hoopy Valley, etc. (1879); Eckenstein's The Karakorams and Kashmir (1900); Picturesque and Kashmir (1896); Nevc's Picturesque Kashmir (1900); and Wardle's Kashmir, its Silk Industries, etc. (1905). Kashubic, a Slav dialect, a branch of Wendish, spoken" by . a quarter of a million of ple in Pomerania. The name F. of the Kassubs is applied to the country, between the Persante and the Vistula, Kolberg being the capital. Kasimov, th:, Ryazan gov., 90 m. E.N.E. of Ryazan city, Central Russia, on 1. bk. of Okā. Tanneries, rope-making, farriery, and the manufacture of sheepskins, goats-hair garments, leather materials, and earthenware, are the chief industries. From 1452 till 1677 it was the capital of a Tartar principality. Pop. (1897) 13,545. Kasipur, munic... th:, arai dist., United . Provinces, India 75 m. N.E. of Meerut. Identified as the former capital of the Govisana (Aryan) kingdom. Pilgrims

Kassel

resort to its #. Hindu temples. Pop. (1901) 12,023. Raskaskia, vil. on r. bk. of riv. of same name, Illinois, near its junction with the Mississippi, 8 m. N.W. of Chester; was founded in 1680 by the French, and was the first capital of filinois. Pop. (1900) 177. Kaskaskia, riv., Ill., flows into the Mississippi # at Chester, sfter a course of 300 m., being navigable for 150 m. Kasr-el-Kebir, tm., Morocco, 60 m; S. of Tangier. Oranges aré largely grown, and wine is made. Here "Sebastian of Portugal was defeated and slain (1578). 25,000. Kassa. See KASCHAU. Kassaba, or CASABA. (1.) Town, vilayet of Aidin, Asiatic Turkey, 50 m. s.E. of Konieh. Pop. 15,000. (2.) Town, Asia Minor. See CASABA. . Kassai, riv. of Central Africa, rises in Portuguese "w. Africa, about 12° N. and 18° w., and flows E., then N., forming the boundary between Portuguese W. Africa and the Congo Free State for nearly 300 m. After a further course of over 500 m. to the N.w. and w:N.w.. it is joined by the Kwango to form the Kwa. Wissmann explored it in 1885. It is navigable to the falls bearing his name. Kassala, fort... th:, prov. of same name, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, on a tributary of the Atbara, 230 m. E. of Khartum; is regain: ing its importance as a trading centre (ivory, gold dust, hides), which it lost after the Mahdi's revolt. It was taken by the Italians in 1894. By the AngloItalian Convention in 1897 it was ceded to Egypt. Pop. 10,000. Kassan, th:, Fergana, Russian Central Asia, 50 m. N.E. of Kokan. Here is , the Sadpir cemetery, with ancient monuments and inscriptions, and an old castle. Pop. 10,000. Kassel, or CASSEL, th: and cap. of Prussian prov. of Hesse-Nassau, on the Fulda, 124 m. by rail N.N.E. of Frankfort-on-the-Main. The rincipal lose is flanked by the ormer o ace of the electors (1769 and 1821) and a couple of museums, but the most imposing buildings are those of the administration and the law courts

Pop.

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SCENES IN KASHMIR. 1. Maharajah's boat. 2. Cloth merchants. 3. Near Srinagar. 4. Baramula, on Jhelum River. 5 Srinagar. (Photos by Frith.)

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Kasson

on a terrace of the Habichtswald, and surrounded by woods and fine gardens. , Here, Napole on III. was detained (1870–1) after the battle of Sedan, and here the Emperor William II. and his family frequently spent part of the summer. The industries include iron works, engineering shops, factories for railway carriages, mathematical instruments, tobacco, small metal fittings, paper, pianofortes, also lithography ând ardening. From 1806 to 1813, Kassel was the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia. Pop. (1905) 120,446. Kasson, John ApAM (1822), American lawyer, political leader, and diplomat, born at Charlotte, Vt., of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He raduated at the University of ermont in 1842, studied law in Burlington, Vt., and Worcester, Mass., and practised law, with success, at St. Louis, Mo., and at Des Moines, Ia., whither he removed in 1857. He was also prominent, as a Republican, in litics, was a member of the ational Republican Conyention of 1860, which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency, was first assistant Bostmastergeneral of the U. S. (1 o was a U. S. commissioner to the International Postal Congress at Paris (log) as commissioner from the . S. negotiated postal, conventions with Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, and Holländ (1867), was a member of the Ia. iègislature (1868–72), was a prominent representative in Congress (1863–7, 1873-7, and 1881-4), was U. S. minister to Austria-Hungary (1877 –81), and U. S. minister to Germany (1884–5), was , a special envoy of the U. S. to the Samoan International Conference in 1893, as special commissioner plenipotentiary to the U.S. negotiated a series of reciprocity treaties with foreign powers (1897–1901), and in 1898 was a member of the U. S. and British Joint, High Commission to consider American-Canadian questions. He published a History of the Formation of the United States Constitution (1889), and Evolution of the U. S. Constitution and History of the Monroe Doctrine (1904). Kasta muni, or KASTAMBUL, chief town of vilayet of same name, Asiatic Turkey, 76 m. S.W. by w. of Sinope; has manufactures of , copper ware, cotton goods, and leather, and trades in mohair. Pop. 17,000. Kasur, munic. th:, Lahore dist., Punjab, India, 32 m. S.E. of Lahore. Pop. (1901) 22,022. . . Katahdin, MoUNT, the highest mountain of Maine, 5,200 ft. high, Piscataquis co., 77 m. N. by w. of Bangor. Kater, HENRY (1777–1835),

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English physicist, born at Bristol; went (1799) to Madras, and di service in trigonometrical surveying, but retired and devoted himself to science (1814). He É. the superiority of the assegrainian to the Gregorian telescope, invented the floating collimator, and determined, the length of a seconds pendulum. He left writings on measures, balances, pendulums, and the Russian standards of length. Katha, dist., Upper Burma, traversed by the Irawadi. Area, 6,994 sq. m. #. (1901) 176,223. Katha, cap. of the dist., is on the r. bk. of the Irawadi, 40 m. w. by S. of Bhamo. Katherine. See CATHERINE. Kathiawar, peninsula on w. coast of India, between Gulf of Cutch and Gulf of Cambay. It contains 187 feudatory states subject to Bombay. It is fertile and well watered. Cotton, the chief product, is exported. Area, 20,559 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 2,329,196. Off the s. coast is the Portuguese port of Diu. Kathimein, or KAPHIMEIN, th: Asiatic Turkey on the Tigris, 5 m. N.W. of Bagdad. Its mosque is a place of pilgrimage for Per

sians. Pop. 15,000.
Kathode. See ANoDE and
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Kath o de S tream. See

Vacuum Tubes. Katkoff, MIKHAIL NIKIFoRoVITCH (1820–87), Russian journalist, was born at Moscow; became (1845) professor of philosohy at Moscow University....He ounded (1856) the Russki Viestnik, to advocate reform; but, alarmed by an insurrection in Poland, he became the apostle of the Russification of the whole empire. Through , this and the Moscow Gazette, which he acquired in 1863, he gained great influence throughout Russia. In education he advocated classical humanitarian as opposed to natural science. It was for his paper that Tolstoy first wrote. See Livoff's Michel Katkoff (in French, 1897). Katmandu. See KHATMANDU. Katrine, LoCH, in Stirlingshire and Perthshire, Scotland, 5 m. E. of Loch Lomond. It lies 364 ft. above sea-level, and has a maximum depth of 468 ft. It is 8 m. long, with an average, breadth of about a mile. . It discharges through Lochs Achray and Vennachar to river Teith. Between the eastern end of the loch and Loch Achray lies the Trossachs. Above the löch towers to the S.E. Ben Venue (2,393 ft.), and to the N.E. Ben A'an (1,500 ft.). Since 1859 it has furnished Glasgow with its water supply. The surface was then raised five feet, and as a result the “Silver Strand,’ immortalized in the !o #. the Lake, was submerged, and Ellen's

Katzbach

Isle diminished in extent. Near the head of the loch is the burying-ground of the clan Macgregor. atsena, th: in N. of Sokoto, N. Nigeria, 100 m.E.S.E. of Wurno. Formerly an important town, it declined after a seven years' siege by the Fulahs at the beo of the 19th century. Pop. ******

Katsura, Viscount (1847), Japanese statesman, was born in prov. Choshiu. He studied military matters in Berlin, and from 1875-8 was military attaché at the Japanese embassy there. In 1886 he became vice-minister of the Japanese War Office, and helped to reform the army. He distinguished himself in the war between China and Japan, and was appointed war minister (1898) and prime minister (1901–05). Kattegat, or CATTEGAT, sound between Sweden, and Denmark, connecting the Skager Rack (N. Sea), through the Sound, the Great and Little Belts, with the Baltic. Length, 150 m.; breadth, from 40 to 70 m. Kattimundoo, or CATTIMANDoo, a juice obtained from the Euphorbia Cattimandoo, a plant which flourishes in the north of the Deccan, India. The juice is analogous to gutta-percha, and, being of a highly adhesive nature, is employed as a cement. It is also used as a cure for rheumatism. Kattowitz, th:, Prussian prov: of Silesia, 8 m. by rail s. E. of Beuthen, and 7 m., from the Austrian frontier, with iron and

other metal works, sawmills brick works, etc. Pop. (1905 35,756.

Katunga, th:, Nigeria, Central Africa, 81 m. s.w.. of Boussa; is an important trading centre. Pop. 15,000.

Katydid, a name applied to a group of large arboreal American species of Locustidae (green grasshoppers) from the off. of the male, which has been syllabled as “Katy-did, Katy-didn't,' and is produced by the rasping of the wing-covers. The females ans

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Princess of Brunswick and her child, and was elected one of the first members of the Royal Academ She finally married Zucchi §si , a Venetian painter, and spent her last twenty-five years at Rome. The popularity of her work has largely and justly declined. See Life by G. de Rossi (1810). Kaufman, city, Tex., co. seat Kaufman co., on the Texas Midland and the Texas and N. Orleans R. Rs. It has a large trade in cotton and manufactures cotton-seed oil. Pop. (1900) 2,378. Rauf man n, CoNSTANTINE PETRovitch . (1818–82), Russian general, was born near fvangorod in Russian Poland; distinguished himself at the siege of Kars (1855). Appointed governor-general of

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Loch Katrine, Ellen's Isle, and Ben Venue.

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supported, Joseph It...in his eco clesiastical reforms. He founded the Vienna Art School and one or more academies for the training of art pupils. See life by Hormeyr in Der Oesterreichische Plutarch, vol. vi., and by Beer (1872). Kauri Pine (Agathis australis), a coniferous tree peculiar to New Zealand, and forming its, most valuable tree. It attains a height of from 120 ft. to 180 ft., and a diameter of from 5 ft. to 12 ft. The wood is straight-grained, easily worked, , and susceptible of a high polish, and is largely exported for use as ship masts, deck boards, furniture, and pav

ing blocks. The tree yields a fine resin, kauri , used in varnish-making. e gum is

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Kautz

mostly in a fossil state, and is found in the ground wherever kauri forests have stood.

Kauri Pine (Agathis australis).

Kautz, AUGUST VALENTINE (1828–95), American soldier, born at Ispringen, Baden, Germany. He was brought to America b. his parents when only a year old, served as a private in the Mexican War (1846–7), graduated at West Point in 1852, and served on the Union side as a cavalry officer throughout the Civil War, rising from the regular rank of captain (1861) to the volunteer rank of brigadier-general (1864), and receiving the brevets of brigadiereneral and major-general (1865) or gallant and meritorious service in the campaign against Richmond. For a time he commanded the cavalry division of the Army of the James. He retired from the service with the regular rank of brigadier-general in 1892. He ublishe The Company Clerk (1863), Customs of Service for Non-Commissioned ficers and Soldiers (1864), and Customs of Service for Army Officers (1866). Kava, or AVA, is a term applied both to a shrub, Macropiper lati{{ift and to a drink prepared native Polynesians from the shrub by chewing its root, adding water to the "&tract thus ob: tained, and fermenting it. The shrub has a succulent stem, and large cordate leaves. Kavala. See CAVALLA. Kavanagh, JULIA (1824–77), Irish authoress, was born at Thurles in o: She wrote Madeleine (1848), descriptive of life in Auvergne; Natalie (1850),

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which deals with Norman scenes; Daisy Burns (1853), which was translated into French; and Adèle (1858). Kaveri. See CAUVERY. Kay (Fr. Kei or Ke), of the Arthurian legend, is King Arthur's foster-brother and seneschal. and is represented as a man of bitter and sarcastic tongue. In the Brut, after performing many deeds of prowess, he is slain in the war against the Romans in the evolution of Arthurian legend Kay undergoes a change for the worse. In Perceval li Gallois lie is represented as slaying Arthur's son, Lohot, and conspiring against the king. In the romance of Gawain and Kay (preserved only in the Dutch Lancelot), he plots to drive Gawain from court. He is occasionally represented as uncle to the queen. Kay, John (fl. 1733–64), English inventor, was born at Waiāersley, near Bury. He invented the extended lathe, the fly-shuttle (1733), and the card-making engine, which revolutionized the staple manufactures of England. . Kay, John (1742–1826), Scottish painter and caricaturist, born near Dalkeith; is distinguished for his remarkable caricatures of Edinburgh celebrities and famous Scotsmen of his time. See Kay's Portraits (1837; , 3d ed. 1877). See Biographical Note prefixed to the Portraits. Kayak, the long, narrow, deo skin canoe of the És. kimos. The kayik (caique) of the Bosporus and the Yakut , kayik are ... the same word, although o to vessels of wood, some of them seven tons burden. The occupant of the Eskimo kayak wears a sealskin or sealgut coat, which, itself waterpoof, fits over the sides of the circular hold after he is seated, making the canoe secure against the entrance of water. An average kayak measures: length, 17 ft. 9% in.; greatest breadth, 1 ft. 11 in.; greatest girth, 4ft. 8 in.; weight, 60 lbs. Sce Boas, Central Eskimo, 6th Rpt. Bureau of American Ethnology, Pink, The Eskimo Tribe, 1887. Kaye, SIR ...JoBIN, WILLIAM (1814–76), English military historian, was born probably at Acton, Middlesex. e succeeded (1857) John Stuart Mill as secretary in the Political and Secret Department of the Indian office, retired in 1874. In 1844 he had founded The Calcutta Review. His best known works are the History of the so War (1857– 8), History of the War, in Afghanistan (1851), and Ijo"; of the Administration of the East Indian Company (1853). Kayes... cap., of French Seneambia-Niger, W. Africa, on the ... bk. of the Senegal and at the head of navigation, 460 m. S.E. of

Kazan

St. Louis; is strongly fortified It is the starting-point of a railway which extends 82 m. to Bafulabé, and is being extended to the Niger. Pop. 10,000. Kay-Shuttleworth, SIR JAMEs PHILLIPs (1804–77), founder of English popular education and the system of school inspection by government, was born at Rochdale, Lancashire. A pamphlet which he published in 1832 on The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes Employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester led to the adoption by the local authorities of measures tending to sanitary and educational reform. He estabjished at Battersea, the first training college for teachers (1839–40). Kazan. (1.) Government of E. Russia, bordered on the w. by Nijni Novgorod. Area, 24,000 .# m. It belongs to the basin of the Volga and the Kama; in the N. are many marshes. he climate is unusually serene and stimulating, the chief minerals are iron and copper. Forests cover about one-third of the total area (32.6 per cent.), and there is a great export of wood, especially to Astrakhan and the steppe regions of the s. Forty-nine per cent. (49.6), of the land is cultivated, especially for cereals, hemp, flax, poppies, and a little tobacco. Gardening, bee-kcep§ and fishing are progressive industries. The population (2,191, 058 in 1897) comprises some 885,000 Russians,680,000 Tartars, 480,000 Chuvashes, 118,000 Cheremissians, 26,000 Mordvins, 8,000 Votiaks, and 3,000 Meshtcheriaks. This region was the old home of the Bulgarians. The Bulgarian state was overthrown by the Mongols in 1232, and till 1437 formed É. of the Golden Horde of the ipchak Co. The old khanate of , Kazan (1437–1552) comprised the modern, governments of Kazan, Vyatka, Simbirsk, Penza, and part of Perm. Kazan became Russian in 1552. (2.) Capital of above gov., stands 3 m. from the Volga. Its Kremlin, or upper city, is surrounded by a stone wall. The church of the Annunciation was founded in 1562; the Bogoroditsk convent containing the “Kazan Mother of God,' dates from 1579; in 1821 this picture was removed to the Kazan Cathedral at St. Petersburg. Among the other, features are the university and a red brick tower, greatly venerated by the Tartars as containing the tomb of a Moslem saint. The principal industries are tanneries, brew: eries, and distilleries, leather and cloth works, iron and copper foundries, tallow, soap, candle, and sugar manufactories, and naphtha refineries, . Kazan is a great river port, ranking next to Nijni Nov

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