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in Moosehead Lake and flowing s. to the Atlantic, into which it empties, 15 m. s. of Bath. It is navigable to Augusta, 40 m. above its mouth. Its length is about 175 m. Its course is through a wellwooded country, and on its banks are several towns, the chief of which are Bath and Augusta. Kennebecasis, riv., N. -Canada, rises near the sources o the Petitcodiac, and flows S.W. for about 20 m., where it joins the St. John R. Kennebunk, tho, York, co., Me., on Mousam R. and on the E. and the w: divs. of Bost. and Me. R. R., 28 m.from Portland by rail.

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It has shipbuilding and leatheroid industries, and also manufactures extension cases, counters, etc. Granite is found in the vicinity. The town owns and , operates electric light and water plants. It was first settled in 1674 and incorporated in 1820. . Its shipbuilding industry dates from 1755, and contributed a privateer for the Revolutionary War, another for the War of 1812, and a gunboat for the Civil War. op. (1900) 3,228. Kenne bunkport, th:, York co., Me., at mouth of Kennebunk R., and on Bost. and Me. R. R., is a summer resort. It has lumber and boat making interests. Pop. (1900) 2,123.


(1804–89), English, schoolmaster,

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Kenilworth Castle. (Photo by G. W. Wilson & Co.)

educated at Allegheny College. In 1849 he was made secretary of a board to prepare a plan for the U. S. census of 1850 and subsequent censuses by President Taylor, visiting Europe in connection with his duties (isã0), and there helping to organize the first international statistical congress. In 1859 he was reappointed as superintendent of the census of 1860. He attended the expositions of 1851 and 1862 at London, and was decorated by King Christian Ix. of Denmark. Kennedy, John PENDLEToN (1795–1870), American author was born in Baltimore, Md. and raduated at Baltimore College. #. was admitted to the bar and ractised at Baltimore until 1838. e was a member of Congress

Kenneth I.

from 1837 to 1845, excepting one term, and was secretary of the navy, 1852–53. He supervised Perry's expedition to Japan, and Kane's expedition in search of Franklin. He wrote A Defence of the Whigs (1844), Swallow Barn {{: , Horse - Shoe Robinson 1835), Rob. of the Bowl (1838), and Life of William Wirt (1849).

Kennedy, oh N STEwART, (1830–1909), Scottish - American banker and philanthropist, was born in Scotland and educated in the public schools of Glasgow. He came to New York in 1856, and was actively engaged in banking until 1882, who no he retired

to apply his energies to wider and impersonal interests. He was an official of many financial, railroad, charitable, and educational institutions. He died Oct. 31, 1909, leaving an estate, estimated at $60,000,000. His benefactions during his life had been numerous and large. His bequests were magnificent, amounting to $25,000,000. He left $2,250,000 each to Columbia University, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Public Library, Presbyterian Hospital, and the Boards of Missions and Church Erection of the Presbyterian Church, besides smaller bequests.

Kenneth I., MAC ALPIN,(d. c. 860), king of Scots, son of Alpin, king of Dalriada; having conquered the Picts (846), became


Kenneth II.

Ard-Righ, or ruler of the United monarchy. He established his chief seat at Scone, and six times invaded Northumbria. Kenneth II. (d. 995), king of Scots, son of Malcolm I.; succeeded ,971; warred against the Strathclyde Britons, overran Northumbria to the Tees, and established his sway over the Lothians. Kenneth II. was treacherously slain by Fenella, the daughter of a chief of Angus. Kennicott, BENJAMIN, (1718– 83. English Biblical scholar, was born at Totnes, Devon, and labored at Oxford till his death. Having designed a complete collation of the Hebrew MSs. of the Old Testament, he published it as Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum cum variis Lectionibus (1776), for which he collated some 615 Mss. of the Hebrew Old Testament and sixteen of the Samaritan Pentateuch. In 1767 he was appointed Radcliffe librarian, and in 1770 was made canon of Christ Church, and was rector of Culham in Oxfordshire (1853–83). His work is, unfortunately, vitiated by his disregard of the Massoretic tradition and his overestimate of the Samaritan Pentateuch. Kennington, suburb of London, in Surrey, 2 m. s.s.w.. of St. Faurs. Ön April 10, 1848, the Chartists started from Kennington Common with their monster tition. Pop., nearly 100,000: ennington Qval, s. of Vauxhall Bridge, is the famous cricket ground of the Surrey County Club. Kenora, th:, Ont., co, seat of Rainy River dist. which has a county organization), on the N. extremity of the Lake of the Woods, near the E. branch of Winnipeg R., and on the C. P. R. R., 135 m. E. of Winnipeg. It is situated in a gold-mining district, the Sultana Mine, which has 30 stamp mills, being 10 m. distant. he chief industries are lumbering, flour-milling, and fish. The town has an excellent school system, a public library, and the Protestant and Roman Catholic hospitals. Ango; its scenic attractions are Rideout Park, Coney Island Park, and the Devil's Gap, a narrow and beautiful stretch of water 1 m. long. Kenora owns and operates its water-works, electric light and telephone o; It was a Hudson's Bay Post 60 years ago. and was incorporated in 1881. Within its limits are very extensive water powers which are only partly utilized. It is the centre of the territory which was long, in dispute between Qntario and Manitoba , and which was finally awarded to the former province. Pop. (1901) 5,202. ... Kenosha, city, Wis., co. seat of enosha co., on the w: shore Lake Michigan, and on the Chi.

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and N. W. R. R., the Ba Steamboat Line and the Hill Steamboat . Line, 50 m. , N. . bf Chicago... It is a busy shipping point, with a fine harbor, and has manufactures of wire mattresses, wagons, furniture, brass goods, leather goods, typewriters, iron bedsteads, automobiles, bicycle lamps, hosiery, etc. Its factories É. employment to over 7,000 hands. . . Its chief educational institutions are Kemper Hall and the College of Commerce. Library Park adorns the #. There is a public library. The city was first settled in 1830. Pop. (1905) 16,235. Kenosis (“emptying”), a Greek word employed by some theologians of the 4th century (e.g. Gregory Nazianzen and Cyril) to exress the transaction alluded to in hil. 2:7-i.e. Christ's relinquish; ment of His proper and original glory and His taking the form of a servant. The kenosis would thus be but a particular aspect of the incarnation. The subject has provided matter for much controversy in ancient and modern times, the chief questions at issue relating to the degree of restraint imposed by the Redeemer upon Himself—e.g., whether the kenosis covers the limitation of Christ's knowledge implied in Mark 13:32, and of § ellowship with the Father as in Matt. 27:46; or whether the divine attributes, such as omnipotence and omniscience, were only hidden for a time; or, again, whether there was an actual cessation of them. A self-limitation in the exercise of divine functions is more agreeable to other scriptural representations than the actual, even if only temporary, cessation of them. See Dorner's Christian Doctrine (1880–2); Gifford's Incarnation (1897); Bruce's Humiliation of Christ (2nd ed. 1881); Hall's Kenotic Theory (1898). Kenrick, FRANCIS PATRICK 173;"|3.3), American R. C. preate, was born in Dublin, Ireland, and finished his religious preparation at Rome. After being ordained a priest he was given missionary work in Kentucky (1821). He taught in that state, and in 1830 was appointed coadjutor bishop of Philadelphia, where he suppressed differences in, the congregations and founded the St. Charles Borromeo seminary. During his successful administration of the diocese many, orders and institutions were located within its borders. He was appointed archbishop of Baltimore in 1851, repeating there his labors in Philadelphia. He published, in Latin, Theologica Dogmatica (4 vols. ..., 1839–40) and Theologia Moralis (3 vols. 1841–43), and his side in his controversy with Bishop Hopkins, of Vt., was set


forth in The Primacy of the Holy See, and the Authority of the General Councils (1837). Kenrick, PETER RICHARD 1806–96), brother of Francis P. enrick, was born in Dublin. Ireland, received his education at Maynooth college, and was ordained a priest in 1832. He came to Philadelphia the following year, where he was rector of the theological semina and filled other important §ces in the diocese until his consecration as coadjutor bishop of St. Louis, 1841. e was made bishop in 1843 and archbishop in 1847, celebrating his golden jubilee in 1891. It was necessary to deose him in 1895 because of his increasing feebleness of mind. He performed distinguished services for the sick and wounded in the Civil War. Kensal Green, eccles. par. of London, England, 4 m. w.N.w. of Hyde Park Corner. It is noted for its cemetery (1832), where the Princess. Sophia, the Duke , of Cambridge .no Smith, Anthony Trollope, homas Hood, alfé, and others are buried. * (1901) 29,159. ensett, joirs FREDERICK (1818–72), American landscape ainter, was born , at Cheshire, onn., and served in apprenticeship as an engraver with his uncle. He studied painting meanwhile, and in 1840, with A. B. Durand, Casilaer and Rossiter, who also belonged to the old "Hudson River” or ‘White Mountain’ school of artists, visited Europe, where he continued his studies for five years. His first exhibited picture, a view of Windsor castle, was shown at the Royal Academy, London, in 1845. Its success encouraged him to continue his studies, in Italy, for another two years. He returned to New York, 1848, and there followed a busy and prook career until his death. r. Kensett became a full member of the National Academy of Design in 1849. His method of painting was to complete his pictures in, his studio from sketches made in the field. Mr. Isham says, in his American Painting (q.v.), “Of those who accepted Durand's point of view and painted American scenery as they found it, Kensett is most rominent? Chief among his andscapes were View on the Arno (1848), Mount Washington from North Conway (1849), Sun: set on the Adirondacks (1860), and New Hampshire, Scenery (owned by The Century Association, New ork City). Kensington, parl. bor. and par., suburb of London, 4 m. w.s.w.. of St. Paul's. Kensington Gardens, the picturesque grounds of Kensington, Palace, communicate with Hyde Park. The AlHent

bert Memorial (1876) is a conspicuous object in the gardens, o ite the Royal Albert Hall. 3. buildings of outstanding interest are St. Mary Abbot's Church, Christ Church, Brompton Oratory, the Imperial Institute, the National History Museum, the South Kensington Museum and School of Science and Art, and Holland House. Pop. (1901) 176,623. Kent. (1.). Maritime co., England, bounded N. by the Thames, and ‘s.E. and s. by the English Channel. In the N. is the Isle of Sheppy, and in N.E. the Isle of Thanet. Off the E. coast are the Downs, o by the Goodwin Sands. he county, called the ‘Garden of , England,' is well wooded and cultivated. The principal rivers are the Thames and Medway, on the N.; Stour, E.; and Rother, s.w. Agriculture is a leading industry: the area under hous §. valley) is twothirds, and that under small fruit one-third, of the total for England; and there are extensive orchards. The chalk downs afford excellent grazing for sheep, and the alluvial lands rich pasture for fattening stock. The oysters of Whitstable and other places, are famous. Manufactures include paper, bricks, tiles, , pottery, cement, beer, malt, and gunpowder; shipbuilding, manufacture of marine engines, and iron-founding. There are large government esta lishments at §. Sheerness and Chatham. Ramsgate and Dover are harbors of refuge; the latter is the chief port for continental traffic; and there are numerous bathing resorts. Canterbury, on the Medway, gives its title to the primate of England. ...The proximity of Kent to the Continent early led to the organization of the Cinque Ports. Among later historical events may be noted the murder of Becket in Canterbury Cathedral and subsequent penance of Henry II., the rebellions of Wat Tyler, and Jack, Cade, the burning, of Sandwich by the French in 1450, and the appearance of the Dutch in the Medway in 1667. Area (ancient co.) 1,555 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 1,351,849. (2.) Tn., Portage co., O., 10 m. N.E. of Akron, on the Cuyoga R., and on the Erie, the B. and O., and the Wheel. and L. E. branch of the Wabash R. R. It has excellent water power, and manufactures furniture, chains, files, locks, carriages and wagons. Machine shops of the Erie R. R. are located here. There is a Carnegie Library. There are a number of small, beautiful lakes in the vicinity. Kent was first settled in 1803, and incorporated in 1869. Pop. (1900) 4,541. Kent, Dward AUGUSTU's, DUKE of (1767–1820), fourth son

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of George III. and father of Queen Victoria; served with Grey's W. Indian expedition (1794). He was created Duke of Kent and Strathern, and made commander-inchief in N. America (1799). As overnor of Gibraltar (1802), his rastic reforms caused a mutiny, and he was recalled. St. John's Island was renamed Prince Edward Island after him. Kent, JAMEs (1763–1847), American jurist, born at Fred: ericksburgh, N. Y., and graduated (1781) at Yale, where he was one of the founders of the Phi Beta o ;"; He studied law with Egbert Benson, and began to practice in 1785 at . Pough: keepsie, N. Y. He had served two terms in the N. Y. legislature, and had achieved a great reputation for legal learning, when he became professor of law at Columbia College (1793–6). He was recorder of New York (1797–8), judge of the state Sureme Court (1798–1804), chief justice (1804–14), and chancellor of New York state (1814–23). He was then reappointed professor of law at Columbia, and held the post till his death. His Commentaries on American Law (1826–30) is a standard work. He also wrote Dissertations (1795), and A Course # English Reading go). See Memoirs of Chancellor ent, by his son, William Kent (1898). Kent, WILLIAM CHARLES MARK {{...}} Eß". Mark ochester—English et, miscellaneous writer, and journalist; editor of the Sun (1845–70) and the Weekly Register (1874–81); wrote memoirs on or edited the works of . Burns (1874), Lamb so Leigh Hunt (1888), Father rout (1881), Bulwer-Lytton (1883 and 1898), Dickens (1884), and others. The Seven Modern Wonders of the World (1890) describes modern discoveries. His Poems (1870), include the once popular ‘Longfellow in England.” Kentei or KENTAI MoUNTAINs, in N. Mongolia, near the Siberian frontier, about lat. 49° N., and between long. 106°20' and 110°20' E. The Kentei is divided into the Great Kentei, to the N., and the Little Kentei, to the s. Between the two, to the E., is the sacred mountain in which tradition places the tomb of Jenghiz Khan. Kentia, a genus of tropical spineless, palms with terminal pinnate leaves. It is probable that the so-called Kentias of the florists are in reality not included in this genus. Kentigern, St. (?518–603), bishop of Strathclyde, . When driven away by King Morken he took refuge with St. favid in N. Wales, and became head of the monastery named after his disciple and successor, St.


*Ph. Recalled by King Rod: erick, Kentigern first founded Glasgow Cathedral (St. Mungo). His day is January 13. Kentish Town, a suburb of London, Eng., 3 m. N.N.W. of St. Paul's; was in the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries notorious for highway robberies. Kent Island, Md., the largest island in Chesapeake Bay. It is about 15 m. in length. It was settled by Claiborne in 1631, this being the first colony in Maryland. Kenton, city, O., co. seat of Hardin co., on the Scioto R., and on the Tol. and Q. Cent, the Erie, and the Cleve., Cin., Chi., and St. L. R. Rs., 56 m. N. of Springfield. It is situated in a productive farming and lumbering district, and has manufactures of iron fence (the largest factory of this kind in the U. S. being situated § lumber, o supplies, hardware, tools, etc. It has good civic buildings, a Carnegie Library, and a hospital. Pop. (1900) 6,852. Kenton, SIMON (1735 – 1836), American pioneer, was born in Fauquier Co., Va. He sought j. in the district about the headwaters of the Ohio after a fight in which he supposed he had killed a man, and there had many adventures with Simon Girty, George Yeager, Daniel Boone and others. e was an American spy during the Revolution, and was captured and tortured by the Indians, but escaped. After the war he brought his father's family to . Maysville, Ky. He fought in the War of 1812. I ate in life much of his land was seized by settlers. He was granted a pension by Congress in 1824. Kent’s Cavern, or KENT's Hole, hillside cave near Torquay, S.W. England; has yielded (1865–80) bones of the cave-lion, cave-hyaena, mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, wild bull, Irish elk, reindeer, grizzly bear, wild cat horse, ină beaver, intermingled with shells, ashes, charcoal, and human implements of stone and bone, the latter including two harpoon-heads made from reindeer’s antler, several bone awls, and a bone needle. Archaeologists infer that the latter were made by people similar to the “reindeer men' of the French caves. See British Association Reports, 1864 – 83; Dawkins's Early Man in Britain (1880); and Munro's Prehistoric Problems (1897). Kentucky (popularly called the ‘Blue Grass State”). A South Central state of the United States; situated between the parallels of 36° 30' and 39° 6' N. lat. and between the meridians of 82° and 89° 38' w. long. It is bounded on the north by the Ohio R., which Kentucky

separates it from Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, on the east by Virginia and the Big Sandy river, which separates it from West Virginia on the south by Tennessee an Virginia, and on the west by the Mississippi R., which separates, it from Missouri and Illinois. The total area is 40,598 sq. m., of which 40,181 sq. m. are land. Topography.-The surface of Kentucky may be divided into several well - defined physical regions. The northeastern section, termed the ‘Blue Grass Region,' has an elevation of somewhat less than 1,000 ft. and consists, chiefly of gently undulating land. This region is partially surrounded by an area known as the ‘Knobs,” where the surface is broken by cone-shaped eminences, which rise to a height of about 1,200 ft. In the eastern and southeastern parts of the state lies a plateau region, ranging from 1,000 ft., to 1,500 ft. in altitude, and dominated in the southeast border by the Cumberland and Pine Mountain ranges, some of whose crests rise to 3,000 ft. This region has considerable mineral wealth, chiefly coal and iron, and is heavily timbered Western Kentucky, except the part west of the Tennessee R. is similar in structure, the elevations o: from 400 to 600 ft. Between these two areas extends a limestone plateau, which slopes from about 1,200 ft. in the east

to 600 ft. in the west. This plateau is marked thickly with pits and depressions, ... through

which the surface water has made its way until numerous underround passages and caverns ave been formed. MAMMoTH CAve.) The Ohio R., which, forms the northern boundary, and the Mis.# on the western boundary are the principal, waterways ôf the state. The chief tributaries of the Ohio are the Kentucky

Licking, Green, Tennessee, an Cumberland, all of which are navigable.

Climate and Soil.—The mean temperature increases from about 50°F. in the vicinity of the Cumberland Mountains to about 60° F. along the Mississippi. The average annual rainfall is 46 in., the greatest precipitation being along the southern border (50

1n. ).

#he soil of Kentucky is almost entirely residual, ois formed from disintegrating limestone. The very fertile soil of the famous “Blue 8. Region', embracing about 10,150 sq. m. in the northeastern part, is formed in this manner from a blue limestone. Along the rivers are alluvial deposits of great fertility, *ś gating about 800 sq. m. he soils of the northwest, formed

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from weathered sandstone and limestone, are less fertile, §§ only about 7,000 sq. m. of the total area are unsuited to agriculture. Geology.--The oldest formations are in the Blue Grass Region, and belong to the Trenton series. They consist mainly of phosphatic limestones. This belt of Silurian formations, is the dividing line between the coal measures of eastern and western Kentucky. That portion west of the Tennessee R. differs greatly from the remainder of the state, being of the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. Minerals and Mining.—Coal iron, fluorspar, limestone, an petroleum constitute the principal minerals. There are two coal fields, the eastern, having an area of about 11,180 sq. m., and the western, about 5,800 sq. m. The western area, however, produces over half of the total output. In 1904 Kentucky ranked seventh among the states in the production of coal, having an output of 7,566,482 short tons, valued at

$7,857,691. Iron (red hematite) occurs in the regions. Its production in 1904 was

35,000 long tons. . Kentucky, is the leading state in the mining of fluorspar, and in 1904_produced 19,096 short tons. There are several petroleum fields in the state, notably the WayneČinton. Cumbersänd field, and building stones, . limestone, are profitably mined. . Clay, is abundant. The yalue of the clay products, mostly brick and tile, in 1904 was $2,087,277, giving the state tenth place. Sandstone and limestone though plentiful are not extensively quarried. The state produced considerable quantities of both Portland and natural-rock cement, some iron and lead, and a small but increasing quantity of petroleum. The coal of the eastern field is chiefly a high floo gas and coking variety; thus the coal-gas product of 1904 was valued at $627,914, and the coal-tar product amounted to 925,000 gallons. Agriculture.-In 1900, 86 per cent. of the total area was included in farms, and of this 62.5 per cent. was improved. The o of improved farm land as steadily increased since 1850, but the average size of farms in 1900, 93.7 acres, was not half so great as in 1850. Renters operated 33 per cent. of the number of farms in 1900. Colored farmers floo only 4.8 per cent. of the number, and only 2 per cent. of the area, of farms. Corn is the principal crop, both in acreage and value. ... The acreage exceeds that of all the other, principal crops combined, usually exceeding 3,000,000 acres.


The value of the crop in 1905 was about $40,000,000. Wheat is second in acreage; the area, however, varying markedly, havin been 1,431,027 acres in 1900 an 779,642 acres in 1905. Hay ranks third with an acreage in 1905 of 461,033. Tobacco ranks fourth among the crops in acreage, but is one of the foremost in value. The acreage in 1905 was 275,874; this was almost the same as the acreage of 1890, but 28 per cent. less than in 1900. Nevertheless the acreage was more than double that of the nearest, competitor, North Carolina, and the crop about three times as great. e value of the crop was $16,028,279 or $53.50 per acre. Though the hemp acreage is small, 23,468 acres in 1890, and 14,107 acres in 1900, yet Kentucky produces about nine-tenths of the hemp fibre raised in this country. Its posion is confined mainly to ayette |o, Garrard, Clark, #: and Bourbon counties and the product has greatly decreased since 1860. otton, sorghum, sweet and Irish potatoes, and watermelons are grown more or less extensively. The state ranks fifth in the production of sorghum syrup. he temperate fruits, particularly apples and peaches, are widely cultivated. The tomato ack amounted to 81,000 cases of two dozen tins each in 1905. Stock-Raising.—The raising of stock is carried on extensively, and is favored by the great crops of hay and corn. The high bred horses from the ‘Blue Grass Region' are famous. The numbers of stock Jan. 1, 1906, were: horses, 399,306; dairy cows, 387,067; other cattle, 692,535; mules, 194,733; sheep, 733,599; swine, 1,410,907. As compared with 1900, these figures were considerable decreases in the numbers of horses and swine, small decreases in the numbers of other cattle and mules, and small increases in the numbers of dairy cows and sheep. Manufactures.—Much of the industrial importance of the state is to be attributed to its great agricultural and mineral resources (which afford a supply of cheap fuel), and to its splendid means of transportation, particularly by its many rivers. ...The grain raised in the state is utilized in its flour and grist mills and in the well-known Kentucky distilleries. The slaughtering and meat packing industries centring at Louisville are ..o. by livestock from Kentucky, farms, and the numerous tanneries are possible only because of the native supply of oak bark. The census of 1900 showed 9,560 manufacturing establishments, with 69,962 wage-earners, and prod

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