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at the University of Georgia in 1834, and became one of the most rominent lawyers of the State. e was a member of the U. S. Senate (1848–9); governor of Georgia (1853–7), and a candidate for the Vice-Presidency on the ticket with Stephen A. Douglas in 1860. His State having left the Union, he, as a loyal States' Rights Democrat, went with her, and subsequently served in the Confederate Senate. Johnson, Sir John (1742– 1830), Tory leader, son of Sir William Johnson (q.v.), He inherited his father's title and estates in the Mohawk Valley, N.Y.: became identified with the powerful Tory element in that region, and in 1776, with several hundred followers, went to Canada, where he organized the 'Royal Greens,’ in two battalions, of which he was commissioned colonel. He laid siege to Fort Stanwix (1777), and defeated General Herkimer, but was defeated in turn. In 1779 he was decisively beaten at Newton (now Elmira) by General Sullivan. Johnson's followers were responsible for the massacres of Wyoming and Cherry Valley, and other outrages. Johnson, Jo HN AL B E R T (1861–1909), American political leader, was born in St. Peter, Minn. He was educated in the public schools until twelve years old. In 1886 he became editor and part owner of the St. Peter Herald, and in 1898 was elected State senator. In 1904 he was elected Democratic governor by a plurality of 7,800 in an election in which Presidential candidate Roosevelt carried the State by 161,000; was re-elected to the same office in 1906 and 1908. His first term as governor was marked by an investigation of insurance abuses, and the consequent framing of a model code of insurance laws which was adopted by his own and other States. During his second term many railroadreform laws were passed, though some of the advanced measures he advocated were eventually declared unconstitutional. He was strongly in favor of tariff revision, and op Federal encroachment in State affairs. He represented the best type of American self-made man. Johnson, Joseph F. (1853), American economist, was born in Hardwick, Mass. He was graduated at Harvard University (1878), and studied in Germany... He was engaged in journalism until 1893, when he became professor of practical finance at the University of Pennsylvania (1893–1901). Since

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1901 he has been plofessor of political economy, and since 1903 dean of the School of Commerce, at New York University. He is author of Money and Currency (1906); Canadian Banking System (1910). Johnson, Ow EN (1878), American novelist, was born in New York City, and was educated at Yale University. He has written Arrows of the Almighty (1901); In the Name of Liberty (1905); Max Fargus (1906); The Comet, a play (1908); The Eternal Boy (1909); The Warmint (1910); The Humming Bird (1910); The Tennessee Shad (1911); Story of Yale (1911). Johnson, REVERDY (1796– 1876), American statesman, was born in Annapolis, Md. He was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1815. After serving from 1845 to 1849 as a representative of the Whig party in the U.S. Senate, he returned to the practice of the law, in which he gained distinction. He opposed the ‘KnowNothing' movement and was a supporter of the Union cause in the Civil War. He was again U.S. Senator from 1863 to 1868, resigning to become U. S. minister to Great Britain, where he negotiated the Johnson-Clarendon treaty for the settlement of the Alabama Claims (q.v.). Johnson, RICHARD MENTOR (1781–1850), American soldier and political leader, ninth VicePresident of the United States, was born in Bryant's Station, Ky. He was educated at Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky. He was a Representative in Congress (1807–19), and during this time took part in the War of 1812, in the West, as a colonel of Kentucky volunteers. He distinguished himself in the battle of the Thames (Oct. 5, 1813), in which he is said to have personally slain the Indian chief Tecumseh. From 1819 to 1829 he was a member of the U. S. Senate; from 1829 to 1837 was again a Representative in Congress; and from 1837 to 1841 he was Vice-President of the United States. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the Vice-Presidency in 1840, and for the Presidential nomination in the Democratic convention of 1844. Johnson, Richard W. (1827– 97), American soldier, was born in Kentucky. He was graduated at West Point in 1849. At the opening of the Civil War, he had risen to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. He was captured (1862) by Col. John H. Morgan. He commanded a division under General Thomas at Chickamauga, and


directed the charge of this body up the heights of Missionary Ridge at Chattanooga. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for his services at Chickamauga, brigadier-general for the part he took in the battle of Nashville, and major-general in the regular army for his services in the war. After being mustered out of the volunteer army (1866), he was provost-marshal-general in Tennessee and then a judge advocategeneral in different departments. He wrote Memoir of Maj.-Gen. George H. Thomias (1881). Johnson, Robert UNDERwood (1853), American author, was born in Washington, D. C., and was graduated at Earlham College. He became a member of the Century (then Scribner's) staff in 1873, associate editor in 1881, and has been editor-inchief since 1909, succeeding Richard Watson Gilder. With Clarence Clough Buel he edited Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (1887–8). For his services as secretary of the American Copyright League in helping to establish international copyright in the U. S. (1891) he was decorated by the French and Italian governments. He is permanent secretary of the American. Academy of Arts and Letters. His volumes of poems are The Winter Hour (1891); Songs of Liberty (1897); Poems (1902, enlarged 1908); St. Gaudens, an Ode (1910). , Johnson, ROSSITER (1840), American author, was born in Rochester, N. Y., and was graduated (1863) at the University of Rochester. After eight years as editor of newspapers in his native city and Concord, N. H., he accepted the associate editorship of the American Cyclopaedia (1873– 7). He was editor of the Annual Cyclopaedia (1883–1902), and associate editor of the Standard Dictionary (1892–4). He also edited various series of literary classics, and did much miscellaneous work in the encyclopaedic field. His own books include Phaeton Rogers (1881); History of the French War (1882); History of the War Between the United States and Great Britain (1882); History of the War of the Secession (1888); The End of a Rainbow (1892); The Alphabet of Rhetoric (1903); Story of the Constitution (1906); and in poetry Idler and Poet (1883); Morning Lights and Evening Shadows (1902). Johnson, SAMUEL (1709–84), English lexicographer, was born in Lichfield, Staffordshire. He studied at Pembroke College, Oxford. After acting as usher Johnson

(1732–3) at Market Bosworth, in Leicestershire, he published (1735) a translation of Lobo's Voyage to Abyss in ia. In the same year he married, and set up a school at Lichfield. In 1737 he went to London in company with David Garrick, and in the following year obtained regular employment on the Gentleman's Magazine. He edited its parlia

Samuel Johnson

mentary reports from 1738 to 1741, and contributed them from July, 1741, to March, 1744. In May, 1738, Dr. Johnson published his first poem, London, in imitation of the third satire of Juvenal. Its success won him the friendly interest of Pope. In 1742 he was employed on the catalogue of the Harleian Library. Two years later appeared his Life of Savage, afterward included in the Lives of the Poets; it brought him at once into note. His reputation grew so steadily that in 1747 several London booksellers contracted with him for a Dictionary of the English Language. This did not appear till April, 1755. Its definitions are often prejudiced, and its derivations are worthless; but it everywhere affords evidence of Johnson's vigorous and acute intellect, and is of great historical importance as a record of the language in the eighteenth century. Johnson, however, had not devoted the eight years entirely to the Dictionary. In 1749 he published the Vanity of Human Wishes, an imitation of the tenth satire of Juvenal, and his best poem. In February of the same year Garrick staged Irene, a tragedy in blank verse, written mostly at Lichfield by 1737; but it was not a success. In March, 1750, Johnson started the Rambler, a periodical on the model of the Spectator, and it appeared

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regularly every Tuesday and Saturday till March, 1752. In 1753–4 he contributed to the Adventurer, and in 1756 he began to edit the Literary Magazine. In 1758 he started another periodical, the Idler, which appeared weekly from April, 1758, to April, 1760. In 1759 he wrote Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, in the evenings of a week. In 1762 he was granted a pension of £300 by Lord Bute; and from this time dates his literary dictatorship, which was confirmed by the founding of the Literary Club in 1764. His edition of Shakespeare appeared in eight volumes in 1765. The text is sometimes faulty; but Johnson recognized the value of the first folio (1623), and he has no superior in sagacious comment. On the whole, his was the best edition of Shakespeare which had yet appeared. In 1769 he was appointed professor in ancient literature to the Royal Academy. Then for some years his sole work was four Tory pamphlets, published together in 1776, under the title Political Tracts. In 1773 Johnson was induced by Boswell, whom he had known since 1763, to set out on the memorable tour to the Hebrides. Both travellers have left records of their experiences—Johnson's Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland appearing in 1775. In 1774 he toured with the Thrales (whom he had met in 1765) in North Wales, and in 1775 he visited Paris with them. But Johnson was yet to write his greatest work, the Lives of the Poets. The first four volumes appeared in 1779, and the remaining six in 1781. Altogether there are fifty-two Lives, and of these only one—that of Young —is by another hand. With all its faults, the Lives of the Poets remains one of the greatest monuments of English criticism. The accounts of Dryden and Pope are masterpieces; but there is matter for question in his criticisms of those poets who, like Milton and Gray, did not conform to the classical manner of the eighteenth century. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Great as Johnson is as a writer, there is much truth in Macaulay's remark, that ‘Boswell's book had done for him more than the best of his own books could do." His prose style has been the subject of much unjust ridicule. It is massive rather than heavy; and the rapidity with which he wrote would alone prove that it was not labored. Complete editions of his Works are numerous. Consult Boswell's Life, edited by


Augustine Birrell (1906); Piozzi's Anecdotes of Johnson; Leslie Stephen's Johnson; Hill's Dr. Johnson; Grant's Johnson; (1905); Raleigh's Samuel Johnson (1907), and Six Essays on Johnson (1910); Broadley's Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale (1910); Matthew Arnold's Essays in Criticism (3d series, 1910).

Johnson, THOMAS (1732– 1819), American jurist, born in Calvert county, Md. He practised law at Annapolis, and was a prominent leader in Maryland during the War for Independence. He was a member of the Continental Congress (1774–7), and nominated Washington to be commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. He was the first State governor of Maryland (1777–9), and an Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court (1791–3).

Johnson, TOM LOFTIN (1854– 1911), American political leader, was born in Georgetown, Ky. He became a clerk in a street railway office in Louisville (1869– 75), and invented several railway appliances. Afterward he bought a street railway in Indianapolis, and then became interested in similar railways in Cleveland, Detroit, and Brooklyn (N. Y.). He was a member of Congress from 1891 to 1895, and mayor of Cleveland, O., from 1901 to 1909. His principal work as mayor was the securing of a franchise tax, by which the city of Cleveland obtained a legal valuation of railway properties, and his victory in obtaining a four-cent fare. He was well known as an advocate of the single-tax theory, and as an adherent of Henry George. See CLEVELAND, OHIO.

Johnson, SIR William (1715– 74), British soldier, was born in Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland. He came to America in 1738 to undertake the management of a large tract of land in the Mohawk valley, which his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter Warren, had acquired partly from his wife (a daughter of Stephen De Lancey of New York) and partly by purchase. He settled at ‘Warrensburg,' twenty-four miles west of what is now Schenectady, and opened trade with the Indians, whom he treated kindly and justly, with the result that he won their confidence and was adopted and made a sachem by the Mohawks. Governor Clinton appointed him colonel of the Six Nations (1744), and as commissioner of New York for Indian affairs he was a strong opponent of the French. He had been Johnson


put in charge of all the New York forces on the frontier when the ace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended ing George's War. In 1753 and ain in 1754 his influence with o Indians averted a rupture be; tween them and the colonists, and in 1755 Gen. Braddock put him in charge of all the affairs of, the Six Nations. With , the rank of major-general, he led the colonial troops against Crown. Point in 1755, and defeated , Dieskau at Lake George, for, which victory Parliament created him a baronet and awarded him £5,000. From 1756 until his o he was “colonel, nt and sole superintendent jo. affairs of the Six Nations and other Northern Indians’ under the King's commission. On the death of Gen. Prideaux at the siege of Fort Niagara o Johnson took command and forced the surrender of the garrison, and in Amherst's Canadian expedition (1760) he commanded the Indians. For these and many other services he received from King George 100,000 acres of land, north of the Mohawk, a tract afterward known as :Kingsland, or the ‘Royal Grant.” He planned and Poio built at his own “of the village of Johnstown. . In 1768 he nego: tiated the important treaty of Fort Stanwix with the Indians. He married (1739) Catharine Wisenburgh, a German, settler's daughter, and she bore him two daughters and a son. After she died he had several mistresses, one of them “Molly' Brant, a sister of Joseph Brant, the Mohawk sachem, and by her he had eight children, whom he calls his “natural children’ in his will. See Stone's Life (2 vols., 1865). Johnson, WILLIAM. SAMUEL (1727–1819), American jurist, political leader, and educator, the son of Samuel Johnson (1696– 1772), born at Stratford, Conn. He graduated at Yale in 1744 became a prominent lawyer, an was a delegate from Connecticut to the Stamp Act Congress (1765). He took no active in the Revolutionary War, but was afterwards a member of the Continental Congress (1784–7), and was one of Connecticut's first U. S. senators (1789–91). From 1787 until 1800 he was the first president of Columbia College, under its new charter changing its name from Kings, College. See Beardsley's Life of William Samuel Johnson (1876). Johnsonburg, bor. Elk co. Pa., on the Buff., Rochester and Pitts., the Erie and the Pa. R. Rs. 8 m. N.N.E. of Ridgway. Among the manufactures are pulp, paper, and tiles, Pop. (1900) 3,894. Johnson City, th:, Washington co., Tenn., on the S., the S.


and W. and the E. Tenn. and W. N. Car. R. Rs., 86 m. E.N.E. of Knoxville. Its industrial establishments comprise veneer plants, furniture factories, wood-working shops, iron furnaces. *. etc. The town has a public library. The great Smoky Mts. are within a few miles and the place is Po. lar as a summer resort. he Mountain Branch of the national soldiers' home is situated here. The first settlers appeared here in 1855. Pop. (1900) 4,645. Johnson-grass (Sorghum Halepense). An introduced , grass, smooth, tall (2–8 it.), with leaves a foot long, and an inch broad, and expansive terminal panicles of bloom, as long as the leaves. It comes from southern Euro and Asia, and has been widely distributed in South America, and in the warmer parts of the United States. Although the grass is unaffected, by drought and grows so rapidly as to yield several crops of excellent hay yearly, its strong, creeping rootstocks so completely usurp the ground, and are so likely to spread, into fields where it is not wanted, besides being almost ineradicable, that Johnson-grass is generally regarded as a pest. The stout rootstocks form a good

food for hogs. Johnston, , ALBERT SIPNEY (1803–62), American, soldier,

prominent as a Confederate general in the Civil War, born at Washington, Ky., . He graduated at West Point in 1826, was chief-of-staff to Gen. Henry Atkinson in the Black Hawk War (1832), and resigned from the service in 1834. In 1836 he removed to the republic of Texas and soon rose from the ranks to the command of the Texan army (1837). He was severely wounded in a duel with Gen. Felix Houston, whom he had displaced, and resigned within a few months. He was secretary of war of Texas (1838– 40), and, Texas having been annexed (1845) to the United States he served for a time as colonel of a Texan, regiment in the northern campaign of the Mexican War. In 1855–7, as colonel in the regular service, he commanded the DeFo of Texas, and in 1857 e commanded the expedition sent against the rebellioús, Mormons in Utah, winning a brevet of brigadier-general for his skill and conduct. He was placed in command of the Department of the Pacific (1860), but when Tex. seceded, he adhered to his state, resigned from the U. S. army in May, 1861, immediately after the outbreak of the Civil War, and assumed command of the Department of Ky. and Tenn. He commanded the Confederate army in the battle of Shiloh (April 6–7,


1862), until mortally wounded early in the afternoon of the first day. Though his brief experience in actual warfare on a large scale was not sufficient thoroughly to test his capacity, he has §e. ranked by competent, military critics as in natural endowments the ablest of the Confederate generals, with the probable exception of Lee. See Life of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston (1879) by P. Johnston (his son). ohnston, ALEx ANDER (1849– 89), American author, was born in Brooklyn N.Y., and graduated (1870), at Rutgers College. He studied law and was admitted to the bar, but took up educational work and was principal of the Norwalk Latin School from 1879 to 1883, when he was appointed professor of jurisprudence and olio. economy at Princeton. e ... wrote History of American Politics (1879), History § the United States for Schools (1886), and edited Representative American Orations (is85). Johnston, ALEXANDER KEITH, (1804–71), Ścottish so her, was born at Kirkhill in idlothian. Forming a partnership with his brother about 1826, he carried on work as an engraver, and issued a National Atlas (1843); followed by a Physical Atlas (1848), which comprised illustrations of the ‘Geographical Distribution of Natural Phenomena,' and a Dictionary of Geography (1850). Johnston was #: "F. royal for Scotland rom 1843. is greatest work was his Royal Atlas of Modern Geography (new ed. 1904). Johnston, ALEXANDER KEITH, the younger (1844–79), Scottish geographer, son of the foregoing, was born at Edinburgh, and be: came the head of the ohiol department of W. an . K. #. nston's London branch in 1869. e accompanied an expedition to survey the Paraguay (1873–5); and after that led the Royal. Geo#. hical Society's expedition to ake Nyasa (1878), but died at Berobero, 120 m. from Dar-es-Salaam; of dysentery. He published The Library if,o:/"; The Book of Physica *#so (1877); and A Physical, Historirai, "Political, and Bescriptive Geography (4th ed. 1890). Johnston, ARCHIBALD, LoRD WARRIston (?1610–63), Scottish statesman, born at Edinburgh. Having drafted the remonstrance to the ritual set up by Charles I., he became procurator of the church (1638). He was appointed one of the lords of Session (1641), and created #". advocate by Charles I. while the latter was in the hands of the Scottish arm (1646). He drew up, in all likelihood, the “Act of Classes’ (1649), and in the same year became


lord clerk register. Ultimatel he allied himself with Cromwell, who made him (in 1657) a commissioner for the administration of justice in Scotland. . After the restoration he was tried and executed. See, Johnston of Warriston by W. Morrison, in Famous Scots Series. Johnston, SIR HARRY HAMILTON (1858), English administrator and explorer, was born at Kennington, London. He explored the Portuguese possessions of the river Congo (1882-3), and led the scientific expedition to Mt. Kilimanjaro at the request of the Royal Society (1884). In 1889 he made an expedition to Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika. which led to the founding of the British Central Africa Protectorate, and to the addition of a vast territory to the British empire. He was administrator of the protectorate (1891-7), and in 1899–1901 was special commissioner and consulgeneral for the Uganda Protectorate. His chief works are: River Congo (4th ed., 1895); Kilimanjaro (1886); Life of Livingstone (1891); British Central Africa (1897); The Uganda Protectorate (1902); The Nile Quest (1983), *ś FINLAY WEIR (1796–1855), Scottish chemist,born at Paisley; held a readership at Durham University; carried out his most valuable work in , the chemistry of agriculture, which he embodied in his Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology (1844), Catechism of #, #u; Chemistry and Geolog (1844), Contributions to Scientific Agriculture (1849), and The Chemisiry of Common Life (1855). Johnston, Joseph EGGLESTON (1807–91), American soldier, a prominent, Confederate, general in the Civil War, born in Prince Edward co., Va. He graduated at West Point in 1829; was an aide (1836–7) to Gen. Winfield Scott during the Seminole War, earning the , brevet of captain; was ño. in surve g the boundary between the U. S. and Canada (1843–4); and served with distinction in the Southern campaign of the Mexican War, holding the rank of lieutenant.# of voltigeurs (April, 1847– Aug., 1848), and winning , the brevet of major and colonel at Cerro Gordo, where he was seriously wounded, and the brevet of lieutenant-colonel at Chapultepec. . In 1858 he was acting inspecting-general of the forces sent against the rebellious Mormons in Utah, and in 1860 became quartermaster-general of the U. S. army with the rank of brigadier-general. In April 1861, he resigned from the army, immediately became a majorgeneral in the Virginia army, and soon afterward was commissioned

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battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861), arriving so opportunely, as to change the , fortune, of the day. He “Fo Gen. McClellan in the Peninsular campaign, but was forced by a wound received at Seven Pines (May, 1862) to give way to Gen. Lee. Å; cornmanded the Confederate army §." to Gen. Sherman in the Atlanta campaign, but his cautious policy met with much popular criticism, and he was superseded by the more venturesome Gen. ood in July, 1864. Early in 1865 he was placed in command of the Confederate forces in the Carolinas, and once more was §." to Gen. Sherman. to whom he finally surrendered on April 26, 1865, (a little more than two weeks after the surrender of Gen. Lee), Sherman granting him terms that were violently criticised, as ultra-liberal, in the North. After the war he was a Democratic representative in Congress (1879– 81), and was a U.S. commissioner of railroads during Pres. Cleveland's first administration (1885–9) Johnston was, next to Lee, the most conspicuous, and according to many military historians was also, next to Lee, the ablest Confederate general who saw any considerable amount of service in the Civil War; he was hampered throughout, ... however, by Pres. Davis, who disliked him Rio. and had comparatively little fait in his ability... He published a Narrative of Military Operations, directed in the late War between the States by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston (1874), }*. a vindication of himself from charges brought against him by Pres. Davis and others. See Life (1893) b Hughes in the ‘Great Commanders Series'; ... that by Johnson (1891) is relatively of little value. John ston, MARY (1870), American author, was born at Buchanan, Botetourt co., Va., and received her education at home. She made her rinanent residence in Richmond. Miss Johnston's first novel, Prisoners of Hope (1898), appeared first as a serial in the Atlantic Monthly where it attracted much attention. This and two succeeding novels, To Have and to Hold o and Audrey, (1902), were romances of colonial life in Va. She also published Sir Mortimer (1904). Johnston, RICHARD MALCOLM 1822–98), American author, was rn at Powelton, Hancock co., Ga., and graduated (1841) at Mercer University. e practised law for several years, and was professor of literature at the

John the Baptist

University of Georgia, 1857–61. Colonel Johnston served on the Confederate side in the Civil War, and resided in Baltimore after 1867. , His early studies of Southern character, Georgia Sketches #: and . Dukesborough Tales 1871), are full of the shrewd yet ndly humor which marked their author personally. Some of his later books were Mr. Abs Billingslea, and ... Other Georgia Folk (1888), Studies: Literary and Social. (1891-2), and Old Times in Middle Georgia (1897). Johnstone, th:, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 33 m. w; by s. of Paisley. Principal industries: cotton and flax spinning, and the manufact

ure of mac ine; brass, iron, and shoe-laces. here are colo lieries. Pop. (1901), 10,502.

Johnstown. so Jity, Cambria cot Pa., on the Conemaugh R., and on the Pa. and the # ind O. R. Rs. 57 m. E. by s. of Pittsburg, 78 m. by rail. It is built on hi ground, and is surrounded by striking mountain scenery. The çhief, public buildings are the Cambria Free Library, the Conemaugh, Valley. Memorial Hospital, the high school and city hall. It has large iron and steel industries, including those of the Cambria and Lorain Steel Companies, and planing mills, car works, cement works, brickyards, furniture factories, breweries, forge plant, etc. There are also extensive coal interests. The town was submerged by the bursting of the South Fork Reservoir on §. 31, 1889, when more than 2,000 lives were lost. Pop. (1900) 35,936; local est. (1905) 46,938. (2.) City, N.Y., co, seat of Fulton CO., on Cayadutta Creek, and on the Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville, R. R., 40 m. N.w.. of Albany. It has manufactures of shoe leather, gloves and mittens, and knit underwear. Its chief buildings are Johntown Hall, the public library, Y. M. C. A., and a court house and jail dating from 1772. It is a place of historic interest, settled in 1760 and named after Sir William Johnson, to whom there is a monument. Here the Indians often met to confer with Johnson. An engagement was fought here in 1781, between the British and the Amer: icans, resulting in a victory for the latter. Pop. (1905) 9,845. See Frothingham, History of Fulton County # 892).

John the Baptist, the forerunner of Jesus Christ, was the son of Zacharias, a priest, and Elisabeth, a near relative of Mary, the mother of Jesus. He was born about the same time as Jesus, and was beheaded by Herod (Antipas) during our Lord's ministry. Little is told of the Baptist's early life, save that from his birth he was a Nazarite (Luke 1:15, cf. 7:33)


and lived in the desert; but his ‘shewing unto Israel’ (Luke 1:80) was the beginning of a short ministry of amazing energy and power, the whole land being shaken by his demand of repentance, his roclamation of the kingdom of É. and his rite of baptism. He baptized Jesus, but asserted, both on that occasion and later, his own inferiority and the preatory character of his work. ur Lord's testimony to his greatness, his arraignment of Herod and his consequent imprisonment and ...o. 14), are known to aii. So Lives of Čhrist É. erally; monographs by H. R. nolds (1874), Köhler o #. (1894) in B lass al S. Johor, or Johor E. (1.). Malayan sultanate, in the extreme s. of the Malay Peninsula, one of the British protected states known as the Negri Sembilan confederation. The surface of the country is low-lying, and on the coast *P3 t. Ophir, on the frontier of Malacca (3,840 ft.), is the greatest height. The chief products are gambier, coffee, pper, and tio. Area, o: 500 sq. m. Pop. estimated at about *šooooo. o: which the Chinese are considerably over 200,000, and Malays about 50,000. (2.) Or NEw Johor, th:, cap...of above state, on the s. coast. The principal buildings are the palace of the sultan, a beautiful and modern building, and the public offices. Johor is a free port, and has sawmills. Pop. (New Johor), about 20,000. Joinery is the art of making and fitting the interior woodwork of a building, as opposed to ntry, which concerns, itself with the framework essential for the stability of, the structure. ł. work, which in its finer ranches is often spoken of as cabinet making, includes doors, windows, wooden stairs and their accessory parts. . The various ieces are cut and shaped chief machinery. The actual wor of the joiner is thus often confined to fixing together the component parts, which must be done with eat care and exactness. Amon the subsidi operations o joiner's work, the most important is the making of joints. These are of three main classes:-(1.). For joining together boards which lie in the same plane, so as to cover a floor or other large surface. The tendency of such boards is to shrink, and to separate. To remedy this, a tongue-and-grooved joint is used where the tongue is ł. upon one board to fit the oove cut in the other. Boards in which the tongue and groove are cut , with correspondingly shaped planes, and so make an exact fit, are termed “match

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