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We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestie. tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America,

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power.

1. All legislative powers heréin granted, shall be loglalati vo

shall consist of a Senate and House of Regresentatives.

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SECTION 2.

resentativos

1. The House of Representatives shall be composed Representes of members chosen every second year, by the people of tivanand the several States: and the electors in each State shall tions of have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most

electors, numerous branch of the State Legislature.

2. No person shall be a representative who shall not And of Rophave attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen,

3. Représentatives and direct taxes shall be appor- Apportlontioned among the several States which may be inbluded monte within this Union, according to their respective num- ativos, bers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to ser:

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Ratio of Reprouentativos.

First apporo tionment,

vice for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the ffrst meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, -eight; Rhode Island and Providence Plantatione, one Connecticut, five ; New York, six ;'New Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six ; Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, five; and Georgia, three.

4. Whèn vacancies happen in the representation Vacancies.

hroin any state, the execative authority therebt shall

tošne writs of election to fill such vacancies. Hitta Speaker çi. 15. The House of Representatives shall choose their ho Hongo speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole

power of impeachment.
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.: STIONS ;
1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed

of two Senators from each State, chosen by the LegisEach song lature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall og have on date

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in.consequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as

equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the cated every Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expi.

tation of the second year, of the second class at the exbrieovi piration of the fourth year, and the third class at the exa 10 piration of the sixth year, ,50 l that one-third may be

chosen, every second years and if vacancies happey by

resignations or otherwise during the recess of the Lego Dalto bat isdature of any State, the executive thereof may make

temporary appointments until the next meeting of thg Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies, 1978 118. No person shall be senator who shall not have

attained the age of thirty years, and been nine years -solhogga citizen of the United States, and we shall not, when 1. Stog élected, be (an; i habitant of the State from which he govt'u shall be chosen. 'iont of memo6.401 ili ,

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate; but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

The Senate.

tor a vote.

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Senators classed.

A third of the seats va

two years. Vi

Vacancies

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Qualification of Senators.

President of the Senate.

CONSTITUTION)

18

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5. The Senate sball choose their other officers, and offers: also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6, The Senate shall have the sole power to try all Impeachimpeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members presept. vz: 1:17. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not ex- of judgment tend further than removal from office, and disqualifica- In casca, tion to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United Staies; but the party convieted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, coralnable judgment and punishment, according to law. ; 1.8 ise

som om SECTION 4.

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to law.

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1. The times, places and manner of holding elections Electionsfor Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in lated each State, by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing Senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Meetings of year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in Congress. December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

SECTION 5.

bers. Quorum.

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1. Each house shall be the judge of the election, re- To fudge o turnş and qualifications of its own members, and a man of its memi jority of each shall censtitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of ab, sent members, in such manner, and under such penala este ties as each house may provide.it

si tobiano po 1.13 12. Each house may determine the rules of its proceed-, Rulese Hub ings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with a concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member,

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, Journals, and from time to time publish the same, excepting suchi parts as may, in their judgment, require gecrecy; and, the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered ou the journal. luusidhjes se took it

mont,

Adjour'4. Neither house, during the session of Congress,

shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

SECTION 6.

Componsation.

1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States.

They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and Privilege. breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during

their attendance at the sessions of their respective houses, or in going or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not

be questioned in any other place. Concernibg 2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the the holding time for which he was elected, be appointed to any

civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member ot either house during his continuance in office.

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SEOTION 7.

Rovenue bills,

Power and

Pre4tdent in relation to bills.

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills,

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of duty of the Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes

a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to that house in

which it shall have originated, who shall enter the obProceedings obis rejections at large, in their journal, and proceed to re

consider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the vote of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill" shall not be returned by the President within ten days

turned by the Peosi. dont.

CONSTITUTION,

15

Joint Reso

(Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevents its return; in which case it shall not be & law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the con- lutions, excurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives copiofore and may be necessary, (except on a question of adjourn- to receive ment) shall be presented to the President of the United sanction as States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

bills,

SECTION 8.

Poftiers of

The Congress shall have power

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and exci- Congress ses; to pay the debts, and provide for the common de- taxes, fence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States :

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United Loans. States:

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and commerce. among the several States, and with the

Indian tribes: 4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and Naturalizauniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States :

Money. 5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures :

Counterfeit6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting inge the securities and current coin of the United States :

7. To establish post offices and post roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, Selenco. by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries:

9, To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Tribuna le. Court. To define and punish piracy and felony committed on the high seas and offences against the law of nations:

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and re- War, prisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:

Post Offices,

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