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We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestie. tranquility, provide for the common defence, promotę.. the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty: ! to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America,
SECTION 1. 1, All legislative powers heréin granted, shall be moglalatico vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall" consist of a Senate and House of Regresentatives.
0110 0019 - SECTION 2.
i -. .
1. The House of Representatives shall be composed
Representaof members chosen every second year, by the people of tivos, and
qualificathe several States: and the electors in each State shall tions of have the qualiffcations requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature, son
2. No person shall be a'representative who shall not And of Rophave attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen, ...
i 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be appor- Apportiontioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respectivelnum ativos. bers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to sera
mont of Reprosopt.
vice for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the ffrst meeting of the Congress of the United States, and
within every subsequent term of ten years, in such Ratio of manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Reprosontatiros. representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
thousand, but each State shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Håmoshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and I'rovidence Plantations, 'one Connecticut, five; New York, six;'New Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Marğland, six ; Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; Şouth Carolina, five; and Georgia, three.
4. When vacancies happen in the representation Vacancies.
frors anv Btate, the executive authority thereot shall
issue writs of election to fill such vacanciesi13 14.fil Speaker of: 357 The House of Representatives shall choose their ho House 'gpbakertand other officers, and shall have the sole '. power of impebohment. - ; '
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sin'i ostimitri ini
A third or the seats vi.
The Senato. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed
of two Senators from each State, chosen by the LegisEach somai lature thereof, for six years; and each Senator, shall tor & votes have one, vote.
JAN ?10'gilyn. 172. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in.consequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as
equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the caled every Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expi.
ration of tbe second year, of the second class at the ex118 #vipiration of the fourth year, and the third class at the exforuci piration of the sixth year; -80 l that one-third, may be
* chosen every second yearziand if vacancies happey by Vacancies
resignations or otherwise during the recess of the Lega, preso bat islature of any State, the exeøutive thereof may make
temporary-appoiptments until the next meeting of the Legislatures which shakt then fillsuch vacancies, 1970
wid. No person shall ber a Senator who shall not have rs. attained the age of thirty yearp and been nine years -soltoqqa citizen of the United States, and welia shall not, when
point élected, be an in habitant of the State from yyhich he goyl'shall be chosem. 1967 vi D1196.10.) ini hidti'
314. The Viée President of the United States shall be President of the Senate; but shall have no inte unless they be equally divided.
Qualification of Sepators,
President of the Senate.
5. The Senate sball choose their other officers, and officers.!! also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States. n. 11,5 ".
6, The Senate shall have the sole power to try all Impeachimpeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall '} preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. vi: 1:17. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than removal from office, and disqualifica- in casca. 4 tion to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United Staies; but the party convieted shall; nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law woje
And extenl of judgment
Party liable according to law.
11; ŠECTION 4. i , pri 1.1. The times, places and manner of holding elections Elections, for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in lated! each State, by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing Senators. til
2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Meetings of year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.i::,:
bers. linot > Quorum.
. (SECTION 5. 21 in nep", "X" 10 000 4.
15); Giusti i rollid pesto 2,1. Each house shall be the judge of the election, re- to judge o
the election turns and qualifications of its own members, and a mar, of its memi jority of each shall censtitute a quorum to do business; 5 but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of ab77 sent members, in such manner, and under such penala ties as each house may provide.. imalis II w sobiano' pod brities
2. Eạch house may determine the rules of its proceed-, Rulosa tob ings, punish its members, for disorderly behavior, and, with a concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, vi 3.3Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, Journals, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require gecrecy; and, the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. Luumustajes cind toget it to
adjourn- :, A NA:
4. Neither house, during the session of Congress, mont.
shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
Oona pons tion.
1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States.
They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and Privilogo. breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during
their attendance at the sessions of their respective houses, or in going or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not
be questioned in any other place. Concerniag 2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the of offices,
s time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil
me 101 W office under the authority of the United States, which , shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof
shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.
Pre4tdent in relation to bills,
Proceedings op bills returned by the Peosi. dopt.
1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills,
2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of duty of the Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes
a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the ob
jections at large, in their journal, and proceed to reby consider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds
of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the vote of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days
(Sundays, excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevents its return; in which case it shall not be & law.
3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the con- Jutions, corcurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives corporal may be necessary, (except on a question of adjourn- to receive ment) shall be presented to the President of the United sanction as States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Joint Resolutions, ex cept for adJournment,
The Congress shall have power
.. Poffers of 1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and exci- Congress
rolative to ses; to pay the debts, and provide for the common de- taxes. fence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States :
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United Loans., States :
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and commerce. among the several States, and with the Indian tribes : 4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and Naturaliza
tion, uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States :
5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures :
Counterfeit6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting ing. the securities and current coin of the United States :
7. To establish post offices and post roads : : Post Ofices, :.8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, selence, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries: .
9, To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Tribuna le. Court. To define and punish piracy and felony committed on the high seas and offences against the law of · nations:
10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and re- War, prisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water: