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11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use, shall be for a longer term than two years: 0 bo 12. To provide and maintain a navy:
13. To make rules for the government and regulaution of the land and naval forces.
14. To provide for calling forth the militia to exeBrammo cute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and se repel invasions :
15. To provide for organizing, arming and diseiplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as mav be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Con
gress. Legislation 16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases tviek.etc. whatsoever, over such distriet (not exceeding ten miles 05 square) as may by cession of particular States, and the
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the
Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for easi the erection of forts, 'magazines, arsenals, dock-yards,
and other needful buildings; and bary for the ... 17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and their powers proper for carrying into exéention the foregoing powgoliers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in
the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
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Writ of Ha
1. The migration or importation of such persons as Certain per- any of the States now existing shall think proper toad
mit, shall notbe prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for such person. uri.m;
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or
invasion, the public safety may require it.o 180) etdainder, is 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto lawi(shall ibe Plrect taxes 3 i 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall héilaid un
legs in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
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5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported Ofcom from any State. No preference shall be given by any he states, regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; aor shall vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear or pay voiv duties in another.
6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but Of Expendi. in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a tures. regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time,
7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United No Nobility States, and no person holding any office of profit or no presents trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Con. 0. s. officers gress, accept any present, emolument, office or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state.
1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or Powere preconfederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; the individcoin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but ual States. gold or silver coin a tender in payment of debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, phones lay any impost or duties on imports or exports, except states can what may be absolutely necessary for executing its in- only under spection laws; and the net produce of all duties and the sanction imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his powers,
1. Office during the term of four years, and together with
the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be
States shall be appointed an elector.
, least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with
themselves, And they shall make a list of all the perTheir pro
soņs voted for, and of the number of votes for each ;
the list, the said House, shall in like manner, choose 1. so the President. But in choosing the President, the
votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice [*Annulled, of the President, the person having the greatest numseo Amendber of votes of the electors, shall be the Vice Prdsident.
But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice President.*
4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the
United States, Qualifica- 5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citi
zen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of Pres
ments, Art, 12.]
Time of choosing electors.
tions for President,
dent; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirtyfive years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
6. In case of the removal of the President from office, When his or of his death, resigpation, or inability to discharge the volve on tho powers and duties of the said office, the same shall de- deut. cte. volve on the Vice President, and the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for Compensahis services a compensation, which shall neither be increased or diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive during that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:
9. "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faith- Outh of the fully execute the office of President of the United President. States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Uuited States.'
1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of Powers of the army and navy of the United States, and of the mili- the Presitia of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States. He may require the opinion in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offencés against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and Ilis powers. consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two- vice and thirds of the Senators present concnr; and he shali the Senato nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and
ment of inferior oficers.
Of appoint- which shall be established by law. But the Congress
may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Benate, by granting commissious, which shall expire at the end of their next session.
President may all yacap cios.
1. He shall from time to time give' te the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed ; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.
1. The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish.
The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their office during good behavior; and shall at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminisbed during their continuance in office.
1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws