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tion, not of a temple, or the façade or portal of a temple, but of a mere door; the sum total of the sense contained in the two lines being, that there were steps up to the door; the sill, posts, and valves of which were of brass. I therefore unite with Catrou in rejecting the common reading, as incapable of affording any good sense, and in adopting the more unusual one, niwaque, the authorities for which are enumerated in Heyne's Variae Lectiones. This reading being adopted, the passage becomes disembarrassed of all difficulty, the construction clear, and the meaning harmonious to the context, and worthy of Virgil. Limina is not merely the threshold, but the whole solum or ground in front of, and adjoining, the door, including the steps themselves. Trabes are the beams or architraves supporting the roof. “Trabes supra columnas et paratataset antas ponuntur,” Vitruv. b. IV. c. 2. And again, b. IV. c. 7. “Eacque trabes compactiles ponantur ut tantam habeant crassitudinem quantae summa columnae erit hypotrachelium.” That these trabes were sometimes of brass, or overlaid with brass, appears from Claudian, 33, 342; “Trabibus solidatur ahenis Culmen.” AErea surgebant is the common predicate of limina and trabes: nirae are the special predicate of trabes, which are represented as leaning on brass, (viz. brazen columns,) the precise position of the trabes, (the modern architrave,) as described by Vitruvius. The picture presented is therefore that of the whole façade of the temple, consisting of the brazen limina, the brazen architrave, supported on brazen columns, and the brazen folding or valved doors, all elevated on a flight of steps. The palace of Alcinous, (Odyss. VII.) the Roman Pantheon, and the doors of the court of Solomon's temple, afford well-known exemplifications of the ancient practice of plating various parts of buildings with brass, for the sake of ornament. In further confirmation of the reading niwa, I may observe, that the omission of columns in the description of so great and magnificent a temple, would have been very singular and remarkable."
* Wagner having adopted (viz. in his Virg. Br. En., published since the above comment was written,) the reading nirae, thus observes, “Trabes, postes intellige; eae surgunt aere nixae; i.e. aere sustentae; sustineri autem, sive
erectae stare, aere dicuntur, quia ipsae
sunt aereae.” As, however, he has ad
vanced no argument in support of that
interpretation, I prefer to adhere to the
view I have taken above; the more
especially as I find, from Statius's ma- R
470. Primo somno.—I understand these words to mean, not “Quem Rhesus prima nocte postguam ad Trojam venit, capiebat,” (Wagner, Virg, br. en.) but in the first part, beginning of sleep; or, as, using the self-same form of expression, we say in English, in the first sleep; 1st, because this latter is the meaning of the phrase, as established by the use of other authors; ex. gr. Phaedr. III. 10. Sopita primo quae nil somno senserat. 2dly, Because, so understood, the sense is not only stronger, but more fully explanatory of the subsequent “Priusquam Pabula gustassent,” &c. viz. in the early part of the night before they had time to taste, &c. 3dly, Because the fact that the slaughter of Rhesus had taken place on the first night after his arrival at Troy, was so well known as not to require express specification. W. 471. Multà vastabat caede cruentus.-The construction is, cruentus multá caede ; not, vastabat multá capde. See Comm. vers. 293* and 637. V. 474. Amissis Troilus armis.--Compare Hippolytus dragged by his runaway horses and chariot : Eurip. Hippol. 1236; also the fabricated story which the messenger tells Clytemnestra of the death of Orestes. Sophocl. Electra, 748. V. 478. Versö hasta.-Not inverted, but simply turned, viz. backwards; the meaning being that the spear held by the usual part, was trailed behind, the point being furthest from Troilus, and in the dust; versus, simply turned; inversus, (our topsy-turvey,) turned so that that part of the object which has been below or above, or at one side, becomes above or below or at the opposite side, (see Womere terras invertisse, Georg. III. 526;) Conversus turned toward another object. (See “In me convertite ferrum,” En. IX. 427. Conversâ cuspide; En. I. 81, and Comment.) W. 483. Raptaverat Hectora . . . e.vanimumque corpus vendebat.—Had rapt round the walls Hector while yet alive, (see Comment. on Tumentes, En. II. 273); and having so deprived him of life, was now selling his dead body. W. 486. Currus.-The chariot not, as hitherto understood, of Achilles, but, as required by the context, and as no doubt
nifest imitation, that it is the very | Ferrea compago laterum (viz. templi view which was taken of it by that Martis), ferro arcta teruntur close follower in the footsteps of Vir- Limina; ferratis incumbunt tecta cogil:— lumnis.-Theb. v11. 43.—I. H.
authorized by the non-Homeric narrative here followed by Virgil, (see En. II. 273,) the chariot of Hector himself. V. 492. Subnectens . . . bellatria ; audet . . . virgo.—See Comment. En. II. 552. V. 494. Dardanio Ænea.—Observe the delicate propriety with which the term Dardan is applied to Eneas, at the moment when, by the sudden presentation to him, in a strange land, of his own and his country's history, his mind is filled with, and overwhelmed by, Dardan recollections. V. 496. Regina ad templum, &c.—Our author, according to his wont, (see Comment. En. II. 18 and 51,) especially on occasions when he wishes to be more than usually impressive, presents us, first, with the single principal idea, and afterwards adds those which are necessary for explanation or embellishment. The queen comes to the temple ; she is of exquisite beauty, and her name is Dido. Regina contains the principal idea, because it is the queen, as queen, whom Eneas is expecting and recognizes; it is, therefore, placed first: pulcherrima follows next, because the queen's beauty was almost of necessity the immediately succeeding idea in Eneas's mind; and the name, Dido, is placed last, as of least importance, and serving only to identify, and connect with the narrative of Venus. V. 496." Regina ad templum, &c.—Parallel, but (as usual in Shakespeare, and to his great honour) without imitation.
- - The rich stream
V. 502. Latonae tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus.
These growing thoughts my mother soon perceiving - inly rejoiced. Par. Reg. 1. 227. V. 506. Solioque alte subnica.--Submiti; to take or derive support out of something placed underneath ; to lean upon (with
out, however, including the idea of reclination, or deviation from the perpendicular); to rest upon (without including the
idea of repose). From this, the primitive meaning of subniti, (not sufficiently understood by any of the commentators or translators,) directly flows its derived meaning of relying upon. Subnica operates, not (as gratuitously and most unpoetically supposed by Heyne) on scabello understood, but on solio expressed; and the ordo is, sapta armis submiraque alte solio, resedit foribus divae, &c. W. 548. Non metus, &c.—“Non metuendum est me te poenitedt beneficiis nos provocasse.”—Heyne. But, 1st, non metuendum, &c. is weak and impotent as the sole conclusion from a premiss which Virgil has taken care to render as impressive as possible, by repeating it three times in different words. 2dly, This conclusion might have been expressed more shortly, simply, and clearly, by a single negative joined to poemitedt (or paenitebit,) than by the double negative, non metus me. 3dly, Non metus, so understood, conveys the very uncomplimentary imputation, that Dido did fear that she might receive no recompense for kindness shown to the Trojans. 4thly, This interpretation makes it necessary to substitute a new reading, ne, for the received one, nec. For all these reasons, I understand Ilioneus as drawing two distinct conclusions from his premises; the first, non metus, referring solely to the Trojans; the second, officio necte, &c. referring to Dido; an interpretation which is strongly confirmed by the words sin absumta salus, &c. v. 555, (referring plainly, as I think, to the preceding non metus); but if, Eneas having perished, our safety is gone, and we have therefore every thing to fear, &c. V. 602. Magnum qua sparsa per orbem.—Besides the settlements which the Trojans made in Italy under Antenor and Eneas, they are also said to have made one in Denmark.
Quant jadis fut destruite Troie,
The alleged origin of the race of Northmans or Normans, who, under Bier and Hasting, invaded and conquered the north
western part of France, since, from them, called Normandy.— See Roman de Rou, 157, and seq. W. 605. Quao te tam laeta tulerunt saccula?
“Wer bist du, heilig wunderbares Mädchen?
V. 610. Quae me cunque, &c.—“Quocunque abiero, beneficii accepti memor ero.”—Heyne. “In iis terris in quibus consedero, ut perennis sit beneficii tui memoria effician.”—Wagner. I am inclined to think that Eneas's nobler meaning is, no matter whither I may be called, no matter what becomes of ME, YOUR fame will last as long as the world itself. The reader will also recognize in the words, quae me cunque vocant terrae, (vocant being in the indicative, not the subjunctive mood,) a polite and graceful intimation, (in answer to Dido's invitation, v. 572,) that Eneas's duty leads him away from Carthage.
V. 630. Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco.—Scarcely less pathetic is our own Sterne, “She had suffered persecution and learned mercy.” Nor is Ulysses's sympathy with Ajax (Soph. Ajax. 1381,) less natural and touching, although, as arising not from recollection of the past but from expectation of the future, it is somewhat of a different kind: