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and reject with him, as affording a much inferior sense, the reading dii, proposed by A. Gellius, and adopted by Heyne, Brunck, Jahn, Wagner, and Thiel. Compare En. Ix. 337, where Virgil again applies to Bacchus the term Deus without any distinguishing adjunct; “Membra Deo victus;” and En. III. 177, Munera libo Intemerata focis, where mumera intemerata is the poetic equivalent for merum vinum. V. 637. Regali splendida luau instruitur.—The structure is splendida regali luau, not instruitur regali luau ; as in vers. 471, cruentus multé capde, not vastabat multá capde. See also comment on dirae ferro et compagibus arctis, vers. 293. V. 664. Nate mea, vires, &c.—Compare Venus's similar persuasion of Cupid to wound Medea with the love of Jason:

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W. 664.” Mea magna potentia; solus, Nate, &c.—With Servius, and Weichert (Annot. in AEmeid, Libr. 11 priores. Luccaviae, no date,”) I believe the structure to be, Nate, qui solus temnis, and therefore place a semicolon between potentia and solus. V. 665. Tela Typhaeia temnis.-See (in Gorius, Mus. Florent. Tom. II. Tab. 16, Fig. 1,) a representation, taken from a gem, of Cupid breaking Jupiter's thunder-bolts across his knee. W. 682. Ne qua Scire dolos, &c.—Venus proposes so to dispose of Ascanius, that it may be impossible for him, either knowingly or accidentally, to interrupt her plot. That this is the meaning is sufficiently evidenced: 1st, by the disjunctive ve; 2dly, by the word occurrere, indicating an accidental, not an intentional interruption; and, 3dly, by the no less necessity which existed, of preventing the real Ascanius from accidentally appearing, than of keeping him in ignorance of what was going Oro. W. 688. Fallasque veneno.—Fallas repeats the idea contained in occultum, and is emphatic; the gist of Venus's instructions to Cupid being, not merely to breathe the poisonous fire into Dido, but to do so secretly, so as not to be perceived even by Dido herself; compare vers. 718. The force of the expression Fallas veneno is therefore not in veneno, but in Fallas; as has been well pointed out by Peerlkamp, who alone of all the commentators has perceived the true construction:—“Arcte jungenda sunt inspires et fallas; i.e. clam inspires ut non sentiat, Mabdiv. Non fallas Didonem veneno, sed ipse lateas dum ignem per venenum tuum, et animam, et dona inspiras.” W. 718. Inscia Dido, Insideat quantus miserae deus.-‘That the word Dido, after reginam and hac, is clumsy, and hath a bad effect, will be acknowledged I believe by every poet. I should rather thus: Inscia quantus, Insideat quantus miserae Deus.”—Jortin, Philol. Tracts. On the contrary, the insertion of Dido's name in this position not only gives additional pathos to the passage, but is according to Virgil's manner. Donec regina sacerdos, Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. —En. I. 273. See also En. I. 496 and 690; II. 403, and comment. ; also the separation of Delius from Apollo (En. III. 162); of Ithacus from Ulysses (III. 628); and of Saturnia from Jovis conjux (IV. 91); and the junction of the separated appellatives with separate verbs. The proposed repetition of quantus would have only operated to withdraw the attention from the principal personage, for the purpose of fixing it on one which performs only a secondary part. Akin to this criticism of the learned Jortin on Inscia Dido, is that of Steevens, the celebrated editor of Shakespeare, on

2 A work of only 14 quarto pages, had the pleasure of seeing that eminent printed a short time before the author's scholar at Dresden, in the winter of death, and distributed amongst his 1846–7, was the loan of a copy of this friends, but never exposed to sale. little work, which had been presented Among the many attentions which I to Mr. Wagner by the author himreceived from Mr. Wagner, when I self.-L. H.

At Venus obscuro gradientes aére sepsit,
Et multo nebulae circum dea fudit amictu.
En. I. 411.

“Had Virgil lived to have revised his Eneid, he would hardly have permitted both of these lines to have remained in his text. The awkward repetition of the nominative case in the second of them seems to decide very strongly against it.”—Steevens's Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Act IV. sc. 1, note. Hard indeed is the destiny of authors! transcendent excellence, clearness, and beauty of style, are as surely accounted awkwardness, clumsiness, and error, by the judges who sit on our critical bench, as, two centuries ago, superior physical knowledge, or even singular blamelessness of life, was received in our criminal

courts as proof incontrovertible of communication with the father of evil. V. 724. Crateras magnos statuunt.

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V. 724*. Magnos.-No inappropriate or idle epithet, these crateres being sometimes so large that a man could hide himself behind one of them. “Magnum metuens se post cratera tegebat.”—En. Ix. 346. Hence the propriety of the verb statuunt, not merely place or set, but (correctly of a large unwieldy object) establish. Among the princely presents of ancient times, we not unfrequently meet one of these huge crateres of silver or other costly material, carved or chased over with emblematical or historical images. See En. v. 536. W. 724. Vina coronant.—Car. Wagner, Professor Marburgiensis, (opuscula Academica, Marb. 1832,) has, I think satisfactorily, shown that Homer's zostiga; Štsotéyavto rotoio, must not be confounded with Virgil's vina coronant; the former being (as indeed the ipsissima verba sufficiently indicate) to be understood of filling the vessels up to the brim with liquor; the latter, of a custom unknown in Homer's time, but well known in Virgil’s, viz., that of crowning the vessels with flowers. V. 739. Pleno se proluit auro.—Compare “Aestivo recubans te prolue vitro.”—Copa. vers. 29. V. 740. Cithara crimitus Iopas, &c.—Virgil has taken from Eurip. (see Ion, vers. 1146, and seq., and also vers. 190,) not merely the whole of the subjects of Iopas’s song, and a considerable part of the description of the banquet, but the general idea (without however the particulars) of the painting on the walls of Juno's temple, vers. 456. See also the song of the Argonauts in the beginning of Apollonius Rhodius's poem. V. 741. Personat.—Suomare is the term commonly used throughout Italy at the present day to express playing upon a musical instrument, the Italian derivative, in this instance as in so many others, retaining not merely the general sense, but the special application of the Latin original. V. 741*. Docuit quae maximus Atlas-The calm and philosophical subject of Iopas’s song contrasts finely with the subsequent romantic and exciting narrative of Eneas. In this respect, as in so many others, Virgil has improved upon his master, who, making his minstrel sing, and his hero tell, similarly romantic stories, loses the advantage of contrast. See Odyss. books VIII. IX.

W. 746. Quae tardis mora noctibus obstet.—Viz., quin praecipitantes calo (see En. II. 8), se quoque tingant oceano.

W. 754. Dic . . . . . nobis Insidias . . . . . Danaum. See Fn. II. 65, and comment.

(To be continued.)

XI. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONSIDERED AS A PRACTI

CAL BASIS FOR THE STUDY OF OTHER INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES.

I FEAR we do not appreciate enough the advantage of a good stock of words for a beginner in Grammar. Yet if we call to mind what discouraged us most in our first attempts at translating from a foreign language, ancient or modern, into our native tongue, we shall be obliged to confess that it was our great want of words. We knew perhaps our grammar very well, we saw at once the construction of the whole sentence before us by a glance over the endings of the words, and according to the endings we had ready in our minds all the necessary articles in their requisite cases, as, the, of the, &c.; besides the necessary auxiliaries, as, has, should be, &c. And so we set to work to make out the meaning with good courage and not without self-satisfaction. But here we wanted a substantive, further on a verb, here an adjective, and there an adverb; and looking first for the substantive in the dictionary, we found so many meanings to it, that we were obliged to know first the meanings of the other words, or at least of the verb, before we could decide on the meaning of the substantive. We hasten to the verb, but the verb has as many different meanings as the substantive, Almost every word we look for, makes it more difficult for us to find out the meaning of the whole sentence. Every sentence becomes, through our want of a sufficient stock of words, almost an equation with three and more unknown quantities. We ought not, in my opinion, to begin translating with our pupils before we have given them a sufficient number of words; and that number of words ought to be given, even before they begin grammar at all. This is the natural way of beginning a language. The substance must be ready before forms can be applied. The exercises we make with words known to us, are not only easier, but make also a deeper impression on our minds, and lead us safely and surely to the true understanding of the grammatical forms we are practising, and through it to the formal genius of the language. This applies particularly to the ancient languages, where the case-endings seem to acquire, in the minds of boys, a different character from what they really are. Besides, there is no doubt but that, in order to learn a new language and its grammar rapidly, one's ears and organs of speech must be accustomed to, and have been rendered familiar with, the new sounds. It is true we have done without it, and many have succeeded on the usual method; but it is not less true that, at the very outset of our grammatical studies of a foreign tongue, we load our pupils with two difficulties at once, and the more harassing of the two is precisely the one for which the master usually has no indulgence at all, I mean the pronunciation of Latin and Greek. The two following results of experience with boys are well known; first, they are much inclined to learn things mechanically by heart; and, secondly, they do not learn quickly a new accidence, though they are in most cases only required to learn it mechanically by heart. These two statements would contradict one another, if we had not to add that the first applies to the mother tongue, where the boy's organs have to do so only with known sounds, while the second relates to a foreign language, where all is new and difficult to him, even the mere pronunciation. His interest, his memory—and memory is nothing else but that interest, that attention which we may be led to attach to any thing—is drawn off from the forms or endings to the unusual sound of the word, and the difficulty which his organs of speech have in pronouncing it. If a boy repeat his declensions or conjugations badly and almost stammeringly, it is very often, not because he

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