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parent differences in grammar determine the stages of the old, the middle, and the new English. Dialects have been at all times, and continue to exist. The details of the phonetic and orthographic system are minutely discussed in the third part. Great critical acuteness is exhibited in the chapter on articulate sounds; here, more than elsewhere, the author required the assistance of new terms. What we generally call Aspirates are none; neither the Greek o nor the Saxon th, are combinations of the Lene with the breathing h; the true Aspirates occur only very rarely, e.g. in upholder, abhorrent, etc., comp. pp. 123, 133. We confess, however, not to be able to appreciate fully this distinction. The difference between a verbal and a logical accent (p. 149) is undoubtedly right. The historical sketch of the English Alphabet gives a good deal of information on this subject in general, as well as in particular, and like many other chapters of this book, cannot be strongly enough recommended. Then follows the fourth part, containing the etymology in gender, number, case, pronoun, comparison, the inflections and classes of the verb, composition, &c. Throughout this division are to be found “ numerous isolated words which exhibit the fragments of a fuller inflection and of a more highly developed etymology:" it and that, true neuters ending in t, oxen, &c., old plurals in n,

besides many relics amongst the different pronouns, and the termination of the comparative degree er, where we especially refer to ch. x. and to the author's hypothesis in reference to the comparative antiquity of the superlative degree. The verb of course occupies the larger portion of Part iv.: every reader will feel interested in the learned discussion on the weak and strong tenses; the so-called irregularities are justly discarded; the verb substantive, for instance, is not irregular but defective, and supplies its tenses and moods from different roots in all stages of the English language, as well as in all languages belonging to the Gothic branch. The chapter on hybridism and the introduction of new words, cannot be studied attentively enough. Ch. XXXVIII. being devoted to the words mine and thine, developes the author's conviction, that these pronouns are real possessives, and not genitives of the personal pronouns. In the introduction to Part v. on the Syntax, the author is quite right in saying : “much that is considered by the generality of grammarians as syntax, can either be omitted altogether, or else be studied under another name." He makes the distinction between mixed and pure syntax, and does not collect everything under the one head of Concord and Government, but the same parts of speech that have undergone the etymological investigation, now pass under a syntactical review. We cannot enter into the detail, but must say every thing is perfectly correct, and in harmony with sound reason. The book concludes

with Part vi., on the prosody of the English language, and a double appendix.

We hope to see the effects of this excellent and truly national work appear more and more in the improvement of our present school grammars; and also in enriching our dictionaries, for a word like one in

is not the numeral one, but the French on ; and the verb do in this will do, is entirely different from to do, the first being the Anglo-Saxon deáh, the other the Anglo-Saxon .

one says,



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