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that such is the case, to waste more words about it. In Carrey's drawing itself, the heads of eight figures are wanting; and perhaps it is these very heads which the workmen who built the wall beside Poseidon as a support of the gable, or other pious persons, had knocked off. In p. 436, there is a serious misunderstanding, whereby I am made to place the marble slab, with the feet of Athena, in whom I recognize the newly-born Promachos of the eastern side, into the Western Pediment. How was it possible to believe this, as the Athena of the contest is not only composed quite differently, but also of far larger dimensions, or to speak of “a strange blunder,” and, at the same time, to quote the words of my essay, (p. 392,) which express the contrary 2 The words in p. 391 refer to the stump in the centre of the slab : “the fragment can have belonged only to a naked male figure, which the stump served to support;” and it is not to be wondered at that these words should have occasioned a misunderstanding, for they do not express the meaning of my own words in the German original, which were and still are, als. Pflock passt das Ueberbleibsel nur zu einer mânnlichen Figur. The fragment, therefore, cannot be a trunk such as we often find supporting naked male figures; in a clothed female figure, such as this one must have been, judging from the feet and other circumstances, the outstretched leg requires no support, for the whole figure forms only one mass surrounded by drapery, and of it therefore this stump must be a fragment, belonging to the middle part. The fact that my opponent places the figure of Ares standing by the side of Nice upon this slab, and again takes the rising piece of marble to be the trunk of the olive tree, which accordingly Athena, while yet engaged with her arms to repel the flood of Poseidon, (as the climax of the dispute,) must already have created, whereas, properly speaking, it ought not to have been produced till after the actual repulse to decide the original dispute about Attica, this fact may be considered as a climax, as the highest pitch of the dispute between the expositors. I must leave the examination of this explanation of the fragment to those who can themselves put their feet upon the slab and the feet attached to it; and I hope that those who may have undertaken it, may acquit me of the suspicion of arrogance, if even without having seen both together, I decline believing in Cecrops with his serpent.

It is, however, this very Cecrops alone—who has been reported to have been authenticated by the fragment of the serpent, and hence perhaps the belief has found supporters, that instead of the contest of the two divinities, we have a representation of the inundation, with which Poseidon, in his indignation at the verdict, and the train of marine divinities assembled around him, threatened Athens and the family of Cecrops—that has induced me to undertake the disagreeable task of this refutation. It is superfluous for every one who, above all things, tries to penetrate into the spirit of myths and of the works of art themselves, and takes it as his guide; that is, for every one who, possessing a general survey, and steadily comparing, is accustomed not to take up any thing isolated, without feeling its agreement and analogy with other contemporaneous or homogeneous phenomena, and its harmony with everything else, and with the character of ancient poetry and composition. But he who takes the opposite point of view, trusting to his own inspirations, little concerned about the custom and taste of the ancient world, and does not take into account the great internal connection of things which arises from a natural development, but sets forth an idea at random, and then exerts all his industry and powers of invention to prop it up by arguments and analysis, which, of course, must be managed in an equally arbitrary manner, or it may be with sophistry, because only the things which are simply true, or at least probable, agree with one another, as it were spontaneously, will not be very willing to admit reasons derived from the opposite method. It is not likely that my opponent and I should often meet in our views, understand each other, or agree with each other, and we should therefore not war against each other, nor try to reconcile our views; and, in fact, he would be greatly mistaken, if he were to believe that I am trying to return his attacks or to prove the untenableness of his assertions, in order to deny to him acumen and learning. His Cecrops, and the circumstance that I cannot form an opinion from personal inspection, alone must be my excuse for these lengthened remarks.

F. G. WELCKER.

Bonn.

297

XXI.
MISCELLANIES.

1. VICTORY IN THE HORSE-RACE.

This is an amphora of the panathenaic shape with black figures, either an actual prize vase, or else the imitation of one, belonging to S. Basseggio; the style is archaic, and evidently from the Etruscan territory. On the obverse are, Pallas Athene, armed as usual, standing in the centre, and holding on her left arm a large circular argolic buckler, the érigouov of which is a star, and Hermes, wearing the petasus, the short tunic, and his chlamys thrown over his shoulders, facing Pallas Athene, holding in his hands the knpukesov, or caduceus. At the other side of Pallas Athene, and facing her, stands Zeus, as an old bearded figure, draped in a tunic, over which is thrown an outer garment, probably the ampechonion, holding a fidgóos or axinTpov. These are the divinities of the festival; on the other side is represented the termination of the race:–an old bearded figure advances to the right, draped exactly as Zeus; before him is an inscription, reading kiovnéov from left to right-AYAEIKETY : HIIIOX : NIKA AvAetké+[o]v : *rros : vira —“the horse of Duleiketes wins.” The old man is followed by a boy wearing only a short tunic, mounted on a horse; behind them walks a man entirely naked, bearing on his head a large tripod, the feet of which come down over him; he holds it steadily by one leg in the right hand, his left hand is stretched out and holds a crown. There are some interesting points about the palaeography of this inscription:-the first word is apparently AvXuketv —it may however be AvXexerv–both of which words are equally difficult of explanation: but it is apparently the proper name; if the first reading is correct, probably some compound of AoûAos, if not an ethnical name derived from the town Dulichium. The v is unusual for the genitive on the vases, which contract, as the Sigeaninscription and other similar monuments, in O ; thus the potter Tleson constantly writes TAH>ON HONEAPXO EIIOI.EXEN. TXjaov 6 Nedpxo[v] étoimaev'—the potter Euthymides EYeYMIAEXHOTIOAIOETPAX peN, Eöðvučms & IIoMosv) empagoev (épayev.)” Eucheros inscribes upon his vases, EYKEPOX : EIIOIESEN HOPTOTIMO HYIHYX, Eöxepos érotegev

1 For the vases with the name of the Paris, 1837. The name written Eovpotter, Tleson, see Cat. Dur. p. 84, No. Azovns is evidently the potter's blunder; another vase with the same potter in

0. * De Witte, Description d'une Col. the Duc de Luyne's collection.—Ibid. lection de Vases peints prorenant des No. 2.

fouilles de l’Etrurie, p. 93, No. 146.8vo.

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* So I read on this vase, now in the Cat. 643. B. M. No. 464; De Witte, Descr. p. 56, * Cat. Dur. p. 98, No. 296. No. 103. I do not think the two other 1* Ibid.

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the horses of the quadriga which Pallas Athene drives for Hercules. AIIIYOIAXKAAOX HIIIOX, according to M. De Witte, Atriotas knAos frtos, “the fine horse twice victor in the Pythian games.” This phrase, however, seems extraordinary to apply to the four horses of Hercules, and still more so to inscribe upon a vase not in connection with the subject, since the same sentiment could not apply to the horse which did to the athletes. It is difficult to propose another explanation, supposing the inscription to be correctly decyphered. It is possible to read Atmootas keVos frtos, Diploias is a good horse 1 as the name given to one of the horses, as KaN\todpa and Kax\urdum are inscribed over two other quadrigae. The other inscription is more particularly agonistic: it is found on the pedestal of a figure, and reads, AKAMANTIXENIKAqYAF,” “The tribe of Akamantis was the cictorious one" This must have been for a musical contest similar to that for which the monument of Lysicrates, and other choragic trophies, were erected. The inscription is an exclamation,-it is the speech of the herald on the occasion of the victory repeated on the vase, and inscribed for posterity on the monument. Most of the inscriptions in Greek are of this character, and thus invest the material word with a spiritual existence. Hence there is a perpetual ellipsis to be supplied. On the prize vases it is indifferently, TO N A 6) ENEOEN AeAON,” or TON AeeNEeFN AeAON EMI,” Töv'A9;unbev dowv, or táv 'A0}vmdev dowv eful. “I am a prize from Athens !” So in the case of the formula MEIIOIEXEN, Točnaev,” which certain potters used, and ETPA4XEKATIOEEEME, &lpaye rai éroinaev ćué” which others employed; and in the Naples lecythus, TATAIHX EIMI AHKY 90X,” Tatasms eful Amrū00s; “I am the lecythus of Tataie.” And on the Eboli Vase, AIONYXIOY AAAxYeox TOY MATAAOY, Atovvačov & AdXv00s roo MaráAov;” and in the case of the vases with the inscriptions, TPEMIO EMI, Toontov c()n, Teoulov eius, and KAPONOXEMI, Xapávos ()ar;” and on another vase, XOXTPATO EIM IX warpat ov) eful,” the vase is invested as it were with this character of identity. Even with the formula KAAOX, there is a certain address from the vase itself to the spectator,

* Cat. Dur. p. 115, No. 327. * Gerhard, Rapporto Volcente. An

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