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the celebrated and often repeated strife between Hercules and Apollo

for the tripod,” is AEXIOI IIAAON, probably befoot 74\ov (éta\ov,) “ they have wrestled well;” the exclamation of Pallas Athene as the paidotribes of Heracles.—Another inscription to be referred to this class is that on the Vulcian cylix," on which Silenus pours wine from a skin into a large crater. It read XIAANOX TEPTION HEAY > HOINOX, XiXavos reprièv jöös oivos, i.e. “Silenus delighted (says) the wine is sweet !” Having thus abundantly proved the use of these inscriptions on vases, and adduced the most remarkable instances known, it now only remains to consider the character on this who pronounces these words. According to Pausanias” it was the herald, who proclaimed the name, age, or country of the successful competitor before the assembled chiefs of Greece; there is however here no distinctive mark of the leading figure being a herald, for he simply holds a pápéos or stick, which may have equally been held by a brabeus or umpire. The whole subject indeed much resembles the return of the victor from the games to his own city. The victor also appears at some of the games to have been crowned upon a tripod covered over with bronze, 7pèrows erty a\xos, but afterwards at a table inlaid with gold and ivory." The contest with horses, (kéAnti,) ridden by boys, appears on two of the Panathenaic prize vases; in one instance the boys hold whip, usiattoes, in their hand, in the other, goads, kevopa.” The history of the principal festivals has not been accurately preserved, so that the introduction of particular games is not in all instances to be traced; but the introduction of the race with foals into the Pythian games is known to have taken place in the 63d Pythian, or the 2d year of the 64th Olympiad, B. c. 523. If this was in consequence of their general use throughout Greece, it would form a fixed point for determining the age of certain vases. There is, however, another point which might have aided, but which unfortunately does not;-in the first Pythiad, Ol. 48, 3,” the prizes were xpijuata, by which is undoubtedly to be understood tripods, and other valuable objects; in the second Pythiad” a chaplet was introduced. Our vase, however, presents the circumstance of the two, for the youth holds both the tripod and crown, showing that the agon gave both the xpijuata and the are påvm. The tripod was a common reward. In the Pythian games, and in connexion with the Apollo Enolmios, they were more especially the re

* De Witte, Descr. p. 65, No. 135. rispondenza Archeologica, Roma, 1829– * Plato, Leg. viii. p. 833. Paus. v. 1832. Pl. xxi.

15. s. 8. "7 Cf. Gerhard and Millingen, l.c. 65 Paus. v. 12, s. 3. 20, s. 1, 12. * Krause, Die. Pyth. Nem. s. 21. 66 Monumenti del' Instituto di Cor- * Arg, ad Pind. Pyth. Paus, l.c.

ward held out for the encouragement in contest of all natures, not only in the agonistic, but even in literary contests, since the tripod and the bull were the usual rewards—the tripod of gold offered to the seven sages of Greece, and ultimately consecrated to the Apollo of Delphi.” Not only, however, in the Pythian games, but also in the Panathenaia, the tripod was the usual form in which the victor was remunerated; and in the choragic contests carried on by tribes, a trophaic monument was often erected to sustain the tripod as a base, and to record the victory of the tribe.” The vase paintings completely confirm this view. A very ancient vase, published by Inghirami,” in which, among other subjects, is a race of bigae, represents a tripod placed at the side of the course, beyond the Doric column which marks the terminus, as the proposed prize. From the vase under consideration, it is clear that they were offered as prizes in the race of colts ridden by boys. On a vase in the British Museum, painted by the artist Polygnotus, are two apteral figures of Nike or Victory sacrificing a bull, or rather on the point of crowning it with fillets in honour of a dithyrambic victory. An athletic vase found at Vulci with agonistic subjects, also had a tripod as the reward,” and on some of the Athenian lecythi, the Aégns or caldron, replacing the tripod, is depicted as the prize.” So also the celebrated vase with the 'Akauavris evika pion, and the allegorical race of Plutus and Chrysos,” have the consecrated tripod; and innumerable instances may be adduced of its use. Subsequently, this was consecrated to some divinity, and great numbers were consequently placed in the altis at Olympia. Occasionally it was taken home, and the return of the victor from the games accompanied with particular honours. Still, preceded by the kijput, the victorious cry vuka vika may be considered to be ringing in the ears of his countrymen. Hiero I. had thus conquered with a horse (céAmri) in the 73d Olympiad, B. c. 482, for Sicily was celebrated for its racers.

To which game are we to refer this vase? Of the great games, the Isthmic and Pythian must be excepted; the Nemean seem hardly admissible; and the Olympian are the most plausible; yet, the position of Pallas Athene, which is the central figure in the picture, suggests that she is the principal protectress, and thus one of the Panathenaia, the greater or lesser, must be supposed.


7" Plutarch, Vit. Solon. t. 1. p. 320. Cf. Panofka, Cabinet Pourtales, pl. v.j.

Reiske. Musée Blacas, pl. 1. p. 8. Bulletino, ” Archaeologia, 1839, p. 238. 1832, p. 87. Stackelberg, Die Gräber, Wasi Fittili, tom. iv. tav, cocvii. taf. xxv. ” Stackelberg, Die Gräber. 7" Pindar, Arg. ad Pyth.

* Gerhard, A. V. taf. Lxxxi. s. 10.


The want of a truthful and philosophical view of the peculiar genius of the Greek and Latin languages, was the cause of the induction of many absurd and unfounded rules which long figured in the leading grammars of the past age. Foremost among such errors stands the attempt to explain classical idioms according to the idiom and genius of the English language, rather than by such a method as would have commended itself as just to the judgment of one whose native tongue was Greek or Latin. The cause might be traced still further back, to the wrong notions which were entertained as to the use to which the cultivation of the dead languages should be applied; in those cases, especially, in which it was not intended that the acquisition of them should reach beyond the elements. Foremost also amongst the errors engendered by this system, stood the rule that the accusative is used after participles passive and adjectices, governed by kata or secundum omitted. Now although this view has gradually given way before more philosophical explanations of syntax, we meet with some here and there, who seem very reluctant to part with their old mumpsimus. To give an instance, we find in Mr. T. K. Arnold's Introduction to Greek Prose Composition, (3d Edit.) 135, (a), the following remark on such expressions as kaxos to gioua, >wkpátns točvoua, &c. “The accus. is used after nouns and adjectives, where kata, as to, might be supposed" understood.” The following quotations from Buttmann's Intermediate Greek Grammar are to the point. “The relations of more remote objects, which return most frequently, are generally expressed by a mere casus. . . . . . But languages differ greatly in this respect; what is expressed in one by one case, is rendered in another language by another case; and very frequently one language employs a prep., where the other simply uses a case, or some may use either the prep. or the casus ; ea. gr. in English, I gave the letter to him, or I gave (to) him the letter. When we, therefore, meet with a mere casus in Greek, where other languages use a preposition, we must not be too hasty with the interpretation of an omitted preposition ; we had better assume that the casus involves already that idea, which we would render apparent through the medium of a preposition, ($130, 3 and 4, Supf’s Tr.) That is to say, because we cannot render the expression, word for word, into English, so as to make it intelligible without introducing a prep., we have no right to assume that the Greeks could not understand their own acc. without mentally supplying a prep. Now it is pretty generally acknowledged that inflections in nouns and adjectives are prepositions tacked on to their crude forms: what remains, then, is to discover as near as possible the meaning of this post-position, and then apply it to each instance of its occurrence. We believe that the primary notion of the accusative term is “motion towards ;” as Túrta abrov, airov denoting the object towards which the blow proceeds, or passes over from the agent: toki's is swift; when Tóñas is added, the attention is turned towards the particular part referred to.” But there is another cause which has given rise to very confused and erroneous notions about this accusative, especially in Latin; and that is the non-conception of the close commexion between the notions of the passive and middle verbs. In the old Greek grammars a broad distinction was maintained between the so-called middle and passive tenses; but this forcing process could not be carried out to its full extent, for the pres. and imperf. are set down as common to both voices. But this arrangement is apt to mislead; for, not to enter into details, every school-boy knows that &rexpson v in the New Test. is drexpwäumv in Thucydides; and that almost all the other tenses with middle and passive inflections constantly vary in their use. The first meaning of these tenses was probably the pure inflexive, as āuivu, I defend; duovouai, I defend myself; but this meaning had almost died out in the Classical Attic. The next meaning by an easy transition must have been, I get myself defended, and of this a greater number of examples remain; and this meaning, moreover, forms the connecting link between the middle and passive significations; the extraneous agent being introduced by ird. 'Autovouat ird twos is therefore properly, “I got myself defended by another;" or if there is no personal exertion of mine, “I get defended by another.” In the Latin verb, where there is no superabundance of passive inflections, one voice was formed, which was called passive, and was always to be translated passive, in spite of any amount of absurdity resulting therefrom; even to the attributing of the punishment of hanging to boys, who had committed no crime beyond themselves hanging their counters and tablet on their arm for their school-work: Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto, Horat. Sat. I. 6, 74. Still this method was not free from inconsistency, for there were said to be deponent verbs, having this very same passive inflexion, but withal an ACTIVE signification. The truth is probably all (as we know it for certain of a great many,) these so called deponents had in the older language corresponding actives, so that abominor, comitor, commentor, and expergiscor, are just as much passives of abomino, comito, commento, and expergisco,” (all of which forms are actually found,) as amor is

* The italics are Mr. Arnold's.

* See Allen's Analysis of Latin Verbs, pp. 66 foll.

of amo. In poetry, which is conservative of by-gone constructions and phrases, we find most instances of the middle meaning. Thus taking at random from the Second AEneid, we have excutior somno, (302)—I rouse myself from sleep : In flammas et in arma feror, (337)—I bear myself, I rush : Induitur galeam, (393)—puts on himself the helm : Notá conduntur in alco, (401)—hide themselves : Coluber mala gramina pastus, (471)—having fed himself on norious herbs : (Priamus) ferrum Cingitur ac densos fertur moriturus in hostes, (511) —girds on, and rushes. Nor in prose is this meaning unknown, though less frequent, as, fit particeps publici consilii, he makes himself, Cicero in Catilinam, I. 1. With regard to the verbal in tus, an additional confirmation is gained from the corresponding verbal in Tós in Greek; doveotos is just as much a perf. pass. participle of its verb quqvičakw, as pastus is of pasco. But this verbal in Tós is actice as well as passive, and this has been allowed from the first. So long as cingitur in such phrases as cingitur ferrum was considered strictly pass., no government for the accus. could be found in the phrase itself. Recourse was therefore had to the whimsical expedient of a preposition, exerting a secret mystical influence over a noun, but ashamed to show itself to claim its full rights. There is an insurmountable difficulty, in our judgment, in a preposition uniformly governing a particular case after particular words, but being as uniformly omitted. Besides, secundum never has the meaning attributed to it in this rule. The only possible view, then, of this accus. is simply this: the passive and middle tenses in Greek were originally identical. Remains of a pure middle are found in Latin of the Augustan age to a considerable extent: this middle had a tendency in several instances to subside into a mere active; in others, to be entirely restricted to the passive. An accus. after such forms, when transitive, is what might be expected. The following quotation from Professor Key's Latin Grammar shall conclude these remarks: “The perfect participles of what are commonly called passive verbs, are used, particularly by the poets, like those of reflective or deponent verbs, and so take an accusative case.”

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Herodotus, in B. II. c. 39, where he describes the Egyptian rites of sacrifice, says, according to the common reading, . . . . a7sgowa,

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