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words, the one belonging to the Gothic, the second to the Hg. stage. We shall then draw the rule from the greatest number of examples bearing the same character.

1. Labials. English, P. F. B. W. W. M. Sanscrit, P. Ph. B. Bh. V. M. The English letters W. and M. (Sanscr. W. and M.) the vocal beginning, and the nasal end of this series, will be considered, after the mutes, as Semivowels and Liquids, with the others of the same class. The English sound v, introduced only from the Romanic into the Middle-English, appears, in old English words, as the weakened Inlaut of another Labial, most frequently of f (leaf-leaves.) As such, it will find its place according to its original value. 1. P, a favourite anlaut in English, has, in the Dictionary at least, as many words as F and B together. It is of much less frequent occurrence in A.S., of still less in Gothic. The greater part of the English words are of Latin or Greek origin; so are many of the inconsiderable number of A.S. and Gothic words. As P otherwise seems to be among the Teutonics a favourite sound in Inlaut and Auslaut, it is natural to ask why it is of rare occurrence as Anlaut. Benary and Pott, holding Grimm's law, explain it by the small number of B. anlauts in Sanscrit. If, they say, there are only few labial Mediae in Sanscrit as anlaut, there can be only few labial Tenues in Gothic. Graff (III, 319,) declares this explanation to be an error, necessarily arising from what he calls the false theory of Grimm. He explains it by saying, that the organic p, corresponding with Sanscr. Gr., Lat., Goth., O. Sax., A.S., and Norse tenuis had changed into F, already in the oldest German, (I. pr. 8, **) for the oldest Runes have no P. The question will find its solution, I think, at the end of this chapter on the Labials.

(a.) English P. aniaut corresponding with Sanscr. P.

English. Sanscr. Anglo-Saxon. *ion Path patha, m (via) path, poeth, paad pad; Pfad. Pawn pan (in ludum po- Oldn. pantr phant; Pfand. nere) pound * pan, . - pund - . phunt; Pfund.

* “Pound” does pot seem to have its consonants are the same in both Labeen borrowed from the Latin, though | tin and Gothic. Cf. Lat. poena, A.S. pin. * Cf. Graff, Alth. Sprachsch. I. pref. xvi. “the Old German Sp. answers to Sanscr.Sp.perhapsin “sprechan,'Sanscr. sprih (desiderare), if it is not to be derived from Sanscr. brú (dicere.”) But Sprih is much more likely the Lat. Spero. '(Bopp.) There is not one example by which we can prove from Sanscr. B to Goth. P, as that in “brú” to “spraecan, spaecan.” Bopp's conjecture seems to be the right one, Gloss. p. 26, práh, (i. e. pra and ah,) dicere. “Fortasse cum eo cohaeretnostrum Sprach, spreche, ita ut S euphonicum sit antepositum, cum S

Ancient and Modern

English. Sanscr. Anglo-Saxon. High-German. penny pan pening, pending, pending, phepenig nig; Pfennig. pine píd (dolore affi- pin pina; Pein. cere) Pour pir (implere) see “to fill” pepper pipalim (piper) peppor, peopor pessar, pheffar; Pfeffer. (S)py pas' (videre) spehon, spiohon; spähen. (S)peak” práh (dicere) spraecan, spaecan sprêhhan, sprechan; Sprechen. pitch pach (coquere) pit - peh; Pech. plight prich (conjun- plightan flehtan; flechten. gere) (b.) English P. inlaut and Sanscr. P. English. Sanscr. Anglo-Saxon. *:::d .:ern ripe (s) rap-ayāmi (fa- ripe rifi; reif. cioutcoquatur) ape" (k) api (simia) apa affo ; Affe. hope kup (irasci) hopian, opian hoffen. scape kshap (sternere) sceapan, scepan, Scafan; schaffen sceppan (c.) English P. auslaut, and Sanscrit P. English. Sanscr. Anglo-Saxon. ** heap châp-ayāmi (fa- hype, heape, (cu- hufo ; Haufe.

ciout colligatur) mulus)

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sequenti pet facile se adjungat, quam
ob rem Pott Gothicum “ stautan,”
nostrum stoszen, ad radicem Sanscritam
et Latinam “tud” apte reduxit.”
* Another remarkable example of
this kind, where the Sanscr. K has been
dropped, is Sanscr. Kam and Lat. am-o.
Graff, Bopp. I beg to remark here, that
whenever any word compared seems to
require an explanation for any otherlet-
ter but the labial in question, that ex-
planation will be given when that other

| letter (a lingual or guttural) comes un

der consideration.


Ancient and Modern

English. Sanscrit. Anglo-Saxon. High-German. hop chup, chap (se hoppan huphjan; hipfen. movere) hip chup hipe; Goth, hups huf; Hüfte. help klrip, kalp, (af- helpan helfan; helfen. ferre) jump jhampa, m (sal- Bp tus) damp tap (urere, cale- damf (vapor;) facere) Dampf. sleep swap (dormire) slapan, slappan slåfon; schlafen. slip Srip (ire, gradi), slipan slifan, sliphan; schleifen. lip” lap (loqui) lippa lefs; Lefse, Lippe. warp" kship (conjicere) weorpan, verpan werfan; werfen. (d.) English P. and some other Sanscr. letter. English. Sanscr. Anglo-Saxon. *:::::::.ern play” kri (facere) plegian, pleggan plegan, pflegan; pflegen. spite sphunt', sphut Norse, spott spot (jocus, spot- (deridere) ton (irridere); Spott, spotten. speed sphut' (dissilere, spaedan (prospere spuaton (accelediffugere) cedere) rare,) sputen. split sphänt', sphat' - - spaltan; Spalten. (spilt) (findere) spit sht hiv (spuere) spivan, speovian spiwan, spiuwan,

spian; spein.

7 Graff, ii. 205, prefers Sanscr. labh (adipisci), Gr. Aago. The Lith. lupa (labium) is against it. Lat. labium, labrum, and lambo, Gr. xiiga, are connected with Sanscr. labh (admixi) not with “lap.” Cf. Gr. oríazus and Eng, bill have the same meaning, but belong to different roots. See Bill. It is the same case with Lat. labi and Eng. to | leap. See Leap, Note. |

* Bopp,Gl.S. 93, “fortasse etiam nostrum werfe, Goth. vairpa provirpa. Gr. comp. 82. Huc pertinet, transpositis

e vripa prohvripa, cum hw pro Sanscr. K. sicut quis, Sanscr. Kas, Gr. comp. 388. Graff, L. 1026, hesitates between “kship” and “vap,” (spargere.)

* Compare Sanscr. vrika and Lat. vulpes, Gr. xixes, or vice versa, Sanscr. pach and Lat. Coquere. Consonants of the same degree may interchange and confirm the rule. We have here all three tenues p, k and t, in play-kri, uput of Sanscr. paktas, Gr. oriarrés, Lat. coctus.

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reap lere) lup (fin- hriopan (vellere) raufan; raufen. dere, (rumpere) hemp sasia (cannabis) haenep hanaf; Hanf. leap" kram (ire) hleapan hlanfon, lonfan; lanfen.

The following table shews the results of our comparisons:— English P. anlaut corresponding with Sanscr. P. in 11 examples.

--- - - - - - - --- K in 1 ...
P inlaut --- --- P in 4 ...
Sp ... - - - - - - Sph in 3
... ... - - - shth in 1 ...
Pauslaut - - - -- e. P in 10 ...

--- - - - --- M in 1

--- - - - --- T in 1

--- --- - - - NCh in 1 ...

- - - ... not expressed in 1.

According to Grimm's law, Gothic P, as we have stated before, should answer to Greek, Latin, and Sanscr. B. We have not one example of the kind,-not one proof for the support of this law in respect to English and Sanscrit, but there are twenty-five examples that follow (and therefore prove) the rule, that English P. corresponds with Sanscr. P.

2. F as anlaut, frequent in all Gothic languages, as Inlaut and Auslaut less so. Between two vowels, it changes in English, with very few exceptions, (life, wife, safe; but lives, wives, to save,) into v. This v-inlaut is therefore equivalent to F, and as such, to be considered in this paragraph.

(a.) English, Fanlaut, and Sanscr. P.
Old and New High

English. Sanscr. Anglo-Saxon. German. fill púr, pål, pri (im- fyllan e fulljan; füllen. plere)

* “Leap” has lost the guttural in the beginning, as in “ape,” Sanscr. kapi. The m at the end of “kram” changed into another labial, as Sanscr. mrita, Lat. mortuus, Gr. 363res, Sanscr. mushti Lat.pugnus, H.G. fust, Th. fusti. Grimm

(1.585,) is not quite sure whether Goth. hlaupan is not to be compared with Lat. labi. This latter belongs to Sanscr. lamb, lab (labi, cadere), and is therefore in no way connected with Engl. leap, AS. hleapan.

English. Sanscrit. Anglo-Saxon. Old *No High. full pürna (plenus) full foll; voll. father pitri (pater) fader fatar; Water. foot pad, pāda (pes) fit - föz; Fusz. feed pā (servare) foedan . fötjan; füttern. fetch paksh (capere) feccan, fetjan

paksha (ala) fowl {: shin (avis, fugul, fugl fogal; Vogel. alas habens) five panchan (quin- fif fimf; fünf, que) feather patatra (ala) fether federa; Feder. far para(alius, remo- feor fer; fern. tior) from paran (ultra,post) fram, from . fram.

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