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President of the sen


of judg

a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the state for which he shall be chosen.

4. The vice-president of the United States shall ? be president of the senate; but shall have no vote ate. unless they be equally divided.

5. The senate shall choose their other officers, and officers. also a president, pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exercise the office of president of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all Imepes impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not 8

And extent extend further than removal from office, and disqual- ment in

cases. ification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under the United States; but the party con- Party liable victed shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to to law. indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law. SECTION IV.

Elections1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives shall be prescribed ted. in each state, by the legislature thereof, but the congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing senators.

who ot loont non in Meetings of 2. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


how regula



the election


1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, to judge of returns and qualifications of its own members, and a of its memmajority of each shall constitute a quorum to do Quorum. business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide.


Adjourn. ment.


2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behav. ior, and, with a concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, ex. cepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

SECTION VI. 1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, fel. ony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, or in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other

place. Concerning the holding aimg2. No senator or representative shall, during the

time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

Compensa tion,


of offices.


Revenue bills.

Power and duty of

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the house the presi. of representatives and the senate, shall, before it tion to bills. becomes a law, be presented to the president of the

United States ; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to that

dent in relee

Joint resolutions, ex

ournment, o receive

sanction as

house in which it shall have originated, who shall en. Proceed...

ings on bills ter the objections, at large, in their journal, and pro- returned by

the presiceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, dent. two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the vote of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the Joint resoconcurrence of the senate and house of representa- cept for ad. tives may be necessary, (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the the same United States; and before the same shall take effect, bills. shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

SECTION VIII. The congress shall have power,

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and ex- Power of cises ; to pay the debts, and provide for the common relative to defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States :

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United Loans. States:

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and Commerce. among the several states, and with the Indian tribes :

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, Naturalizaand uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies tion. throughout the United States :

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and Money. of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures:

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeit- Coitinter ing the securities and current coin of the United States :





naval forces. Militia.

Post Offices. 7. To establish post offices and post roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court. To define and punish piracy and felony committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law

of nations : War.

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land

and water : Armies.

11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use, shall be for a longer term

than two years: Navy.

12. To provide and maintain a navy: Land and 13. To make rules for the government and regula

tion of the land and naval forces :

14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.

15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline pre

scribed by congress. Legislation 16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases over a dise trict, etc. whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten

miles square) as may by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arse.

nals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: and Laws neces- 17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and the execu... proper for carrying into execution the foregoing

powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

SECTION IX. of the im of 1. The migration or importation of such persons certain per- as any of the states now existing shall think proper

to admit, shall not be prohibited by the congress

sary for

tion of their powers.

sons, etc.

beas corpus.



merce from



No nobility

prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for such person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall Writ of hanot be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall Attainder, be passsed. 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, o

at tov wholl be loin Direct tax. unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported of com: from any state. No preference shall be given by any the states, regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but of expendiin consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Noatobility United States, and no person holding any office of and no presprofit or trust under them, shall, without the consent ted by u. s.

officers, etc. of the congress, accept any present, emolument, office or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

SECTION X. 1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or powera proconfederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; the individ. coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold or silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the con- Powers gress, lay any impost or duties on imports or ex- states can ports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of the sancall duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports gress. or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of congress. No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of

ents accep

ual states.

which the

exercise only under

tion of con.

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