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sion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

ARTICLE V. 1. The congress, whenever two-thirds of both Mode of houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amend- the consti.., ments to this constitution; or on the application of tution. the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress: Provided, That no amendment, which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.

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ARTICLE VI. 1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered Debts into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall assumed. be as valid against the United States, under this constitution, as under the confederation.

2. This constitution, and the laws of the United The su. States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and of the land. all treaties made, or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby; anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

3. The senators and representatives, before men- Representationed, and the members of the several legislatures, to support and all executive and judicial officers, both of the tution. United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution;

1. No religious but no religious test shall ever be required as a qual- test. ification to any office or public trust under the Uni. ted States.

tives, etc.,

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ARTICLE VII. 1. The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same. Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of

the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seventh, and of the independ

ence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names. GEO. WASHINGTON, President,

and Deputy from Virginia. New Hampshire:

Massachusetts :
John Langdon,

Nathaniel Gorman,
Nicholas Gilman. Rufus King,
Connecticut:

John Dickinson,
Wm. Samuel Johnson, Richard Bassett,
Roger Sherman.

Jacob Broom.
New York:

Maryland:
Alexander Hamilton. James M'Henry,
New Jersey :

Dan'l of St. Tho. Jenifer,
William Livingston, Daniel Carroll.
David Brearley, Virginia:
William Paterson, John Blair,
Jonathan Dayton.

James Madison, Jr.
Pennsylvania:

North Carolina :
Benjamin Franklin, William Blount,
Thomas Mifflin,

Richard Dobbs Spaight,
Robert Morris,

Hugh Williamson.
George Clymer, South Carolina:
Thomas Fitzsimmons. John Rutledge,
Jared Ingersoll,

C. Cotesworth Pinckney,
James Wilson,

Charles Pinckney,
Governeur Morris. Pierce Butler.
Delaware:

Georgia:
George Reed,

William Few,
Gunning Bedford, Jr. Abraham Baldwin.
ATTEST: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.

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The free ex

speech, etc.,

ARTICLE I. 1. Congress shall make no law respecting an estab. ercise of relishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise aim of the thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, of press; or the right of the people peaceably to assem- guaranteed'

to the peoble and petition the government for a redress of ple. grievances.

ARTICLE II. 1. A well regulated militia being necessary to the 6 security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

Right to bear arms.

ARTICLE III. 1. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered ing soldiers

in time of in any house without the consent of the owner; nor peace in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV.

No search warrant to

1. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreason- issue except able searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V. 1. No person shall be held to answer for a capital content or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a present. crimes.. ment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases ings. arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public dans ger; nor shall any person be subject for the same

accused in

ses.

Trial by jury preserved.

offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI. Right of the 1. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall criminal ca- enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an

impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

ARTICLE VII. 1. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

ARTICLE VIII. 1. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

ARTICLE IX. Construc- 1. The enumeration in the constitution, of certain ers delega rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X. 1. The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to these states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI. Restraint of 1. The judicial power of the United States shall power. not be construed to extend to any suit in law or

Bail and fines.

tion of pow.

ted.

Powers.

judicial

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.

27

and vicepresid

equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

ARTICLE XII. 1. The electors shall meet in their respective states Mode of

electing the and vote by ballot for president and vice-president, president one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of ar the same state as themselves ; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice-presi. dent; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate; the president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted ; the person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding Three, on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March following, then the vice-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president.

2. The person having the greatest number of votes of the vice as vice-president, shall be vice-president, if such num. ber be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers in the list, the senate shall choose the vice-president: a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole num

house on the list the hisuch mais electomber be apres

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