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country women to a land where she was unknown hastened across Mount Cenis, and learned, while pass ing a merry Christmas of concerts and lemonade par ties at Milan, that the great man with whose name hers is inseparably associated had ceased to exist.

He had, in spite of much mental and bodily afflic tion, clung vehemently to life. The feeling described in that fine but gloomy paper which closes the series of his Idlers seemed to grow stronger in him as his last hour drew near. He fancied that he should be able to draw his breath more easily in a southern climate, and would probably have set out for Rome and Naples, but for his fear of the expense of the journey. That expense, indeed, he had the means of defraying; for he had laid up about two thousand pounds, the fruit of labours which had made the fortune of several publishers. But he was unwilling to break in upon this hoard; and he seems to have wished even to keep its existence a secret. Some of his friends hoped that the government might be induced to increase his pension to six hundred pounds a year: but this hope was disappointed; and he resolved to stand one English winter more. That winter was his last. His legs grew weaker; his breath grew shorter; the fatal water gathered fast, in spite of incisions which he, courageous

gainst pain, but timid against death, urged his surgeons to make deeper and deeper. Though the tender care which had mitigated his sufferings during months f sickness at Streatham was withdrawn, he was not left desolate. The ablest physicians and surgeons attended him, and refused to accept fees from him. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. Windham sate much in the sick-room, arranged the pillows, and ent his own servant to watch a night by the bed.


d where she was unknow Yenis, and learned, while pase 'concerts and lemonade par great man with whose nam ted had ceased to exist. ich mental and bodily affe life. The feeling described aper which closes the series in him as li row stronger fancied that he should be Dre easily in a southern cl have set out for Rome and of the journey he expense id the means of defraying; two thousand pounds, the made the fortune of sev as unwilling to break in ms to have wished even to Some of his friends hoped be induced to increase his ads a year: but this hope solved to stand one Eng er was his last. His leg w shorter; the fatal wate ons which he, courageous st death, urged his sur Der. Though the tender Sufferings during months withdrawn, he was no icians and surgeons accept fees from him. ep emotion. Windham anged the pillows, and a night by the bed

Frances Burney, whom the old man had cherished with fatherly kindness, stood weeping at the door: while Langton, whose piety eminently qualified him to be an adviser and comforter at such a time, received the last pressure of his friend's hand within. When at length the moment, dreaded through so many years, came close, the dark cloud passed away from Johnson's mind. His temper became unusually patient and gentle; he ceased to think with terror of death, and of that which lies beyond death; and he spoke much of the mercy of God, and of the propitiation of Christ. In this serene frame of mind he died on the 13th of December, 1784. He was laid, a week later, in Westminster Abbey, among the eminent men of whom he had been the historian, - Cowley and Denham, Dryden and Congreve, Gay, Prior, and Addison.

Since his death the popularity of his works the Lives of the Poets, and, perhaps, the Vanity of Human Wishes, excepted-has greatly diminished. His Dictionary has been altered by cditors till it can scarcely be called his. An allusion to his Rambler or his Idler The is not readily apprehended in literary circles. fame even of Rasselas has grown somewhat dim. But, though the celebrity of the writings may have declined, he celebrity of the writer, strange to say, is as great As ever. Boswell's book has done for him more than the best of his own books could do. The memory

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of other authors is kept alive by their works. But the memory of Johnson keeps many of his works alive. The old philosopher is still among us in the brown coat with the metal buttons and the shirt which ought to be at wash, blinking, puffing, rolling his head, Irumming with his fingers, tearing his meat like a tiger, and swallowing his tea in oceans. No human being

who has been more than seventy years in the grave is so well known to us. And it is but just to say that our intimate acquaintance with what he would himself have called the anfractuosities of his intellect and of his temper serves only to strengthen our conviction that he was both a great and a good man.


(Encyclopadia Britannica, January 1859.)


WILLIAM PITT, the second son of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, and of Lady Hester Grenville, daughter of Hester, Countess Temple, was born on the 28th of May, 1759. The child inherited a name which, at the time of his birth, was the most illustrious in the civilised world, and was pronounced by every Englishman with pride, and by every enemy of England with mingled admiration and terror. During the first year of his life, every month had its illuminations and bonfires, and every wind brought some messenger charged with joyful tidings and hostile standards. In Westphalia the English "untry won a great battle which arrested the armies of Louis the Fifteenth in the midst of a career of conquest; Boscawen defeated one French fleet on the coast of Portugal; Hawke put to flight another in the Bay of Biscay; Johnson took Niagara; Amherst took Ticonderoga; Wolfe died y the most enviable of deaths under the walls of Quebec; Clive destroyed a Dutch armament in the Hooghly, and established the English supremacy in Bengal ; Coote routed Lally at Wandewash, and established the English supremacy in the Carnatic. The nation, while loudly applauding the successful warriors, conidered them all, on sea and on land, in Europe, in

America, and in Asia, merely as instruments which re ceived their direction from one superior mind. It was the great William Pitt, the great commoner, who had vanquished French marshals in Germany, and French admirals on the Atlantic; who had conquered for his Country one great empire on the frozen shores of Ontario, and another under the tropical sun near the nouths of the Ganges. It was not in the nature of things that popularity such as he at this time enjoyed should be permanent. That popularity had lost its gloss before his children were old enough to understand that their father was a great man. He was at length placed in situations in which neither his talents for administration nor his talents for debate appeared to he best advantage. The energy and decision which had eminently fitted him for the direction of war were not needed in time of peace. The lofty and spirit-stirring eloquence which had made him supreme in the House of Commons often fell dead on the House of Lords. A cruel malady racked his joints, and left his joints only to fall on his nerves and on his brain. During the closing years of his life, he was odious to the court, and yet was not on cordial terms with the great body of the opposition, Chatham was only the uin of Pitt, but an awful and majestic ruin, not to be contemplated by any man of sense and feeling without emotions resembling those which are excited by the remains of the Parthenon and of the Coliseum. one respect the old statesman was eminently happy. Whatever might be the vicissitudes of his public life, Le never failed to find peace and love by his own hearth. He loved all his children, and was loved by them; and, of all his children, the one of whom he was fondest and proudest was his second son.


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