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everlasting life. And these be called the works and fruits of righteousness.

"Other works there be, which be not so perfect as these, and yet they be done by the Grace of God in Faith and good affection of heart towards God; as those be, which men, that have been in deadly sin, and by Grace turn to God, do work, and bring forth, upon respect and remorse that they have for their offences done against God. And these may be called properly the works of penance. As for -example: When a sinner, hearing or remembering the Law of God, is moved by Grace to be contrite and sorry for his offences; and beginneth to lament his estate, and to fall to prayer and other good deeds, seeking to avoid the indignation of God, and to be reconciled to his favour: these Works come of Grace; but yet this man is, not to be accounted a justified man, but he is yet in seeking Remission of his sins and. bis. Justification, which the anguish of his own conscience telleth him that he yet wanteth; but he is in a good way; and by these means doth enter into Justification; and if he do proceed, and with hearty devotion seek for further, Grace, he shall be assured of Remission of his sins, and attain his Justification, and so bę mądę abyle... and meet to walk, in re very pure service of God, with a clean conscience, and to bring forth the foresaid Works of righ teousness in Christ, which he cannot do afore he be justified.

And that such works of perance as we have spoken of, be required to tie attaining of Remissson of sins and Justification, it is very evident and plain by Scrip ture; as when our Saviour Christ saith, Be penitent and believe the Gospel; that is to say, first be contrite, and knowledge your sins; and then receive the glad tidings of Remission of your sins. And St. John Baptist preached penance, and made away unto Christ; and taught men which came unto him what they should do to come unto Christ, and to have Remission of sins by him, as it is written in the third chapter of Luke; and specially that they which be once christened, and afterward fall, from the Grace of God by mortal sin, cannot recover their Justification without penance, it is plain by the saying of Peter unto Simon Magus, where he saith t, Do penance for this thy wickedness, and pray God if peradventure this thought of thy heart may be forgiven unto thee.

"And, truly, this way and form of doc trine is to be observed, which is the very

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trade of Scripture, wherein men be taught first to leave sins, or to return by works of penance unto God; and that then they shall receive remission of sins and justifi cation. And although such works of penance be required in us towards the attaining of remission of sins and justification; yet the same justification and remission of sins is the free gift of God, and conferred unto us gratis, that is to say, of the grace of God; whereby we doing such things, and having such motions and works of apt, to receive further grace of remission penance, be prepared, and made more of our sins and justification.

"And it is not inconvenient that such things should through grace be done by us first, and yet it should be said, that we receive the said gift freely. For Christ saith, in the Revelation of St. John,* Qui sitit, veniat; et qui vult, accipiat aquam vitæ gratis; He that is thirsty, let him come; and he that will, let him take the water of life freely. Where he affirmeth this gift of God to be freely given: and conferred; and yet there is some labour before; as, to have a will' and desire to arising by faith and penance, and proceedcome; which coming cannot be without ing in the same, and so to take the water of life, that is to say, justification through our Saviour Christ; which once received in Baptism, or after Baptism being: recovered by penance, although man daily do offend and fall into divers venial sing by reason of his infirmity and weakness, and therefore hath need of continual and daily repentance, yet as long as he consenteth not to deadly sin, he loseth not the state of his justification, but remaineth still the child of God; and being in that state, hath power by God's Grace dwelling in him to do such works, as by acceptation of God through Christ be counted works of righteousness, and do serve for the preservation and encrease of his further justification, and be appointed by God's most gracions promise to have everlastingere ward in heaven. Which both inward and outward works be not only the declaring the grace which we have received; but of our faith and confidence in God, and of also a continual exercise, nourishment, preservation; encrease, and perfection of the same. For if we should not, after that we have professed Christ, apply our will to work well, according to our said profession; then should we fall from the grace of God, and the estate of righteousness, which we were once set in, and be

"Apoc. xxii,"


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come again the servants of sin. And as St. Peter saith, We should be in worse case, than we were before we received the knowledge of Christ." P. 38.

"And to ascribe this dignity unto good works, it is no derogation to the grace of God. Forasmuch as it is to be confessed, that all good works come of the grace of God. And our merits, as St. Augustin saith, be but the gifts of God. And so we may not glory nor look back on our own worthiness or dignity, which is naught, as of onrselves; but of the only acceptation of God's mercy. And, therefore, we must, as St. Paul saith, † Extend ourselves to that which is afore us, to the reward of the heavenly calling which is in Christ: and still proceed in good works, knowing ourselves to be evermore greater debtors to God for his grace. And when we have done all which we be bidden to do, the Scripture teacheth us to say that we be unprofitable servants; because that whatsoever we have done, it is but our duty; nor have we done nothing, but that we have received of his gift to do; and that to our profit, and not to his." P. 44. "And unto these works ought we most diligently, with all labour and care, to ap; timi ply our will for these effects and ends; is to say, the glory of God, the profit of our neighbour, and our own merit; that we may shew ourselves thankful servants to our Saviour Jesus Christ, and to be the, very people of God; and that he may be. glorified in us; that his Church may be edified by our example; that we may avoid falling into temptation and sin; that

we may escape the scourge of God; that the grace of God, and the gifts thereof, may encrease and be made perfect in us; that we may make our election stable and sure, that we may attain everlasting life, being found fruitful in the day of judg

ment, where every man shall receive according to his works." P. 46.

These extracts, with the exception of the two last, have been published, with some curtailments, in that Number of the Christian Observer, which is already familiar to our readers. (See Christian Observer, p. 41 and 42.). And upon this evidence the reviewer accuses and convicts the Necessary Erudition of two capital heresies in the article of Good Works. He tells

trine of human merit; and teaches that there are initial good works in man prior to justification. P. 42 and 187. These, if we understand him rightly, (which, from the con fused manner in which this part of his critique is drawn up, it is pos sible that we may not), are the charges on which he principally reles, and they will serve him quite as well whenever he shall think proper to attack the Homilies, and the Book of Common Prayer. We cannot spare time to follow him step by step; but we suppose that he would not object to subscribe to the declaration of Mr. Scott, Refutation of Calvinism, p. xi. "that good works follow after justification, and are the only scriptural evidence of a living and justifying faith, and are, for various purposes, indispensably necessary, and highly useful, but in no degree conducive to our justification, or to our continuance in a justified state.".. These sentiments are quite consistent with the undisguised Calvinism of their author, but they are diametrically opposed to the tenets of the Church.

The Thirteenth Article declares, that works done before the grace of Christ, &c. are not pleasant to God, nor deserve grace of congruity. The Twelfth Article had previously said that good works which follow after justification, though they cannot put away sins, or endure the severity of God's judgment, yet are pleasing and acceptable to God. The Fourteenth Article adds, that works of supererogation cannot be taught without arroganey and impiety, because when we have done all we are unprofitable servants. The reader cannot fail to observe the strong coincidence between these passages, and the extracts that have been given from the Necessary Erudition; first, we are told, that " moral acts done by the power of reason and natural will of man, with

us that it contains the Popish doc-out faith in Christ, albeit of their

"* 2. Pet. ii." "+Philipp. iii." "St. Luke xvii."

own kind they be good, and by the law and light of nature man is

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taught to do them, yet they be not meritorious, nor available, to the attaining of everlasting life." This evidently tallies with the Thirteenth Article. Next good works done in charity and unfeigned faith, though they be of themselves unworthy, unperfect, and unsufficient, yet the merciful goodness of God accepteth them as an observation and fulfilling of his law, and they be the very service of God, and be meritorious towards the attaining of everlasting life. Here we have, in other words, the doctrine of the Twelfth Article. And, lastly, the very text concerning unprofitable servants, which is turned in the Fourteenth Article against works of supererogation, is employed in the Necessary Erudition (in a paragraph which the Observer has passed over without notice) to prove that" whatever we have done, it is but our duty?" and to teach us not to glory nor look back on our own worthiness.or dignity? And if it should be objected that these passages are not synonymous, he cause the Articles do not:call even good works done in charity and faith meritorious, or available to eternal life, let us enquire whether the Book of Common Prayer and the Homilies do not fully authorise us to put this interpretation upon the terms, pleasing and acceptable to God.

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It is unnecessary to go regularly through the Book of Common Prayer; we hardly can open it without finding passages in point. "That we running the way of thy com. mandments may obtain thy gracious promises?" Collect for the Eleventh Sunday after Trinity." That we may so faithfully serve thee in this life, that we fail not finally to obtain thy heavenly promises." Thirteenth Sunday after Trinity. And that we may obtain that which thou dost promise, make us to love that which thou dost command." Fourteenth Sunday. "Lead us into all things profitable to our salvation." Sixteenth Sunday. That they plentcously

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bringing forth the fruit of good works, may of thee be plenteously rewarded." Twenty-fifth Sunday after Trinity.

There is nothing in these Collects at variance with the Articles, for they ascribe all these works to the Grace of God's Holy Spirit, and they represent them as made available through the merits of Christ. But there is likewise nothing at variance with the Necessary Erudition; for they speak of heavenly promises obtained by faithful service, and of actions and things that are profitable to our salvation, and of a plenteous reward for the fruits of good works. The Homilies do not hold an opposite language.

After having defined the lively and Christian faith, and shewn that it is at no time without good works, the Homily on Faith concludes thus, "If you feel and perceive such a faith in you rejoice in it, and be diligent to maintain it, and keep it still in you; let it be daily increasing, and more and more by well working, and so shall you be sure that you shall please God by this faith. And at the length, as others have done before, so shall you, when his will is, come to him and receive the end and final reward of your faith; as St. Peter nameth it; the salvation of your souls." The first part of the Homily on Good Works declares and proves, that "without faith can no good work be done, accepted, and pleasing unto God." "Even as the picture graven or painted is but a dead representation of the thing itself, and is without life or any manner of moving, so be the works of all unfaithful persons before God. They do appear to be lively works, and indeed they be but dead, not availing to everlasting life. They be but shadows and shews of lively and good things, and not lively and good things themselves.." Heathens are described as being sometimes full of pity and compassion, and given to justice, "and yet for all that they

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have no fruit of their works because the chief work lacketh." And " as men that be very men indeed, first have life, and after be nourished, so must our faith in Christ go before, and afterward be nourished with good works." "Here you have the mind of St. Chrysostom, whereby you may perceive that neither faith is without works, having opportunity thereto, nor works can avail to everlasting life without faith." Thus we are taught, that where faith is not, works cannot be entitled to any reward; and it would not be too much to infer from these expressions, that where faith is, the rewards above mentioned would follow from good works. But we are not left to draw the inference. The second part of the Homily expressly undertakes to shew, "What manner of works they be which spring out of true faith, and lead to everlasting life. And after a very short enquiry we come to the following conclusion," that this is to be taken for a most true lesson taught by Christ's own mouth, that the works of the moral commandments of God be the very true works of faith which lead to everlasting life." And the conclusion, exhorting us in the most forcible terms, to read and hear God's word, and apply ourselves with all endeavour to follow the same, subjoins the following statement of the effect of such conduct." And travelling continually during this life thus in keeping the commandments of God (wherein standeth the pure, principal, and right honour of God, and which wrought in faith God hath ordained to be the right trade and pathway to heaven), you shall not fail as Christ hath promised to come to that blessed and everlasting life, where you shall live in glory and joy with God for ever: to whom be praise, honour, and empire for ever and ever."

It is needless to quote more passages upon this part of the subject. Far as she is from setting up any claim of merit, distinctly as she re.

nounces all right to reward, still the Church of England admits what she finds in the Scripture; and teaches her disciples as the Necessary Erudition had taught before, that even our imperfect works are considered as perfect for Christ's sake, and as such are accepted and rewarded. The Confession of Augsburg is most decidedly of the same opinion; as the following extracts, in addition to those which appeared in our last Number, will at once suffice to shew. "Quanquam igitur bæc nova obedientia procul abest a perfectione legis, tamen est justitia et meretur præmia, ideo quia persona reconciliata est. Atque ita de operibus judicandum est, quæ quidem amplissimis laudibus ornanda sunt, quod sint necessaria, quod sint cultus Dei, et sacrificia spiritualia, et mereantur præmia." Todd. p. 159. Let it be remembered, that these præmia, are subsequently described as "tum in hac vita, tum post hanc vitam, in vitâ æternâ," p. 164; and nothing further need be said upon the subject.

We proceed, therefore, to the last heresy of the Necessary Erudition, namely, the doctrine of initial good works previous and conducive to justification. The real Popish doctrine has nothing to do with justification, but asserts, in the very words in which it is quoted and renounced in the'l hirteenthArticle, that "works done before the grace of Christ, or the inspiration of his Spirit, make men meet to receive grace, or as the school-authors say, deserve grace of congruity." Now if the Necessary Erudition can be proved to teach this doctrine, the controversy, we admit is at an end; if, on the other hand, it teaches a doctrine exactly opposite, the dispute is equally decided, though in favour of a different party. In the one case, Mr. Todd, and those who think with him, have ignorantly, or intentionally, mistaken a Popish for a Protestant document; in the other, Mr. Todd's critics have quarrelled

with and rejected a reformed and scriptural doctrine, because it is irreconcileable with the system of Calvin. Now under the title of Free-will, the Erudition has already distinctly said (though the assertion was never adverted to by the critic) that "if Free-will be not prevented, or holpen, it can neither do nor will any thing good or Godly," and the very first paragraph of the article on Good Works, declares, that by those works, "we mean not of such moral acts as be done by the power of reason and natural will of man, without faith in Christ." The charge of Popery, therefore, or of Pelagianism, has not the slightest foundation. The real crime of the Erudition is that it contradicts that doctrine which has been fairly avowed by Mr. Scott, which is tacitly assumed by the Christian Observer, and which is equally at variance with the Scripture, and the Church; viz. that "good works are by no means conducive to our continuance in a justified state."

The works of which the Erudition speaks as initial or preparatory to justification, being thus in every case wrought through the grace, and with the assistance of God, it is also to be observed, that they are always considered as subsequent to the first justification. "St. John Baptist preached penance, and made a way unto Christ, and taught men which came unto him what they should do to come unto Christ, and to have remission of sin by him, as it is written in the third chapter of Luke; and specially that they which be once christened, and afterwards fall from the grace of God by mortal sin, cannot recover their justification without penance, as is plain from the saying of Peter unto Simon Magus, where he saith, Do penance for this thy wickedness, and pray God, if peradventure this thought of thy heart may be forgiven thee."" Todd, p. 41. It is on this passage that the charge of Popery more particularly rests; and

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we wish that the accusers would do
us the favour of 'confronting' it with
the following passages in the Homi-
lies, and in the Confession of Augs-
burg. The Homily on Faith instructs
us again and again not to look for
pardon and acceptance except upon
the condition of repentance.
proves that no man who leads an
evil life can have the Christian faith,
by the following argument: "How
can a man have the true faith, this
sure trust and confidence in God,
that by the merits of Christ his sins
be forgiven, and he reconciled to
the favour of God, and to be a par-
taker of the kingdom of heaven by
Christ, when he liveth ungodly, and
denieth Christ by his deeds? Surely
no such ungodly man can have his
faith and trust in God; for as they
know Christ to be the only Saviour
of the world, so they know also that
wicked men shall not enjoy the king-
dom of God." Todd, p. 64. Fur-
ther on, p. 66, this faith is again
described as teaching us,
although we, through infirmity, or
temptation of our ghostly enemy,
do fall from him by sin, yet if we
return again unto him by true re-
pentance, that he will forgive and
forget our offences for his Son's
sake." Here repentance is specially
noted as a condition of forgiveness
to such as have fallen through in-
firmity or temptation. The same
thing is repeated at p. 71.
whose only merits, oblations, and
sufferings, we do trust that our of
fences be continually washed aud
purged, whensoever we repenting
truly do return to him with our
whole heart, steadfastly determining
with ourselves through his grace to
obey and serve him in keeping his
commandments, and never to turn
back again to sin." And a passage
in the Homily on Salvation, which
was quoted in our last number, ex-
horts us to trust in God's mercy and
Christ's sacrifice, and to believe
that we may obtain thereby God's
grace and remission, as well of our
original sin in baptism, as of all ac-

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