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THE

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XI

FRANCISCANS to GIBSON

NEW YORK

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1910

fit

v. II

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, by

The Encyclopedia Britannica Company.

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,' WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

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Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S.
Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum.
Classification of Flowering Plants; &c.

Author of Text Book on i Fruit.

Sir Alexander Blackie William Kennedy, LI..D., F.R.S. j
Emeritus Professor of Engineering, University College, London. Consulting 1
Engineer to Board of Ordnance. I

Engincei

Arthur Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S.

See the biographical article, Cayley, Arthur.
Augustus Edward Hough Love, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon.

Fellow of Queen's College; formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.

Secretary to the London Mathematical Society.

Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University.
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.

Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D.

Sec the biographical article, Geikie, Sir A.
Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

Hon. Archibald Graeme Bell, M.inst.c.e.

Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. .Member of Executive
and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E.

Arthur Georce Douchty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.d., F.r.,hist.s.

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada.
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating
to the Constitutional History of Canada.

Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A.

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum.

Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue

of Creek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c. Riv. Allen Menzies, D.D.

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, University of St Andrews. Author

of History of Religion; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy.

Acnes Mary Cleree.

See the biographical article, Cleree, Acnes M.

Alfred Newton, F.R.S.

See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred.

Alfred Neave Brayshaw, LL.B.

Author of Bible Notes on the Hebrew Prophets.

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1A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

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Carlton Hcntley Haves, A.mv Ph.d. r

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member 1 Gelasius U.
of the American Historical Association. [

Clement King Shorter.

Editor of The Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature; Immortal -{ Gaskell, Elizabeth.
Memories; The Brontes, Life and Letter*; &c

Chedomille Mijatovich.

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten-
tiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900 and 1902-190,3.

Sir Charles Malcolm Kennedy, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908).

Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893. Lecturer on Inter-
national Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870-1871,
at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Editor
of Kennedy's Ethnological and Linguistic Essays; Diplomacy and International
Lam.

Christian Ptister, D.-fes.-L.

Free Ports.

Gerard of

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author 1 _ . .
of Eludes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duchi mtrovingien d'Alsace el la legende 1 "edegona;
de Sainlc-Odilc. I

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.litt., F.R.G.S., F.RJI1ST.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow
of Mcrton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography.
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

Claude Regnier Conder, LL.D. (
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly in command of Survey of Palestine. Author -{
of The City of Jerusalem; The Bible and the East; The Hittitcs and their Language; Sc. [

Rev. Charles Taylor, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908). f
Formerly Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge -(
University, 1887-1888. Author of Geometrical Conies; Sec. [_

Cecil Weatherly. t
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barristcr-at-Law.

Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com-
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1694. Director-General
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From.Korti to Khartoum; Life of
Lord Clive;&.c.

Duoald Clerk, M.inst.c.e., F.R.S.

Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd.
Engine.

(in Part);
Sea of (in part).

Sea ot (in part).

Inventor of the Clerk Cycle Gas

l Gas

Donald Francis Tovey. I
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical 1
works. L

David Hannay. r French Revolutionary Wa

Formerly British Vice-consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal < Naval Operations
Nay, U17-16SS; Life of Emilio Casletar; &c I

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