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to be done for the protection of the freedmen could best be accomplished by new associations formed for that purpose. The Liberator was discontinued at the end of the same year, after an existence of thirty-five years. He visited England for the second time in 1846, and again in 1867, when he was received with distinguished honours, public as well as private. In 1877, when he was there for the last time, he declined every form of public recognition. He died in New York on the 24th of May 1879, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and was buried in Boston, after a most impressive funeral service, four days later. In 1843 a small volume of hi&Sonncts and other Poems was published, and in 1S52 appeared a volume of Selections from his Writings and Speeches. His wife, Helen Eliza Benson, died in 1876. Four sons and one daughter survived them.
Garrison's son, William Lloyd Garrison (1838-1909), was a prominent advocate of the single tax, free trade, woman's suffrage, and of the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act, and an opponent of imperialism; another son, Wendell Phillips Garrison (1840-1907), was literary editor of the New York Nation from 1865 to 1906.
The above article, with certain modifications, reproduces the account given in the 9th edition of this work by Oliver Johnson (reprinted from his Garrison: an Outline of his Life, New York, 1879). The writer (1809-1889) was a prominent Abolitionist, editor, and an intimate friend of Garrison; he edited the Liberator during Garrison's absence in England in 1833, and later was an editor or an associate editor of various journals, including, after the Civil War, the New York Tribune and the New York Evening, Post. He also published an excellent brief biography in William Lloyd Garrison and his Times (Boston, 1880).
The great authority on the life of Garrison is the thorough and candid work of his sons, W. P. and F. J. Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison 1805-1879: The Story of his Life told by his Children (4 vols., New York, 1885-1889), which is indispensable for the student of the anti-slavery struggle in America. Goldwin Smith's The Moral Crusader: a Biographical Essay on William Lloyd Garrison (New York, 1892) is a brilliant sketch.
GARRISON, originally a term for stores or supplies, also a defence or protection, now confined in meaning to a body of troops stationed in a town or fortress for the purpose of defence. In form the word is derived from 0. Fr. garison, modern giUrison, from guerir, to furnish with stores, to preserve, but in its later meaning it has been confused with the Fr. garnison, the regular word for troops stationed for purposes of defence. In English " garnison " was used till the 16th century, when " garrison " took its place. In the British army " garrison troops," especially " garrison artillery," arc troops trained and employed for garrison work as distinct from field operations.
GARROTE (Spanish for "cudgel "), an appliance used in Spain and Portugal for the execution of criminals condemned to death. The criminal is conducted to the place of execution (which is public) on horseback or in a cart, wearing a black tunic, and is attended by a procession of priests, &c. He is seated on a scaffold fastened to an upright post by an iron collar (the garrotc), and a knob worked by a screw or lever dislocates his spinal column, or a small blade severs the spinal column at the base of the brain. (See Capital Punishment.) Originally a stout cord or bandage was tied round the neck of the criminal, who was seated in a chair fixed to a post. Between the cord and the neck a stick was inserted (hence the name) and twisted till strangulation ensued.
"Garrotting" is the name given in England to a form of robbery with violence which became rather common in the winter of 1862-1863. The thief came up behind his victim, threw a cord over his head, and tightened it nearly to strangulation point, while robbing lnm. An act of 1863, imposing the penalty of flogging in addition to penal servitude for this offence, had the effect of stopping garrotting almost entirely. At any rate, the practice was checked; and, though the opponents of any sort of flogging refuse to admit that this was due to the penalty, that view has always been taken by the English judges who had experience of such cases.
GARRUCHA, a seaport of south-eastern Spain, in the province of Almeria; on the Mediterranean Sea and on the right bank of the river Antas. Pop. (1900) 4461. The harbour of Garrucha,
which is defended by an ancient castle, affords shelter to large ships, and is the natural outlet for the commerce of a thriving agricultural and mining district. Despite its small size and the want of railway communication, Garrucha has thus a considerable trade in lead, silver, copper, iron, esparto grass, fruit, kc. Besides sea-going ships, many small coasters enter in ballast, a&d clear with valuable cargoes. In 1902,135 vessels of 300,000 tons entered the harbour, the majority being British or Spanish; and in the same year the value of the exports reached £478,000, and that of the imports £128,000. Both imports and exports trebled their value in the ten years 1892-1902.
GARSTON, a seaport in the Widnes parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, on the Mersey, 6 m. S.E. of Liverpool Pop. (1891) 13,444; (1001) 17,289. The docks, belonging to the London & North Western railway company, employ most of the working population. There is about a mile of quayage, witk special machinery for the shipping of coal, which forms the chief article of export.
GARTH, SIR SAMUEL (1661-1719), English physician and poet, was born of a good Yorkshire family in 1661. He entered Pctcrhouse, Cambridge, in 1676, graduating B.A. in 1679 and M.A. in 1684. He took his M.D. and became a member of the College of Physicians in 1691. In 1697 he delivered the Harvban oration, in which he advocated a scheme dating from some tea years back for providing dispensaries for the relief of the ski poor, as a protection against the greed of the apothecaries, Ia 1699 he published a mock-heroic poem. The Dispensary, in six cantos, which had an instant success, passing through three editions within a year. In this he ridiculed the apothecaries ud their allies among the physicians. The poem has little interest at the present day, except as a proof that the heroic couplet was written with smoothness and polish before the days of PopeGarth was a member of the Kit-Kat Club, and became the leading physician of the Whigs, as Radcliffe was of the Tories. In 1714 he was knighted by George I. and he died on the iSth of January 1719. lie wrote little besides his best-known work The Dispensary and Claremont, a moral espistlc in verse. He made a Latin oration (1700) in praise of Drydcn and translated the Life if Otho in the fifth volume of Drydcn's Plutarch. In 1717 he edited a translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, himself supplying the fourteenth and part of the fifteenth book.
GARTOK, a trade-market of Tibet, situated on the bank of the Indus on the road between Shigatse and Leh,to the east of Simlv In accordance with the Tibet treaty of 1904, Gartok, together with Yatung and Gyantse, was thrown open to British trade. On the return of the column from Lhasa in that year Gartok was visited by a party under Captain Ryder, wh6 found only a lew dozen people in winter quarters, their houses being in the midst of a bare plain. In summer, however, all the trade between Tibet and Ladakh passes through this place.
GARY, a city of Lake county, Indiana, U.S.A., at the southern end of Lake Michigan, about 25 m. S.E. of Chicago, IU. Pop. (1910 census) 16,802. Gary is served by the Baltimore 4 Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Michigan Central, the Pennsylvania, the Wabash, and (for freight only) the Chicago, Lake Shore & Eastern, and the Indiana Harbor Beh railways, and by several steamship lines plying the Great Lakes. There are about 21 sq. m. within the municipal limits, but the city lieschiefly within a tract of about 8000 acres composed at the time of its settlement mainly of sand dunes and swamps intersected from cast to west by the Grand Calumet and the Utile Calumet rivers, small streams respectively about 1 and j m S. of the lake shore. In 1906 the United States Steel Corporation bought this tract to establish on it a great industrial community, as direct water connexion with the Lake Superior ore region was possible, and it was comparatively accessible to West Virgin* coal and Michigan limestone, with unusual railroad facilities. The Steel Corporation began the actual building of the town in June 1906, the first step being the installation of an elaborate system of sewers, and of mains and conduits, for the distribution of water, gas and electricity. The water-supply is taken from the lake at a point 2 m. offshore by means of a tunnel. These public utilities the Steel Corporation controls, and it has built about Soo dwellings, two hotels, a bank, and its own plant. A small patch of land, now within the limits of the city, has been from the beginning in the hands of private owners, but the remainder of the lots (except those already sold) are owned by the Steel Corporation, and are sold under certain restrictions intended to prevent real estate speculation, to guarantee bona fide improvement of the property, and to restrict the sale of intoxicating drinks. Between the Grand Calumet river (which has been dredged out into a canal) and the lake lies the plant of the Steel Corporation, covering about 1200 acres. All the machinery in this great plant is driven by electricity from generators whose motive power is supplied by the combustion of gases from the blast furnaces. From the same sources is also supplied the electricity for lighting the city. The rail mill is operated by three-phase induction motors of from 2000 to 6000 horse-power capacity. The city was chartered in 1006 and was named in honour of Elbert Henry Gary (b. 1846), chairman of the board of directors and chairman of the finance committee of the United States Steel Corporation.
GAS, a general term for one of the three states of aggregation of matter; also more specifically applied to coal-gas, the gaseous product formed in the destructive distillation of coal or other carbonaceous matter (see below, section Gas Manufacture; for gas engines see the separate heading Gas Engine).
The Gaseous State.—Matter is studied under three physical phases—solids, liquids and gases, the latter two being sometimes grouped as " fluids." The study of the physical properties of fluids in general constitutes the science of hydromechanics, and their applications in the arts is termed hydraulics; the special science dealing with the physical properties of gases is named pneumatics.
The gaseous fluid with which we have chiefly to do is our atmosphere. Though practically invisible, it appeals in its properties to other of our senses, so that the evidences of its presence are manifold. Thus we feel it in its motion as wind, and observe the dynamical effects of this motion in the quiver of the leaf or the motion of a sailing ship. It offers resistance to the passage of bodies through it, destroying their motion and transforming their energy—as is betrayed to our hearing in the wh»z of the rifle bullet, to our sight in the flash of the meteor.
The practically obvious distinction between solids and fluids may be stated in dynamical language thus:—solids can sustain 1 longitudinal pressure without being supported by a lateral pressure; fluids cannot. Hence any region of space enclosed by a rigid boundary can be easily filled with a fluid, which then takes the form of the bounding surface at every point of it. But here we distinguish between fluids according as they are gases or liquids. The gas will always completely fill l he region, however small the quantity put in. Remove any portion and the remainder will expand so as to fill the whole space again. On the other hand, it requires a definite quantity of liquid to fill the region. Remove any portion and a part of the space will be left unoccupied by liquid. Part of the liquid surface is then otherwise conditioned than by the form of the wall or bounding surface of the region; and if the portion of the wall not in contact with the liquid is removed the form and quantity of the liquid are in no way affected. Hence a liquid can be kept in an open vessel; a gas cannot so be. To quote the differentia of Sir Oliver Lodge: "A solid has volume and shape; a liquid has volume, but no shape; a gas has neither volume nor shape."
It is necessary to distinguish between a gas and a " vapour." The Utter possesses the physical property stated above which distinguishes a gas from a fluid, but it differs from a gas by being readily condensible to a liquid, either by lowering the temperature or moderately increasing the pressure. The study of the effects of pressure and temperature on many gases led to the introduction of the term "permanent gases" to denote gases which were apparently not liqucfiable. The list included hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen; but with improved methods these gases have been lique&edand evcn solidified, thus rendering the term meaningless (see Liquid Cases). The term " perfect gas " is applied to an
imaginary substance in which there is no frictional retardation of molecular motion; or, in other words, the time during which any molecule is influenced by other molecules is infinitesimaUy small compared with the time during which it traverses its mean free path. It serves as a means of research, more particularly in mathematical investigations, the simple laws thus deduced being subsequently modified by introducing assumptions in order to co-ordinate actual experiences.
The gaseous state was well known to the ancients; for instance, in Greek cosmology," air " (mtvpa) was one of the fundamental elements. The alchemists used such terms as spiritus, flatus, kalitus, aura, emanatio nubita, Sic, words implying a "wind" or "breath." The word "gas" was invented by J. B. van Hclmont in his Ortus medicinae, posthumously published in 1648, in the course of his description of the gas now known as carbon dioxide. He found that charcoal on burning yielded a " spirit," which he named spiritus sylvestris on account of its supposed untamable nature (" Gas sylvestre sivc incoercibilc, quod in corpus cogi non potest visibile"); and he invented the word "gas" in the expression: "... this spirit, hitherto unknown, ... I call by a new name gas" (" hunc spiritum, incognitum hactcnus, novo nomine gas voco "). The word was suggested by the Gr. x*0*. chaos, for he also writes: "I have called this spirit gas, it being scarcely distinguishable from the Chaos of the ancients " (" halitum ilium Gas vocavi, non longe a Chao vetcrurn secretum "). The view that the word was suggested by the Dutch geest, spirit, is consequently erroneous. Until the end of the 18th century the word " air," qualified by certain adjectives, was in common use for most of the gases known —a custom due in considerable measure to the important part which common air played in chemical and physical investigations.
The study of gases may be divided into two main branches: the physical and the chemical. The former investigates essentially general properties, such as the weight and density, the relation between pressure, volume and temperature (piezometric and thermomctric properties), calorimetric properties, diffusion, viscosity, electrical and thermal conductivity, &c, and generally properties independent of composition. These subjects are discussed in the articles Density; Thermometry; CaloriMetry; Diffusion; Conduction Of Heat; and CondensaTion Of Gases. The latter has for its province the preparation, collection and identification of gases, and the volume relations in which they combine; in general it deals with specific properties. The historical development of the chemistry of gases— pneumatic chemistry—is treated in the article Chemistry; the technical analysis of gaseous mixtures is treated below under Gas A nalysis. Connecting the experimental study of the physical and chemical properties is the immense theoretical edifice termed the kinetic theory of gases. This subject, which is discussed in the article Molecule, has for its purpose (1) the derivation of a physical structure of a gas which will agree with the experimental observations of the diverse physical properties, and (2) a correlation of the physical properties and chemical composition.
Gas Analysts.—The term "gas analysis" is given to that branch of analytical chemistry which has for its object the quantitative determination of the components of a gaseous mixture. The chief applications are found in the analysis of flue gases (in which much information is gained as to the completeness and efficiency of combustion), and of coal gas (where'it is necessary to have a product of a definite composition within certain limits). There are, in addition, many other branches of chemical technology in which the methods are employed. In general, volumetric methods arc used, i.e. a component is absorbed by a suitable reagent and the diminution in volume noted, or it is absorbed in water and the amount determined by titration with a standard solution. Exact analysis is difficult and tedious, and consequently the laboratory methods arc not employed in technology, where time is an important factor and moderate accuracy is all that is necessary. In this article an outline of the technical practice will be given.
The apparatus consists of (1) a measuring vessel, and (2) a series of absorption pipettes. A convenient form of measuring vessel is that devised by W Hcmpel. It consists of two vertical tubes provided with feet and connected at the bottom by flexible rubber tubing. One tube, called the "measuring tube," is provided with a capillary stopcock at the top and graduated downwards; the other tube, called the " level tube," is plain and open. To use the apparatus, the measuring tube is completely filled with water by pouring water into both tubes, raising the level tube until water overflows at the stopcock, which is then turned. The test gas is brought to the stopcock, by means of a fine tube which has been previously filled with water or in which the air has been displaced by running the gas through. By opening the stopcock and lowering the level tube any desired quantity of the gas can be aspirated over. In cases where a large quantity of gas, i.e. sufficient for several tests, is to be collected, the measuring tube is replaced by a large bottle.
The volume of the gas in the measuring tube is determined by bringing the water in both tubes to the same level, and reading the graduation on the tube, avoiding parallax and the other errors associated with recording the coincidence of a graduation with a
meniscus. The temperature and atmospheric pressure are simultaneously noted. If the tests be carried out rapidly, the temperature and pressure may be assumed to be constant, and any diminution in volume due to the absorption of a constituent may be readily expressed as a percentage. If, however, the temperature and pressure vary, the volumes are reduced to o° and 760 mm. by means of the formula V0= V(P—+ •003660760, in which V is the observed volume, P the barometric pressure, p the vapour tension of water at the temperature I of the experiment. This reduction is facilitated by the use of tables.
Some common forms of absorption pipettes arc shown in figs. 1 and 2. The simpler form consists of two bulbs connected at the bottom by a wide tube. The lower bulb is provided with a smaller bulb bearing a capillary through which the gas is led to the apparatus, the higher bulb has a wider outlet tube. The arrangement is mounted vertically on a stand. Sometimes the small bulb on the left is omitted. The form of the pipette varies with the nature of the absorbing material. For solutions which remain permanent in air the two-bulbed form suffices; in other cases a composite pipette (fig. 2) is employed, in which the absorbent is protected by a second pipette containing water. In the case of solid reagents, e.g. phosphorus, the absorbing bulb has a tubulure at the bottom. To use a pipette, the absorbing liquid is brought to the outlet of the capillary by tilling or by squeezing a rubber ball fixed to the wide end, and the liquid is maintained there by closing with a clip. The capillary is connected with the measuring tube by a fine tube previously filled with water. The clip is removed, the stopcock opened, and the level tube of the measuring apparatus raised, so that the gas passes into the first bulb. There it is allowed to remain, the pipette being shaken from time to time. It is then run back into the measuring tube by lowering the level tube, the stopcock is closed, and the volume noted. The operation is repeated until there is no further absorptiou.
The choice of absorbents and the order in which the gases art to be estimated is strictly limited. Confining ourselves to cases where titration methods are not employed, the general order b as follows: carbon dioxide, olefines, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen (by difference). This scheme is particularly applicable to coal-gas Carbon dioxide is absorbed by a potash solution containing one part of potash to between two and three of water; the stronger solution absorbs about 40 volumes of the gas. The olefines—ethylene, &c.—are generally absorbed by a very strong sulphuric acid prepared by addict sulphur trioxide to sulphuric acid to form a mixture which solidifies when slightly cooled. Bromine water is also employed Oxygen is absorbed by stick phosphorus contained in a tubulated pipette filled with water. The temperature must be above if; and the absorption is prevented by ammonia, olefines, akohof, and some other substances. An alkaline solution of pyrogiBol is also used; this solution rapidly absorbs oxygen, becomiar, black in colour, and it is necessary to prepare the solution immediately before use. Carbon monoxide is absorbed by a solution of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid or, better, is ammonia. When small in amount, it is better to estimate as carbon dioxide by burning with oxygen and absorbing in potash; when large in amount, the bulk is absorbed in ammociacal cuprous chloride and the residue burned. Hydrogen may be estimated by absorption by heated palladium contained ii a capillary through which the gas is passed, or by exploding (under reduced pressure) with an excess of oxygen, and measuring the diminution in volume, two-thirds of which is the volume of hydrogen. The explosion method is unsatisfactory when the gas is contained over water, and is improved by using merenry. Methane cannot be burnt in this way even when there is mock hydrogen present, and several other methods have been proposed, such as mixing with air and aspirating over copper oxide heated to redness, or mixing with oxygen and burning is a platinum tube heated to redness, the carbon dioxide formed being estimated by absorption in potash. Gases soluble in mater, such as ammonia, hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphur dioxide, &c, are estimated by passing a known rotumecf the gas through water and titrating the solution with a standard solution. Many types of absorption vessel are in use, and the standard solutions are generally such that 1 c.c. of the sorouoo corresponds to 1 c.c. of the gas under normal conditions.
Many forms of composite gas-apparatus are in use. One of the commonest is the Orsat shown in fig. 3. The gas is measured is the graduated cylinder on the right, which is surrounded by a water jacket and provided with a levelling bottle. At the top d B connected by a capillary tube bent at right angles to a series of absorbing vessels, the connexion being effected by stopcocks. Thefo vessels consist of two vertical cylinders joined at the bottom: by a short tube. The cylindc in direct communication with the capillary is filled with glass tubes 50 as to expose a larger surface of the absorbing solution to the gas. The other cylinder is open to the air and serves to hold the liquid ejected from the absorbing cylinder. Any number of bulbs can be attached to the horizontal capillary; in the form illustrated there are four, the last being a hydrogen pipette in which the palladium is heated in a horizontal tube by , a spirit lamp. At the end of the horizontal tube there is a threeway cock connecting with the air or an aspirator. To as* the apparatus, the measuring tube is completely fiBed wna water by raising the levelling bottle. The ab are then about half filled with the
opening the cocks and aspirating, the liquid is
completely to fill the bulbs nearer the capillary. The cocks are then dosed. By opening the three-way cock, to the supply of the test gas and lowering the levelling bottle, any desired amount an be drawn into the measuring tube. The absorption is effected by opening the cock of an absorbing vessel and raising the levelling bottle. The same order of absorption and general directions pertaining to the use of Hempel pipettes have to be adopted.
Although the earliest attempts at gas analysis were made by Scheele, Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, Dal ton, Gay-Lussac and others, the methods were first systematized by R. Bunsen, who began his researches in 1638. He embodied his results in his classical
(1876-1877) and Lehrbuch der techniscken Gasanalyse (2ml ed., 1892), both of which are very valuable for the commercial applications ot the methods. W. Hempcl's researches are given in his Iveue Method* tut Analyse der Case (1880) and Gasanalyttsche Mcthoden (1890,3rd
Gas Manufacture 1. Illuminating Gas.—The first practical application of gas distilled from coal as an illuminating agent is generally ascribed to William Murdoch, who between the years of 1792 and 1802 demonstrated the possibility of making gas from coal and using it as a lighting agent on a large scale. Prior to 1691, however, Dr John Clayton, dean of Kildare, filled bladders with inflammable gas obtained by the distillation of coal, and showed that on pricking the bladders and applying a light to the escaping gas it burnt with a luminous flame, and in 1726 Stephen Hales published tie fact that by the distillation of 158 grains of Newcastle coal, 180 cub. in. of inflammable air would be obtained. Jean Pierre Minckclcrs, professor of natural philosophy in the university of Louvain, and later of chemistry and physics at Maestricht, made experiments on distilling gas from coal with the view of obtaining a permanent gas sufficiently light for filling balloons, and in 1785 experimentally lighted his lecture room with gas so obtained as a demonstration to his students, but no commercial application was made of the fact. Lord Dundonald, in 1787, whilst distilling coal for the production of tar and oil, noticed the formation of inflammable gas, and even used it for lighting the hall of Culross Abbey. It is clear from these facts that, prior to Murdoch's experiments, it was known that illuminating gas could be obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, but the experiments which he began at Redruth in 1792, and which culminated in the lighting of Messrs Boulton, Watt & Co-'s engine works at Soho, near Birmingham, in 1802, undoubtedly demonstrated the practical possibility of making the gas on a large scale, and burning it in such a way as to make coal-gas the most important of the artificial illuminants. An impression exists in Cornwall, where Murdoch's early experiments *ere made, that it was a millwright named Hornblower wljp first suggested the process of making gas to Murdoch, but, as has been shown, the fact that illuminating gas could beobtained from coal by distillation was known a century before Murdoch made his experiments,
of his process. He then proceeded to float a company, and in 1807 the first public street gas lighting took place in Pall Mall, whilst in 1809 he applied to parliament to incorporate the National Heat and Light Company with a capital of half a million sterling. This application was opposed by Murdoch on the ground of his priority in invention, and the bill was thrown out, but coming to parliament for a second time in 1810, Winsor succeeded in getting it passed in a very much curtailed form, and, a charter being granted later in 1812, the company was called the Chartered Gas Light and Coke Company, and was the direct forerunner of the present London Gas Light and Coke Company. During this period Frederick C. Accum (1760-1838), Dr W. Henry and S. Clcgg did so much by their writings and by the improvements they introduced in the manufacture, distribution and burning of coal gas, that their names have become inseparably connected with the subject.
In 1813 Westminster Bridge, and in the following year the streets of Westminster, were lighted with gas, and in 1816 it became common in London. After this so rapid was Tba the progress of this new mode of illumination that in growth the course of a few years it was adopted by all the otgae principal towns in the United Kingdom for lighting ***** streets as well as shops and public edifices. In private houses it found its way more slowly, partly from an apprehension of danger attending its use, and partly from the discomfort which was experienced in many cases through the gas being distributed without purification, and to the careless and imperfect manner in which the service pipes were first fitted. It was during the last four decades of the 19th century that the greatest advance was made, this period having been marked net only by many improvements in the manufacture of illuminating gas, but by a complete revolution in the methods of utilizing it for the production of light. In 1875 the London Argand, giving a duty of 3- 2 candles illuminating power per cubic foot of ordinary 16 candle gas, was looked upon as the most perfect burner of the day, and little hope was entertained that any burner capable of universal adoption would surpass it in its power of developing light from the combustion of coal gas; but the close of the century found the incandescent mantle and the atmospheric burner yielding six times the light that was given by the Argand for the consumption of an equal volume of gas, and to-day, by supplying gas at an increased pressure, a light of ten times the power may be obtained. Since the advent of the incandescent mantle, the efficiency of which is dependent upon the heating power of the gas more than on its illuminating power, the manufacture of coal gas has undergone considerable modifications.
Coal, the raw material from which the gas is produced by a process of destructive distillation, varies very widely in composition (see Coal),and it is only the class of coals rich in hydrogen, known as bituminous coal, that can with advantage be TM utilized in gas manufacture. Coals of this character arc mafjal obtained in England from the Newcastleand Durham field, South Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Barnsley districts, and an idea of their ultimate composition may be derived from the following table:
and the most that can be claimed for him is that he made the first successful application of it on a practical scale.
In 1799 a Frenchman named Philippe Lebon rook out a patent in Paris for making an illuminating gas from wood, and gave an exhibition of it in 1802, which excited a considerable amount of attention on the European continent It was seen by a German, F.A. Winsor, who made Lebon an offer for his secret process for Germany. This offer was, however, declined, and Winsor returned to Frankfort determined to find out how t fce'gas could be made. Having quickly succeeded in discovering thb, he in 1803 exhibited before the reigning duke of Brunswick a series of experiments with lighting gas made from wood and from coal. Looking upon London as a promising field for enterprise, he came over to England, and at the commencement of 1&04 took the Lyceum theatre, where he gave demonstrations
Our knowledge of the composition of coal is limited to the total amount of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and foreign materials which it contains; and at present wc know practically but little of the way in which these bodies are combined. This being so, the ordinary analysis of a coal affords but little indication of its value for gas-making purposes, which can only be really satisfactorily arrived at by extended use on a practical scale. Bituminous coat, however, may be looked upon as containing carbon and also simple hydrocarbons, such as some of the higher members of the paraffin series, and likewise organic bodies containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur.
On submitting a complex substance of this character to destructive distillation, it will be found that the yield and quality of the products will vary very considerably with the temperature existing in the retorts, with the size of the charge of coal used, with its distribution in the retort, with the length of time the distillation has been going on, and with an infinity of other factors of a more or less complex nature. If bituminous coal is distilled at a low tempera* thfdbt lurc>tne tar -s found to contain considerable Quantities of i- light paraffin oils; and there is no doubt that paraffin hydrocarbons are present in the original coal. These
firafftns, under the influence of heat, split up into simpler the same series and into defines; and if we imagine the action in its simplest form, we should have the gases, as they were evolved, consisting of (say) ethane and ethylene. These have now to pass down the heated retort on their way to the ascension pipe, and the contact with the heated sides of the retort, and the baking from the radiant heat in the retort, set up an infinity of changes. Ethane, when heated to this degree, splits up into ethylene and hydrogen, whilst ethylene decomposes to methane and acetylene, and the acetylene at once polymerizes to benzene, styrolene, retene, &c. A portion also condenses, and at the same time loses some hydrogen, becoming naphthalene; and the compounds so formed by interactions amongst themselves build up the remainder of the hydrocarbons present in the coal tar, whilst the organic substances containing oxygen in the coal break down, and cause the formation of the phenols in the tar.
There is very little doubt that the general course of the decompositions follows these lines; but any such simple explanation of the actions taking place is rendered impossible by the fact that, instead of the breaking-down of the hydrocarbons being completed in the coal, and only secondary reactions taking place in the retort, in practice the hydrocarbons to a great extent leave the coal as the vapours of condensibtc hydrocarbons, and the breaking down of these to such simple gaseous compounds as ethylene is proceeding in the retort at the same time as the breaking up of the ethylene already formed into acetylene and methane, and the polymerization of the former into higher compounds. Starting with a solid hydrocarbon of definite composition, it would be theoretically possible to decompose it entirely into carbon, hydrogen, ethylene and methane, and, by rapidly removing these from the heating zone before any secondary actions took place, to prevent formation of tar. But any such ideal is hopeless in practice, as the coal is not a definite compound, and it is impossible to subject it to a fixed temperature.
If the retorts arc at a temperature of looo° C. when the charge of coal is put in, the temperature of the distillation will vary from about 800 ° C. close to the walls, to about 400 ° C. in the centre of Effect or tne coa|. aiKj jn tnc saj-jg way, in the space above the coal, t^flnVhe tne Protlucts which come in contact with the sides of the ntort" retort are heated to 1000*G, whilst the gas near the coal is probably, heated toonly6oo°G Moreover, the gases and vapours in the retort are subjected to a period of heating which varies widely with the distance from the mouth of the retort of the coal that is undergoing carbonization. The gas developed by the coal near the mouth of the retort is quickly washed out into the ascension pipe by the push of the gas behind, and the period for which it has been exposed to the radiant heat from the walls of the retort is practically nil; whilst the gas evolved in the portion of the retort farthest from the mouthpiece has only its own rate of evolution to drive it forward, and has to traverse the longest run possible in the retort, exposed during the whole of that period to radiant heat and to contact with the highly heated surface of the retort itself. Hence we find that the tar is formed of two distinct sets of products, the first due to incomplete decomposition and the second tosecondary reactions due to the products of the decomposition being kept too long in the zone of heat.
Of the first class, the light paraffin oils and pitch may be taken as examples; whilst benzene, naphthalene and retort carbon represent the second. The formation ot the second class of bodies is a great loss to the gas manufacturer, as, with the exception of the trace of benzene carried with the gas as vapour, these products are not only useless in the gas, but one of them, naphthalene, is a serious trouble, because any trace carried forward by the gas condenses with sudden changes of temperature, and causes obstructions in the service pipes, whilst their presence in the tar means the loss of a very large proportion of the illuminating constituents of the gas. Moreover, these secondary products cannot be successfully reduced, by further heating, to simpler hydrocarbons of any high illuminating value, and such bodies as naphthalene and anthracene have so great a stability that, when once formed, they resist any efforts again to decompose them by heat, short of the temperature which breaks them up into methane, carbon and hydrogen.
The ammonia is derived from the nitrogen present in the coal combining with hydrogen during destructive distillation, the nitrogen becoming distributed amongst all three classes of products. The following table will give an approximate idea of the proportions which go to each:—
Nitrogen as ammonia ... . 14*50
The gas analysts of No. 3 was lost, but the illuminating power shows that it was intermediate in composition between Nos. 2 and 4From this it will be seen that, with the increase of temperature, die hydrocarbons—the defines and marsh gas series—gradually break up, depositing carbon in the crown 01 the retort, and bberadnr hydrogen, the percentage of which steadily increases with the rise oi temperature.
The tar formed is affected to an even greater extent than the gas br alterations in the temperature at which the destructive <fisfflww* takes place. The lower the temperature, the smaller *ill be the volume of gas produced, and the lighter the specific gravity of the tar, whilst with increase of temperature, the volume of gas rapidrj rises, and so does the specific gravity of the tar. Working vrta 1 caking coal Wright obtained the following results:—
Analysis of the tar showed that the increase of the specific grarirT was due to the increase in the Quantity of pitch, which rose free 28-89 to 64-08% in the residuals; whilst the ammonia, napbt&a and tight oils steadily fell in quantity, the creosote and anthracene oils doing the same, hut to a smaller extent. Naphthalene also begins to show in quantity in the tar as soon as the yield of gas reaches 10,000 cub. ft. per ton of coal carbonized.
In spite of these variations, however, the products in their nais characteristics will remain the same. They may be divided into— (a) Solids, such as the coke and retort carbon; (6) liquids, coostsrinf of the tar and ammoniacal liquor; and (c) gases, consisting of the un purified coal gas. The proportions in which the 1 approximately follows:—
from a ton of gas coal have been given at
The chief solid residue, coke, is not absolutely pure carbon, as it contains the mineral non-volatile constituents which remain brtund as ash when the original coal is burnt, and which, to a great extent, existed in the sap that filled the cells of the plant from which the coal was formed. The retort carbon *tJI formed as a dense deposit on the crown of the retort by the action of the high temperature on the hydrocarbons is, however, carbon n a very pure form, and, on account of its density, is largely aed for electrical purposes.
1 Liquor condensed from gas alone, without wash water.