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The animosity which had been long suppressed with difficulty on both sides, now burst forth, and war was solemnly declared the two nations.

“ Methinks, like two black storms on either hand,

Our Spanish army and your Indian stand,

This only place the clouds is clear." About this time the animosity Octavian and Antony became violent, and each suspected the other, perhaps not unjustly, of attempts at assassination.

Children quickly distinguish what is required of them and what is not

Further-Farther. The positive degree of the first of these words is forth, which is compared thus :—forth ; further; furthest. The second word is compared thus : far; farther ; farthest. Further, then, means more in advance ; farther, at a greater distance. When we are further on our journey, we are farther from the starting place. In abstract language, the same distinction should be maintained. One boy may be much further (in his studies) than another. After

many trials, we may be farther than ever from success.

(Jul. 'Tis almost morning, I would have thee gone;
And yet no further than a wanton's bird ;
Who lets it hop a little from her hand,
Like a poor prisoner in his twisted gyves,
And with a silk thread plucks it back again,
So loving jealous of its liberty.

Rom. and Jul., ii. 2
Wol. I have no farther gone in this, than by
A single voice. -

Henry VIII., 1. 2.
A little onward lend thy guiding hand
To these dark steps, a little further on. S. A., 2
They followed from the snowy

Those footmarks, one by one,
Into the middle of the plank,
And further there were none.

WORDSWORTH. 'Lucy Gray.'
Though to give timely warning, and deter
Is one great aim of penalty, extend
Thy mental vision further and ascend
Far higher, else full surely shalt thou err

On Punishment of Death."
The Youth, who daily farther from the east
Must travel, still is Nature's Priest,

And by the vision splendid

Is on his way attended ;
At length the Man perceives it die away,
And fade into the common light of day.

* Intimations of Immortality.']

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Exercise. It may be remarked, that all the knowledge we possess on any subject is, in reality, abused, whenever we employ it for any other purpose than to improve ourselves in virtue, or to alleviate the distresses of others.

He had strayed many miles from home than he had ever done before; the night was gathering in, and looked black and stormy, and he · began to speculate upon the not very pleasing probability of being obliged to spend the night in one of the forest trees.

The advocate, after speaking with great eloquence in his defence, alleged that the extreme youth and inexperience of his client should certainly be admitted, in this case, as powerfully extenuating circumstances.

I had not proceeded much when a troop of urchins, vociferating with all their might, burst from the door of one of the village cottages, and immediately spreading over a wide green, began, with the greatest ac tivity, to engage in a variety of sports.

" What need have we of witnesses ?"

Nevertheless-Notwithstanding. Nevertheless excludes subtraction; notwithstanding excludes opposition. “He did his duty nevertheless," signifies that circumstances did not make him do less of his duty, or did not diminish the activity with which he performed it.

" He did his duty notwithstanding,” means that opposing circumstances had not the effect of preventing him from doing his duty. Nevertheless is for “not the less,” or nathless, as Milton uses it ; notwithstanding signifies " nothing opposing." Notwithstanding is often used as a preposition: as in the phrase “notwithstanding my exertions”-nevertheless is never 80 used.

Nevertheless is more frequently used with a verb ; notwithstanding, with a noun.


Restored by thee, vile as I am, to place
Of new acceptance

P. L., X. 970.
Nathless he so endured, till on the beach
Of that inflamed sea he stood

Id., i. 299.
They, notwithstanding, had much love to spare,
And it all went into each other's hearts.

WORDSWORTH. "The Brothers.')

Exercise. all the opposition of the nobles, Tiberius Gracchus had sufficient influence to procure the passing of the Agrarian Law.

Though opposed by the whole body of the Roman aristocracy, Gracchus persisted in carrying out his measures to secure an improved condition to the poorer classes of Rome. “ Many of the men were gone ashore, and our ships ready to depart;

the admiral, with such ships only as could be put in readiness, set forth towards them.”

all the losses he has sustained from unfortunate speculations, and from over-confidence in the unworthy, he is still so rich, that if he chose, he could retire from business, and live in the greatest luxury on his property.

This sudden change of fortune had no apparent effect upon his mind; for though he was unexpectedly put in possession of immenso wealth, he

as attentive to his duties and as industrious in his habits as before.


Here-hither. Where-whither. There-thither. The proper distinction between where (in what place), and whither (to what place), is not always maintained ; indeed, a strong tendency exists to banish the latter word from our language altogether. These adverbs, with their cognates here—hither, and there—thither, have become so confounded as to make a distinction between them almost hopeless. It is very common to hear, “ Where are you going? Come here." These sentences strictly mean, “In what place are you going ?" “Come in this place ;" which are manifest absurdities. Here, there, and where, should be used where rest is implied. Hither, thither, and whither, after verbs of motion. Thus : Stay here. Come hither. Where do you live? Whither are you going? I saw him there; he proceeded thither. (Const.

here I and sorrow sit;
Here is my throne, bid kings come bow to it. King John, iü. 1

Eli. Come hither, little kinsman; hark a word.
K. John. Come hither, Hubert.

Id., üi. 3.

Where, how lived you !
And when came you to serve our Roman captive ?
How parted with your brothers? how first met them?

Why fled you from the court ? and whither? Cymbeline, v 5.
King. Where is Polonius?
Hanlet. In heaven; send thither to see ; if your messenger find him not there
seek him i' the other place yourself.

Hamlet, iv. 3.

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Peace with you, brethren; my inducement hither
Was not at present here to find my son,
By order of the lords new parted hence
To come and play before them at their feast.
I heard all as I came; the city rings
And numbers thither flock.

S. A., 1445.
to descry the distant foe,
Where lodged, or whither fled ;

P. L., vi. 531.
To teach thee that God attributes to place
No sanctity, if none be thither brought
By men who there frequent or therein dweli. P. L., xi. 837
-Come hither in thy hour of strength:
Come, weak as is a breaking wave!
Here stretch thy body at full length ;
Or build thy house upon this grave.

WORDSWORTH. 'A Poet's Epitaph

Here did it enter; there, on hasty wing
Flies out, and passes on from cold to cold;
But whence it came we know not, nor behold
Whither it goes.

Eccles. Sonnets.'
There let me see thee sink into a mood
Of gentler thought, protracted till thine eye
Be calm as water when the winds are gone,
And no one can tell whither.

To Lycoris.'

the clouds, The mist, the shadows, light of golden suns, Motions of moonlight, all come thither-touch, And have an answer--thither come, and shape A language not unwelcome to sick hearts And idle spirits :--there the sun himself, At the calm close of summer's longest day, Rests his substantial orb; between those heights And on the top of either pinnacle, More keenly than elsewhere in night's blue vault, Sparkle the stars, as of their station proud. The Excursion,' ii.

Hence in a season of calm weather,

Though inland far we be,
Our Souls have sight of that immortal sea

Which brought us hither,

Can in a moment travel thither,
And see the children sport upon the shore,
And hear the mighty waters rolling evermore.

Intimations of Immortality.')

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I shall go to Brighton next week. Shall you be this summer?

“ That lord advanced to Winchester, Sir John Berkley brought him two regiments more of foot.”

I visited last autumn the place I first had the pleasure of making your acquaintance.

“ Who brought me Will bring me hence; no other guide I seek.” Pompey followed Cæsar into Thessaly, the latter had already taken his position in the neighbourhood of Pharsalus, and the hostile armies met each other.

Cleopatra returned to Alexandria, she was accompanied by Antony.

Nature first begins
Her farthest verge.”
“ Gigantic Pride, pale Terror, gloomy Caro,
And mad Ambition shall attend her

Phænix and Ulysses watch the prey,
And all the wealth of Troy convey."

The following synonymous words, to be classified and explained according to some of the principles before laid down, are offered as a further exercise for the student. Strife--discord.


To repeat—to resterate.




To refuse—to deny.






To weaken-to invalidate.

Disposal - disposition.

To flow-to gush.





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