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from the Canobic mouth of the Nile. At its eastern punt stood the far-famed lighthouse, the work of Sostrates of Cnidus, and, nearer the Hcptastadium, was a temple of Phtah or Hephaestus. The Pharos was begun by Ptolemy Soter, but completed by his successor, and dedicated by him to "the gods Soterre," or Soter and Berenice, his parents. (Strab. p. 792.) It consisted of several stories, and is said to bare been four hundred feet in height. The old light-house of Alexandreia still occupies the site of its ancient predecessor. A deep bay on the northern side of the island was called the " Pirates' Haven," from its having been an early place of refuge for Carian and Samian mariners. The islets which stud the northern coast of Pharos became, in the 4th and 5th centuries A. r>., the resort of Christian anchorites. The island is said by Strabo to have been nearly desolated by Julius Caesar when he was besieged by the Alexandrians in B. c. 46. (Hirt. B. Alex. 17.)

The Pharos was connected with the mainland by an artiiicial mound or causeway, called, from its length (7 stadia, 4270 English feet, or f of a mile), the Heptastadium. There were two breaks in the Mole to let the water flow through, and prevent the accumulation of silth; over these passages bridges were laid, which could be raised up at need. The temple of Hephaestus on Pharos stood at one extremity of the Mole, and the Gate of the Moon on the mainland at the other. The form of the Hcptastadium can no longer be distinguished, since modern Alexandreia is principally erected upon it, and upon the earth which has accumulated about its piers. It probably lay in a direct line between fort CaffareBi and the island.

Interior of the City. Alexandreia was divided into three regions. (1) The Regio Judaeorum. (2) The Brucheium or Pyrucheium, the Royal or Greek Quarter. (3) The Rhacotis or Egyptian Quarter. This division corresponded to the three original constituents of the Alexandrian population (rpia yirt), Polyb. xxxiv. 14; Strab. p. 797, seq.) After B. c 31 the Romans added a fourth element, but this was principally military and financial (the garrison, the government, and its official staff, and the negotiatores), and confined to the Region Brucheium.

1. Regio Judaeorum, or Jews' Quarter, occupied the NE. angle of the city, and was encompassed by the sea, the city walls, and the Brucheium. Like the Jewry of modern European cities, it had walls and gates of its own, which were at times highly necessary for its security, since between the Alexandrian Greeks and Jews frequent hostilities raged, inflamed both by political jealousy and religions hatred. The Jews were governed by their own Kthnarcb, or Arabarches (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 7. § 2, 10. § 1, xviii. 6. § 8, xix. S. § 2, B. J. ii. 18. *j 7), by a sanhedrim or senate, and their own national laws. Augustus Caesar, in B. c. 31, granted to the Alexandrian Jews equal privileges with their Greek fellow citizens, and recorded his grant by a public inscription. (Id. Antiq. xii. 3, e.Apion. 2.) Philo Judaeus (begot, in Canon) gives a full account of the immunities of the Regio Judaeorum. They were frequently confirmed or annulled by successive Roman emperors. (Sharpe, Hist, of Egypt, p. 347, seq. 2nd edit.)

2. Brucheium, or Pyrucheium (Bpvx*'oy, Tlvpo

Sal man us, ad Spartian. Hadrian, c 20), the Royal or Greek Quarter, was bounded to the S. and E. by the city walls, N. by the Greater Harbour,

and W. by the region Rliacotis and the main street which connected the Gate of the Sun with that of the Moon and the Heptastadium. It was also surrounded by its own walls, and was the quarter in which Caesar defended himself against the Alexandrians. (Hirtius, B. Alex. 1.) The Brucheium was bisected by the High Street, which ran from the Canobic Gate to the Necropolis, and was supplied with water from the Nile by a tunnel or aqueduct, which entered the city on the south, and passed n little to the west of the Gymnasium. This was the quarter of the Alexandrians proper, or Hellenic citizens, the Royal Residence, and the district in which were contained the moat conspicuous of the public buildings. It was so much adorned and extended by the later Ptolemies that it eventually occupied one-fifth of the entire city. (Plin. v. 10. s. 11.) It contained the following remarkable edifices: On the Lochias, the Palace of the Ptolemies, with the smaller palaces appropriated to their children and the adjacent gardens and groves. The ntr-famed Library and Museum, with its Theatre for lectures and public assemblies, connected with one another and with the palaces by long colonnades of the mast costly marble from the Egyptian quarries, and adorned with obelisks and sphinxes taken from the Pharaonic cities. The Library contained, according to one account, 700,000 volumes, according to another 400,000 (Joseph. Antiq. xii. 2; Athen. i. p. 3); part, however, of this unrivalled collection was lodged in the temple of Serapis, in the quarter Rhacotis. Here were deposited the 200,000 volun as collected by the kings of Pergamus, and presented by M. Antonius to Cleopatra. The library of the Museum was destroyed during the blockade of Julius Caesar in the Brucheium; that of the Serapeion was frequently injured by the civil broils of Alexandreia, and especially when that temple was destroyed by the Christian fanatics in the 4th century A. D. It was finally destroyed by the orders of the khalif Omar, A. D. 640. The collection was begun by Ptolemy Soter, augmented by his successors, — for the worst of the Lagidoe were patrons of literature, — and respected, if not increased, by the Caesars, who, like their predecessors, appointed and salaried the librarians and the profensors of the Museum. The Macedonian kings replenished the shelves of the Library zealously but unscrupulously, since they laid an embargo on all books, whether public or private property,which were brought to Alixuihireia,retained the originals, and gave copies of them to their proper owners. In this way Ptolemy Euergetes (b. C. 246 —221) is said to have got possession of authentio copies of the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and to have returned transcripts of them to the Athenians, with an accompanying compensation of fifteen talents. The Museum succeeded the once renowned college of Heliopolis as the University of Egypt. It contained a great hall or banqueting room (o&roi peyas), where the professors dined in common; an exterior peristyle, or corridor (ytp'marot), for exercise and ambulatory lectures; a theatre where public disputations and scholastic festivals were held; chambers for the different professors; anil possessed a botanical garden which Ptolemy Philadelphus enriched with tropical flora (Philostrat. Kit Apollon. vL 24), and a menagerie (Athen. xiv. p. 654). It was divided into four principal sections,— poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine,—and enrolled among its professors or pupils the illustrious names of Euclid, Ctesibius, Callimachus, Aratus,

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Aristophanes and Aristarchus, the critics and grammarians, the two Heros, Ammonins Saccas, Polemo, Clemens, Origen, Athanasius, Thoon and his celebrated daughter Hypatia, with many others. Amid the turbulent factions and frequent calamities of Alexandreia, the Museum maintained its reputation, until the Saracen invasion in A. n. 640. The emperors, like their predecessors the Ptolemies, kept in their own hands the nomination of the President of the Museum, who was considered one of the four chief magistrates of the city. For the Alexandrian Library and Museum the following works may be consulted : — Strab. pp. 609, 791, seq.; Vitruv. vii. prooem.; Jnseph. Antiq. xii. 2, c. Apion. ii. 7; Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 22; Cyrill. Hieros. Catechet. iv. 34; Epiphan. Mem. et Pond. c. 9; Augustin. Civ. D. xviii. 42; Lipsius, dc Biblioth. § ii.; Bonamy, Mem. de I Acad, det Inter, ix. 10; Matter, TEcole et Alexandria, vol. i. p. 47; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. iii. p. 500.

In the Brucheium also stood the Cacsarium, or Temple of the Caesars, where divine honours were paid to the emperors, deceased or living. Its site is still marked by the two granite obelisks called " Cleopatra's Needles," near which is a tower perhaps not inappropriately named the "Tower of the Romans." Proceeding westward, we come to the public granaries (Caesar, B. Civ. iii. 112) and the Mausoleum of the Ptolemies, which, from its containing the body of Alexander the Great, was denominated Soma (Sana, or Sfjua, Strab. p. 794). The remains of the Macedonian hero were originally inclosed in a coffin of gold, which, about B. C. 118, was stolen by Ptolemy Soter II., and replaced by one of glass, in which the corpse was viewed by Augustus in B. c. 30. (Sueton. Octav. 18.) A building to which tradition assigns the name of the "Tomb of Alexander " is found among the rains of the old city, but its site does not correspond with that of the Soma. It is much reverenced by the Moslems. In form it resembles an ordinary sheikh's tomb, and it stands to the west of the road leading from the Frank Quarter to the Pompeys-Pillar Gate. In the Soma were also deposited the remains of M. Antonins, the only alien admitted into the Mausoleum (Pint. Ant. 82). In this quarter also were the High Court of Justice (Dicasterium), in which, under the Ptolemies, the senate assembled and discharged such magisterial duties as a nearly despotic government allowed to them, and where afterwards the Roman Juridicus held his court. A 6tadium, a gymnasium, a palaestra, and an amphitheatre, provided exercise and amusement for the spectacle-loving Alexandrians. The Arsinoeum, on the western side of the Brucheium, was a monument raised by Ptolemy Philadelphus to the memory of his favourite sister Arsinoe; and the Panium was a stnne mound, or cone, with a spiral ascent on the outside, from whoso summit was visible every quarter of the city. The purpose of this structure is, however, not ascertained. The edifices of the Brucheium had been so arranged by Deinocrates as to command a prospect of the Great Harbour and the Pharos. In its centre was a spacious square, surrounded by cloisters and flanked to the north by the quays — the Emporium, or Alexandrian Exchange. Hither, for nearly eight centuries, every nation of the civilize! world sent its representatives. Alexandreia had inherited the commerce of both Tyre and Carthage, and collected in this area the traffic and speculation of three continents. The Romans admitted Alexandreia to be the second city of the world; but the

quays of the Tiber pre-cnted no such spectacle as the Emporium. In the seventh century, when the Arabs entered Alexandreia, the Brucheium was in ruins and almost deserted.

3. The Rhacitit, or Egyptian Quarter, occupied the site of the ancient Rhacoiis. Its principal buildings were granaries along the western arm of the cibotus or basin, a stadium, and the Temple of Serapis. The Serapeion was erected by the first or second of the Ptolemies. The image of the god, which was of wood, was according to Clemens (Clemens Alex. ProtrepU c. 4. § 48), inclosed or plated over with layers of every kind of metal and precious stones : it seems also, cither from the smoke of incense or from varnish, to have been of a black colour. Its origin and import are doubtfuL Serapis is sometimes defined to be Osiri-Apis; and sometimes the Sinopite Zeus, which may imply either that he was brought from the hill Sinopeion near Memphis, or from Sinope in Pontus, whence Ptolemy Soter or Philadelphus is said to have imported it to adorn his new capital. That the idol was a pantheistic emblem may be inferred, both from the materials of which it was composed, and from its being adopted by a dynasty of sovereigns who sought to blend in one mass the creeds of Hellas and Eirypt. The Serapeion was destroyed in A. D. 390 by The.iphilus, patriarch of Alexandreia, in obedience to the rescript of the emperor Theodosius, which abolished paganism {Codex Theodos. xvi. 1, 2).* The Coptic population of this quarter were not properly Alexandrian citizens, bnt enjoyed a franchise inferior to that of tho Greeks. (Plin. Epist. x. 5. 22, 23; Joseph, c. Apion. c. 2. § 6.) The Alexandreia which the Arabs besieged was nearly identical with the Rhacotis. It had suffered many calamities both from civil feud and from foreign war. Its Serapeion was twice consumed by fire, once in the reign of Marcus Aurolius, and again in that of Commodus. But this district survived both the Regio Judaeorum and the Brucheium.

Of the remarkable beauty of Alexandreia (rj maXit 'AAc^dVSpfia, Athen. i. p. 3), we have the testimony of numerous writers who saw it in its prime. Aminianus (xxii. 16) calls it " vertex omnium civitatnm;" Strabo (xvii. p. 832) describes it as i±iyurrov iinroptiov T^s otKountvris; Theocritus (liIylL xvii.), Philo (ad Flacc. ii. p. 541), Eustathius (/£ B.), Gregory of Nyssa (Fit Gregor. Thuumaturg.'), and many others, write in the same strain. (Cunip. Diodor. xvii. 52; Pausan. viii. 33.) Perhaps, however, one of the most striking descriptions of ita effect upon a stranger is that of Achilles Tatiu* in his romance of Cleitophon and Leucippe (v. 1). Its dilapidation was not the effect of time, but of the hand of man. Its dry atmosphere preserved, for centuries after their erection, the sharp outline and gay colours of its buildings; and when in A. D. 120 the emperor Hadrian surveyed Alexandreia, he beheld almost the virgin city of the Ptolemies, (Spartiau.

* The following references will aid the reader in forming his own opinion respecting the much controverted question of the origin and meaning of Serapis:—Tac Hilt iv. 84; Macrob. Sat. i. 29; Vopiscus, Saturnin. 8; Aram. Marc. xx. 16; Plut. Is. et Osir. cc. 27, 28; Lactant. InsL i. 21; Clem. Alex. Cohort, ad Gent. 4. § 31, Strom, i. 1; August, Civ. D. xviii. 5; Mem. de [Acad, det Inter. vol. x. p. 500; Gibbon, D. and F. xxviii. p. 113.

I7adrhn.c 12.) It suffered much from the intestine feuds of the Jews and Greeks, and the Brucheiura was nearly rebuilt by the emperor G allien us, A. D. 260—8. Bat the zeal of its Christian population was more destructive; and the Saracens only completed their previous work of demolition.

Papulation of Alexandria* DiodorusSiculus,who visited Alexandreia about n. c. 58, estimates (xvii. 52) its free citizens at 300,000, to which sum at least an equal number must be added for slaves and casual residents. Besides Jews, Greeks, and Egyptians, the population consisted, according to Dion Chrywstom, who saw the city in A. D. 69 (Orat. xxxii.), rf* Italians. Syrians, Libyans, Cilicians, Aethiopians, Arabians, Bactrians, Persians, Scythians, and Indians ;n and Polybius (xxxix. 14) and Strabo (p. 797) confirm his statement. Ancient writers generally give the Alexandrians an ill name, as a double-tongued (Hirtius, B. Alex. 24), factious (TrebeU. Poll. Trig. Tyran. c 22), irascible (Phil. ode. Flacc. ii. p. 519), blood-thirsty, yet cowardly Ml (Dion Cass. i. p. 621). Athenacus speaks of them as a jovial, boisterous race (x. p. 420), and mentions their passion for music and the number and strange appellations of their musical instruments (id- It. 176, xiv. p. 654). Dion Chrysostom (Orat. xxxii.) upbraids them with their levity, their insane lore of spectacles, horse races, gambling, and dissipation. They were, however, singularly industrious. Besides their export trade, the city was full of manufactories of paper, linen, glass, and muslin (Vopisc. Saturn. 8). Even the lame and blind had their occupations. For their rulers, Greek or Roman, they invented nicknames. The better Ptolemies and CaeBars smiled at these affronts, while Physcon and Caracal)* repaid them by a general massacre. For more particular information respecting Alexandreia we refer to Matter, lEcole dAlexandria, 2 vols.; the article " Alexandrinische Schule " in Pauly's Real Encyclopaedia; and to Air. Sharpo's History of Egypt, 2nd ed.

Tke Government of Alexandreia. Under the Ptolemies the Alexandrians possessed at least the semblance of a constitution. Its Greek inhabitants enjjyed the privileges of bearing arms, of meeting in the Gymnasium to discuss their general interests, and to petition for redress of grievances; and they addressed in royal proclamations as " Men of 111* -•edoo.'* But they had no political constitution aJile to resist the grasp of despotism; and, after the reigns of the first three kings of the Lagid house, were deprived of even the shadow of freedom. To this end the division of the city into three nations directly contributed; for the Greeks were ever ready to take up arms against the Jews, and the Egyptians fearol and contemned them both. A connu•cm, indeed, existed between the latter and tho Greeks. (Letronne, I user, i. p. 99.) Of the government of the Jews by an Ethnarch and a Sanhedrim we have already spoken: how tho quarter Rhacotis was administered we do not know; it was probably under a priesthood of its own: but we find in inscriptions and in other scattered notices that the Greek population was divided into tribes (<puAai), and into wards (07,uol). Tho tribes were nine in number ('AA0ofr, 'ApiaSm, Antavftpls, Aiovvats, K «I . Starts, Soavrls, Viapavls, UraipuX'ts).

(Mrineke, Analecta Alexandrina, p. 346, seq. Bcrl. 1843.) There was, indeed, some variation in the appellations of the tribes, since Apollonius of Rhodes, tie author of the Argonauitca, belonged to a tribe

called TtToXtfLols. (Iit. A poll. Rhod. ed. Brunk.) The senate was elected from the principal members of the words (Am^orai). Its functions were chiefly judicial. In inscriptions we meet with the titles yvfivaaidpxyi'i SucatoMrns, inropirtiparoypatys, ipx^ucdarvs, ayoodyofios, &c. (Letronne, Jiecueil det Inscr. Gr. et Ixit. de VEgypt*, vol. i. 1842, Paris; id. Hecherches pour servir a IHistoire de XEgypte, &c. Paris, 1823—8.) From the reign of Augustus, B.C. 31, to that of Scptimiua Severus, A. D. 194, the functions of the senate were suspended, and their place supplied by the Roman Juridicus, or Chief Justice, whose authority was inferior only to that of the Praefectus Augustalis. (Winkler, de Jurid. Alex. Lips. 1827—8.) The latter emperor restored the "jus buieutaruni.'* (Spartian. Severn*, c. 17.)

The Roman government of Alexandreia was nlto* gether peculiar. The country was assigned neither to the senatorian nor the imperial provinces, but was made dependent on the Caesar alone. For this regulation there were valid reasons. The Nils* valley was not easy of access; might be easily defended by an ambitious prefect; was opulent and populous; and was one of the principal granaries of Rome, Hence Augustus interdicted the senatorian order, and even the more illustrious equites ( l ac Ann. ii. 59) from visiting Egypt without spcciul licence. The prefect he selected, and Ills successors observed the rule, either from his personal adherents, or from equites who looked to him alone for pro* motion. Under the prefect, but nominated by the emperor, was the Juridicus (apx<8«fdVT7)s), who presided over a numerous staff of inferior magistrates, and whose decisions could be annulled by the prefect, or perhaps the emperor alone. The Caesar appointed also the keeper of the public records (vwofun)jiaT6ypcupos), the chief of the police (rwcrepwht ffTpaTrrydi), the Interpreter of Egyptian law (t'£')7TjT-i/i Wot/mmf vopiuv}, tho praefectus annonae or warden of the markets {iMttitKnr^i Twv rij -rroAet xPntTLfia,v)> ^ic President of the Museum. All those officers, as Caesarian nominees, wore a scarlet-bordered robe. (Strab. p.797,seq.) la other respects the domination of Rome was highly conducive to the welfare of Alexandreia. Trade, which had declined under the later Ptolemies, revived and attained a prosperity hitherto unexampled: the army, instead of being a horde of lawless and oppressive mercenaries, was restrained under strict discipline: the privileges and national customs of the three constituents of its population were respected: the luxury of Rome gave new vigour to commerce with the East; the corn-supply to Italy promotod the cultivation of the Delta and the business of the Emporium; and the frcqueut inscription of the imperial names upon the temples attested that Alexandreia at least had benefited by exchanging the Ptolemies for the Caesars.

The History of Alexandreia may be divided into three periods. (1) Tho Hellenic. (2) The Roman. (3) The Christian. The details of the first of these may be read in the History of the Ptolemies {Diet, of Biogr. vol. iii. pp. 565—599). Here it will suffice to remark, that the city prospered under the wisdom of Soter and the genius of Philadelphia ; lost somewhat of its Hellenic character under Euergetes, and began to decline under Philopator, who was a mere Eastern despot, surrounded and governed by women, eunuchs, and favourites. From Epiphanes downwards these evils were aggravated. The army was disorganised; trade and agriculture declined; the Alexandrian people grew more servile and vicious: even the Museum exhibited symptoms of decrepitude. Its professors continued, indeed, to cultivate science and criticism, but invention and taste had expired. It depended upon Rome whether Alexandreia should become tributary to Antioch, or receive a proconsul from the senate. The wars of Rome with Carthage, Macedon, and Syria alone deferred the deposition of the Lagidae. The influence of Rome in the Ptolemaic kingdom commenced properly in B. c. 204, when the guardians of Epiphanes placed their infant ward under the protection of the senate, as his only refuge against the designs of the Macedonian and Syrian monarchs. (Justin, xxx. 2.) M. Aemilius Lepidus was appointed guardian to the young Ptolemy, and the legend " Tutor Regit" upon the Aemilian coins commemorates this trust. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 123.) In B. c. 163 the Romans adjudicated between the brothers Ptolemy Philometor and Euergetes. The latter received Cyrene; the former retained Alexandreia and Egypt In B. C. 145, Scipio Africanns the younger was appointed to Bettle the distractions which ensued upon the murder of Eupator. (Justin, xxxviii. 8; Cic. Acad, Q. iv. 2, Off iii. 2; Died. Legal. 32; Gell. N. A. xviii. 9.) An inscription, of about this date, recorded at Delos the existence of amity between Alexandreia and Rome. (Letronne, Inter, vol.i. p. 102.) Ill B.C.97, Ptolemy Apion devised by will the province of Cyrene to the Roman senate (Liv. lxx. £pit.), and his example was followed, in B. c. 80, by Ptolemy Alexander, who bequeathed to them Alexandreia and his kingdom. The bequest, however, was not immediately enforced, as the republic was occupied with civil convulsions at home. Twenty years later Ptolemy Auletes mortgaged his revenues to a wealthy Roman senator, Rabirius Postumus (Cic. Fragm. xvii. Orelli, p. 458), and in B. c. 55 Alexandreia was drawn into the immediate vortex of the Roman revolution, and from this period, until its submission to Augustus in B. C. 30, it followed the fortunes alternately of Pompey, Gabinius, Caesar, Cassius the liberator, and M. Antonius.

The wealth of Alexandreia in the last centnry B.C. may be inferred from the fact, that, in B.C. 63, 6250 talents, or a million sterling, were paid to the treasury as port dues alone. (Diod. xvii. 52; Strab. p. 832.) Under the emperors, the history of Alexandreia exhibits little variety. It was, upon the whole, leniently governed, for it was the interest of the Caesars to be generally popular in a city which commanded one of the granaries of Rome. Augustus, indeed, marked his displeasure at the support given to M. Antonius, by building Nicopolis about three miles to the east of the Canobic gate as its rival, and by depriving the Greeks of Alexandreia of the only political distinction which the Ptolemies had left them — the judicial functions of the senate. The city, however, shared in the general prosperity of Egypt under Roman rule. The portion of its population that came most frequently in collision with the executive was that of the Jewish Quarter. Sometimes emperors, like Caligula, demanded that the imperial effigies or military standards should lie set up in their temple, at others the Greeks ridiculed or .outraged the Hebrew ceremonies. Both these causes were attended with sanguinary results, and even with general pillage and burning of the city. Alexandreia was favoured by Claudius, who Added a wing to the Museum; was threatened with

a visit from Nero, who coveted the skilful applause of its claqueurs in the theatre (Soeton. Ner. 20); was the head-quarter, for some months, of Vespasian (Tac. Hist iii. 48, iv. 82) during the civil wars which preceded his accession; was subjected to military lawlessness under Domitian (Juv. Sot. xvi.); was governed mildly by Trajan, who even supplied the city, during a dearth, with corn (Plin. Panegyr. 31. § 23); and was visited by Hadrian in A. D. 122, who has left a graphic picture of the population. (Vopisc Saturn. 8.) The first important change in their polity was that introduced by the emperor Severus in A. D. 196. The Alexandrian Greeks were no longer formidable, and Severus accordingly restored their senate and municipal government. He also ornamented the city with a temple of Rhea, and with a public bath — Thermae Seplimianae.

Alexandreia, however, suffered more from a single visit of Caracalla than from the tyranny or caprice of any of his predecessors. That emperor had been ridiculed by its satirical populace for affecting to be the Achilles and Alexander of his time. The rumours or caricatures which reached him in Italy were not forgotten on his tour through the provinces; and although he was greeted with hecatombs on his arrival at Alexandreia in A. D. 211 (Herodian. iv. 9), he did not omit to repay the insult by a general massacre of the youth of military age. (Dion Cass, lxxvii. 22; 'Spartian. CaracalL 6.) Caracalla al*o introduced some important changes in the civil relations of the Alexandrians. To mark his displeasure with the Greeks, he admitted the chief men of the quarter Rhacotis — i. e. native Egyptians — into the Roman Benate (Dion Cass. li. 17; Spartian. CaracaS. 9); he patronised a temple of Isis at Rome; and he punished the citizens of the Brucheium by retrenching their public games and their allowance of corn. The Greek quarter was charged with the maintenance of an additional Roman garrison, and its inner walls were repaired and lined with forts.

From the works of Aretacus (de if orb. Acut. i.) we leam that Alexandreia was visited by a pestilence in the reign of Gallus, A. D. 253. In 265, the prefect Aemilianns was proclaimed Caesar by his soldiers. (Trebell. Pol. Trig. Tgratm. 22. Gallien. 4.) In 270, the name of Zenobia, qneen of Palmyra, appears on the Alexandrian coinage; and the city had its full share of the evils consequent upon the frequent revolutions of the R>man empire. (Vopisc. Aurelian. 32.) After this period, A. D. 271, Alexandreia lost much of its predominance in Egypt, since the native population, hardened by repeated wars, and reinforced by Arabian immigrants, had become a martial and turbulent race. In A. n. 297 (Eutrop. ix. 22), Diocletian besieged and regained Alexandreia, which had declared itself in favour of the usurper Achillens. The emperor, however, made a lenient use of his victory, and purchased the favour of the populace by an increased largess of corn. The column, now well known as Pompey's Pillar, once supported a statue of this emperor, and still bears on its base the inscription, "To the most honoured emperor, the deliverer of Alexandreia, the invincible Diocletian.'*

Alexandreia had its full share of the persecutions of this reign. The Jewish rabbinism and Greek philosophy of the city had paved the way for Christianity, and the serious temper of the Egyptian population sympathised with the earnestness of the new faith. The Christian population of Akj-candreia was accordingly numerous when the imperial edicts were put in force. Nor were martyrs wanting. The city was already an episcopal see; and its bishop Peter, with the presbyters Faustus, Dius, and Ammonias, were among the first victims of Diocletian's rescript. The Christian annals of Alexandreia have so little that is peculiar to the city, that it will suffice to refer the reader to the general history of the Church.

It is more interesting to turn from the Arian and Athaaasian feuds, which sometimes deluged the streets of the city with blood, and sometimes mode necessary the intervention of the Prefect, to the aspect which Alexandreia presented to the Arabs, in A. D. 610, after so many revolutions, civil and religious. The Pharos and Heptastadium were still uninjured: the Sebaste or Caesarium, the Soma, and the Quarter Rhacotis, retained almost their original grandeur. But the Hippodrome at the Canobic Gate was a ruin, and a new Museum had replaced m the Egyptian Region the more ample structure of the Ptolemies in the Brucheium. The Greek quarter was indeed nearly deserted: the Rrgio Judaeorum was occupied by a few miserable tenants, who purchased from the Alexandrian patriarch the right to follow their national law. The Serapeion had been converted into a Cathedral; and some of the more conspicuous buildings of the Hellenic city had become the Christian Churches of St Mark, St. John, St Mary, &c Yet Amrou reported to his master the Khalif Omar that Alexandreia was a city containing four thousand palaces, four thousand pubUc baths, four hundred theatres, forty thousand Jews who paid tribute, and twelve thousand persons who sold herbs. (Eutych. Armed. A. D. 640.) The result of Arabian desolation was, that the city, which had dwindled into the Egyptian Quarter, shrunk into the limits of the Heptastadium, and, after the year 1497, when the Portuguese, by discovering the passage round the Cape of Good Hope, changed the whole current of Indian trade, it degenerated still further into an obscure town, with a population of about 6000, inferior probably to that of the original fihacotis.

Raint of Alexandria. These may be divided into two classes: (1) indistinguishable mounds of masonry; and (2) fragments of buildings which may, in some degree, be identified with ancient sites or structures.

"The Old Town" is surrounded by a double wall, with lofty towers, and five gates. The Rosetta Gate is the eastern entrance into this circuit; but it does not correspond with the old Canobic Gate, which was half a mile further to the east The space inclosed is about 10,000 feet in length, and in its breadth varies from 3200 to 1600 feet. It contains generally shapeless masses of ruins, consisting of shattered columns and capitals, cisterns choked with rubbish, and fragments of pottery and glass. Some of the mounds are covered by the villas and gardens of the wealthier inhabitants of Alexandreia. Nearly in the centre of the inclosure, and probably in the High Street between the Canobic and Necropolitan Gates, staid a few years since three granite columns. They wen: nearly opposite the Mosque of St. Athanasius, and were perhaps the last remnants of the colonnade which lined the High Street (From this mosque was taken, in 1801, the sarcophagus of green breccia which is now in the British Museum.) Until December, 1841, there was also on the road Wading to the Rosetta Gate the base of another

similar corarnn. But these, as well as other remnants of the capital of the Ptolemies, have disappeared; although, twenty years ago, the intersection of its two main streets was distinctly visible, at a point near the Frank Square, and not very far from the Catholic convent. Excavations in the Old Town occasionally, indeed, bring to light parts of statues, large columns, and fragments of masonry: but the ground-plan of Alexandreia is now probably lost irretrievably, as the ruins have been converted into building materials, without note being taken at the time of the site or character of the remnants removed. Vestiges of baths and other buildings may be traced along the inner and outer bay; and numerous tanks are still in use which formed part of the cisterns that supplied the city with Nile-water. They were often of considerable size; were built under the houses; and, being arched and coated with a thick red plaster, have in many cases remained perfect to this day. One set of these reservoirs runs parallel to the eastern issue of the Mahmoodeh Canal, which nearly represents the old Canobic Canal; others are found in the convent* which occupy part of the site of the Old Town; and others again are met with below tbe mound uf Pompey's Pillar. The descent into these chambers is either by steps in the side or by an opening in the roof, through which the water is drawn up by ropes and buckets.

The most striking remains of ancient Alexandreia are the Obelisks and Pompey's Pillar. The former are universally known by the inappropriate name of "Cleopatra's Needles." The fame of Cleopatra has preserved her memory among the illiterate Arabs, who regard her as a kind of enchantress, and ascribe to her many of the great works of her capital,—the Pharos and Heptastadium inclnded. Meselleh is, moreover, the Arabic word for "a packing Needle," and is given generally to obelisks. The two columns, however, which bear this appellation, are red granite obelisks which were brought by one of the Caesars from Heliopolis, and, according to Pliny (xxxvi. 9), were set up in front of the Sebaste or Caesarium. They are about 57 paces apart from each other: one is still vertical, the other has been thrown down. They stood each on two steps of white limestone. The vertical obelisk is 73 feet high, the diameter at its base is 7 feet and 7 inches; the fallen obelisk has been mutilated, and, with the same diameter, is shorter. The latter was presented by Mohammed All to the English government: and the propriety of its removal to England has been discussed during the present year. Pliny ({. c.) ascribes them to an Egyptian king named Mesphres: nor is ha altogether wrong. The Pharaoh whose oval they exhibit was the third Thothmea, and in Manetho's list the first and second Thothmes(18th Dynasty: Kenrick, voLii. p. 199) are written as Mesphra-Thothmosis. Ramescs III. and Osirei II., hie third successor, have also their ovals upon these obelisks.

Pompey's Pillar, as it is erroneously termed, is denominated by the Arabs Amood e sowari; sari or sevari being applied by them to any lofty monument which suggests tbe image of a " mast" It might more properly lie termed Diocletian's Pillar, since a statue of that emperor once occupied its summit, commemorating the capture of Alexandreia in A. D. 297, after an obstinate siege of eight months. The t >tal height of this column is 98 feet 9 inches, the shaft is 73 feet, the circumference 29 feet 8 inches, and the diameter at the top of the capital is 16 feet 6

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