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inches. The shaft, capital, and pedestal are apparently of different ages; the latter are of very inferior workmanship to the shaft. The substructions of the column are fragments of older monuments, and the name of Psammetichus with a few hieroglyphics is inscribed upon them.

The origin of the name Pompey's Pillar is very doubtful. It has been derived from TlofiwaTos, " conducting," since the column served for a land-mark. In the inscription copied by Sir Gardner Wilkinson and Mr. Salt, it is stated that " Publius, the Eparch of Egypt," erected it in honour of Diocletian. For Publius it has been proposed to read 11 Pompeios." The Pillar originally stood in the centre of a paved area beneath the level of the ground, like so many of the later Roman memorial columns. The pavement, however, has long been broken up and carried away. If Arabian traditions may be trusted, this now solitary Pillar once stood in a Stoa with 400 others, and formed part of the peristyle of the ancient Serapeion.

Next in interest are the Catacombs or remains of the ancient Necropolis beyond the Western Gate. The approach to this cemetery was through vineyards and gardens, which both Athenaeus and Strabo celebrate. The extent of the Catacombs is remarkable: they are cut partly in a ridge of sandy calcareous stone, and partly in the calcareous rock that faces the sea. They all communicate with the sea by narrow vaults, and the most spacious of them is about 3830 yds. SW. of Pompey s Pillar. Their style of decoration is purely Greek, and in one of the chambers are a Doric entablature and mouldings, which evince no decline in art at the period of their erection. Several tombs in that direction, at the water's edge, and some even below its level, are entitled " Bagni di Cleopatra."

A more particular account of the Ruins of Alexandria will be found in Sir Gardner Wilkinson's Topography of Thebes, p. 380, scq., and his HandBookfor Travellers in Egypt, pp.71—100, Murray, 1847. Besides the references already given for Alexandria, its topography and history, the following writers may be consulted: — Strab. p. 791, seq.; Ptol. iv. 5. § 9, vli. 5. §§ 13, 14, &c. &c; Diod. xvii. 52; Pausnn. v. 21, viii. 33; Arrian, Exp. Alex. iii. 1. § 5, seq.; Q.Curtius, iv. 8. §2, x. 10. §20; Plut. Alex. 26; Mela, i. 9. § 9; Plin. v. 10, 11; Amm. Marc. xxii. 16; It. Anton, pp. 57, 70; Joseph. B. J. ii. 28; Polyb. xxxix. 14; Caesar, B. C. iii. 112. [W. B. D.]

ALEXANDREIA (b 'hA^ivtptui). Besides the celebrated Alexandreia mentioned above, there were several other towns of this name, founded by Alexander or his successors.

1. In Arachosia, also called Alexandropolis, on the river Arachotus; its site is unknown. (Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6.)

2. In Ariana (») iv 'Aplou, or Alexandreia Arion as Pliny, vi. 17, names it), the chief city of the country, now Herat, the capital of Khorassan, a town which has a considerable trade. The tradition is that Alexander the Great founded this Alexandreia, but like others of the name it was probably only so called in honour of him. (Strab. pp. 514, 516, 723; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6.)

3. In Bactbiana, a town in Bactriana, near Bactra (Steph. Byz.).

4. In Cakmania, the capital of the country, now Herman. (Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6.)

5. Ad Issum (ri Kot9 "\aaov: Alexandreum,

Tskendertm), a town on the east side of the Gulf of Issus, and probably on or close to the site of the Myriandrus of Xenophon (A/tab. i. 4), and Arrian (Anab. ii. 6). It seems probable that the place received a new name in honour of Alexander. Stephanns mentions both Myriandrus and Alexandreia of Cilicia, by which he means tins place; but this does not prove that there were two towns in his time. Both Stephanus and Strabo (p. 676) place this Alexandreia inCilicia [amanus]. A place called Jacob's Well, in the neighbourhood of Iskenderun, has been supposed to be the site of Myriandrus {London Gtog. Journ. vol.vii. p. 414); but no proof is given of this assertion. Iskmderun is about 6 miles SSW. of the Pylae Ciliciae direct distance. [amaxus.] The place is unhealthy in summer, and contained only sixty or seventy mean houses when Niebuhr visited it; but in recent times it is said to have improved. (Niebuhr, Reisebeschreibung, vol. iii. p. 19; London Geog. Journ. vol. x. p. 511.) i

6. OXIAXA. [SOGDIAKA.]

7. In Pakopamisds. [PARorAsnsADAE.]

8. Troas ('AAf{di'5p€ia i) Tptiai), sometimes called simply Alexandreia, and sometimes Troas(Acts Apost. xvi. 8), now EsH Stambul or Old Stambul, was situated on the coast of Troas, opposite to the south-eastern point of the island of Tenedos, and north of Assus. It was founded by Antigonus, one of the most able of Alexander's successors, under the name of Antigoncia Troas, and peopled with settlers from Scepsis and other neighbouring towns. It was improved by Lysimachus king of Thrace, and named Alexandreia Troas; but both names, Antigoneia, and Alexandreia, appear on some coins. It was a flourishing place under the Roman empire, and had received a Roman colony when Strabo wrote (p. 593), which was sent in the time of Augustus, as the name Col. Avo. Troas on a coin shows. In the time of Hadrian an aqueduct several miles in length was constructed, partly at the expense of Herodes Atticus, to bring water to the city from IdaMany of the supports of the aqueduct still remain, but all the arctics are broken. The ruins of this city cover a large surface. Chandler says that the walls, the largest part of which remain, are several miles in circumference. The remains of the Thermae or baths are very considerable, and doubtless belong to the Roman period. There is little marble on the site of the city, for the materials have been carried off to build houses and public edifices at Constantinople. The place is now nearly deserted.

There is a story, perhaps not worth much, that the dictator Caesar thought of transferring the seat of empire to this Alexandreia or to Ilium (Suet. Cats. 79); and some writers have conjectured that Augustus had a like design, as may be inferred from the words of Horace (Corm. iii. 3. 37, &c). It may be true that Constantine thought of Alexandreia (Zosim. ii. 30) for his new capital, but in the end he made a better selection.

9. Ultima ('AAf(<£>'o'pfi(x itrxirn, or 'AAc(arSpeaxara, Appian, Syr. 57), a city founded among the Scythians, according to Appian. It was founded by Alexander upon the Jaxartes, which the Greeks called the Tanais, as a bulwark against the eastern barbarians The colonists were Hellenic mercenaries, Macedonians who were past service, and some of the adjacent barbarians: the city was 60 stadia in circuit. (Arrian, Anab. iv. 1. 3; Curtius, vii. 6.) There is no evidence to determine the exact site, which may be that of Khodjend, as some suppose. [G. L.J

ALE.tANDRI ARAE or COLUMNAE (ol A\i£dr6pov fbeiwt). It was a well-known custom nf the indent conquerors from Sesostris downwards to mark their progress, and especially its farthest Emits, by monuments; and thus, in Central Asia, near the river Jaxartes (Sihoun), there were shown altars of Hercules and Bacchus, Cyrus, Semjramis and Alexander. (Plin. vi. 16. s. 18; Solin. 49.) Pliny adds that Alexander's soldiers supposed the Jaxartes to be the Tanats, and Ptolemy (iii. 5. § 26) artoally places altars of Alexander on the true Tanais (Don), which Ammianus Marecllinus (xxiL 8), carrying the confusion a step further, transfers to the Borysthenes. (Ukert, vol. iii. pt. 2, pp. 33, 40, 71, 191, 196.) Respecting Alexanders altars in India, see HvriiASIs. [P. S.]

AXGIDUS ("AVyiios), a mountain of Latium, fcnning part of the volcanic group of the Alban Hills, though detached from the central summit, the Hons Alban as or Monte Cam, and separated, as well from that as from the Tusculan hills, by an esvated valley of considerable breadth. The extent in which the name was applied is not certain, but it seems to have been a general appellation for the Borth-eastem portion of the Alban group, rather than that of a particular mountain summit. It is celebrated by Horace for its black woods of holm-oaks (kotos ferad frondia in Algido), and for its cold sad snowy climate (meali Algido, Cam. L 21. 6, SL 23. 9, iv. 4. 58): but its lower slopes became afterwards much frequented by the Roman nobles as a place of summer retirement, whence Silius Italiras gives it the epithet of amoena Ahjida (Sil. ItaL xii. 536; Martial, x. 30. 6). It has now very Koch resumed its ancient aspect, and is covered with dense forests, which are frequently the haunts of banditti.

At an earlier period it plays an important part in the history of Rome, being the theatre of numberless coanicts between the Romans and Aequians. It is not clear whether it was—as supposed by Dionysius (x. 21), who is followed by Niebuhr (vol ti. p. 258) —ever included in the proper territories of the Aequians: the expressions of Livy would certainly lead to a contrary conclusion: but it was continually occupied by them as an advanced post, which at once secured their own communications with the Volscians, and intercepted those of the Romans and Latins with liar allies the Hernicans. The elevated plain which separated it from the Tusculan hills thus became their habitual field of battle. (Liv. iii. 2, 23, 25, &c: Dion. Hal. x. 21, xi. 3, 23, &C; Ovid, Fast, vi. 721.) Of the exploits of which it was the scene, the most celebrated are the victory of Cincinnatos over the Aequians under Cloelius Gracchus, in B. c 458, and that of Postnmius Tubcrtus, in B- a 428, over the combined forces of the Aequians and Volscians. The last occasion on which we find toe former people encamping on Mt. Algidus, was in B. c. 415.

In several passages Dionysius speaks of a town named Algidus, but Livy nowhere alludes to the existence of such a place, nor does his narrative admit of the supposition: and it is probable that iJionysius has mistaken the language of the annalists, and rendered " in Algido" by iv TdAei 'AA•ji&tf. (Dionys. x. 21, xi. 3; Steph. B. s. v. "AA718or. probably copies Dionysius.) In Strabo's time, however, it is certain that there was a small town (wiixnw) of the name (Strab. p. 237): but if we can construe his words strictly, this must have

been lower down, on the southern slope of the hill; and was probably a growth of later times. It was situated on the Via Latina; and the gorge or narrow pass through which that road emerged from the hills is still called la Cava dell Aglio, the latter word being evidently a corruption of Algidus. (Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. L p. 123.)

We find mention in very early times of a temple of Fortune on Mt. Algidus (Liv. xxi. 62), and wo learn also that the mountain itself was sacred to Diana, who appears to have had there a temple of ancient celebrity. (Hor. Cam. Sate. 69.) Existing remains on the summit of one of the peaks of the ridge are referred, with much probability, to this temple, which appears to have stood on an elevated platform, supported by terraces and walls of a very massive construction, giving to the whole much of the character of a fortress, in the same manner as in the case of the Capitol at Rome. These remains —which are not easy of access, on account of the dense woods with which they arc surrounded, and hence appear to have been unknown to earlier writers —arc described by Gel] ( Topographg of Rome, p. 42) and Nibby (Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. p. 121), but more fully and accurately by Abeken (MittelItalien, p. 215). [E. H. B.]

ALINDA ('AAu-Ja: Eth. 'AKivttis), a city of Caria, which was surrendered to Alexander by Ada, queen of Caria. It was one of the strongest places in Caria (Arrian. Anab. i. 23; Strab. p. 657). Its position seems to be properly fixed by Fellows (Discoveries in Lycia, p. 58) at Demmeergee-derasg, between Arab Hissa and Karpuslce, on a steep rock. He found no inscriptions, bnt out of twenty copper coins obtained here five had the epigraph Alinda. [G. L.]

ALIPHETtA CA\l(pripa, Paus.; Aliphcra, Liv.; 'AXUptipa, Polyb.: Eth. 'AAupr/fwis, 'AXufrnpauis, on coins AAI*EIPEflN, Aliphiracus, Plin. iv. 6. s. 10. § 22), a town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, said to have been built by Alipherus, a son of Lycaon, was situated upon a steep and lofty hill, 40 stadia S. of the Alpheius and near the frontiers of Elis. A large number of its inhabitants removed to Megalopolis upon tlie foundation of the latter city in B.C. 371; but it still continued to be a place of some importance. It was ceded to the Eleans by Lydiades, when tyrant of Megalopolis; but it was taken from them by Philip in the Social War, n. c. 219, and restored to Megalopolis. It contained temples of Asclepius and Athena, and a celebrated bronzo statue by Hypatodorus of the latter goddess, who was said to have been born here. There are still considerable remains of this town on the hill of Nerovitza, which has a tabular summit about 300 yards long in the direction of E. and W., 100 yards broad, and surrounded by remains of Hellenic walls. At the south-eastern angle, a part rather higher than the rest formed an acropolis: it was about 70 yards long and half as much broad. The walls are built of polygonal and regular masonry intermixed. (Paus. viii. 3. § 4, 26. § 5, 27 §"§ 4, 7; Polyb. iv. 77, 78; Liv. xxviii. 8; Steph. B. ». v.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 72, scq.; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 102; Cuxtius, Peloponnesus, vol. i. p. 361,6eq.)

ALl'SO or ALI'SUM CZKlouv, "AXeurov: perhaps EUen. near Paderborn), a strong fortress iu Germany, built by Drusus in B.C. 11, for the purpose of securing the advantages which had been ! gained, and to have u sale place in which the Romans might maintain themselves against the Cherusci and Sigambri. It was situated at the point where the Eliso empties itself into the Lupia (Lippe, Dion Cass. liv. 33.) There can be no doubt that the place thus described by Dion Cassius under the name 'EAftrMf, is the same as the Aliso mentioned by Velleins (ii. 120) and Tacitus {Arm. ii. 7), and which in A. D. 9, after the defeat of Varus, was taken by the Germans. In A. D. 15 it was reconquered by the Romans; but being, the year after, besieged by the Germans, it was relieved by Germanicus. So long as the Romans were involved in wars with the Germans in their own country, Aliso was a place of the highest importance, and a military road with strong fortifications kept up the connection between Aliso and the lihine. The name of the place was probably taken from the little river Eliso, on whoso bank it stood. The *AAf Iow (in Ptolemy ii. 11) is probably onlyanother form of the name of this fortress. Much has been written in modern times upon the site of the ancient Aliso, and different results have been arrived at; but from the accurate description of Dion Cassius, there can be little doubt that the village of Elten, about two miles from Paderborn, situated at the confluence of the Alme (Eliso) and Lippe (Lupia), is the site of the ancient Aliso. (Ledebur, Dot Land u. Volk der Bructerer, p. 209, foil.; W. E. Gicfers, De Alitont Cattello Commentatio, Crefeld, 1844, 8vo.) [L.S.] A'LIUM. [aciiokeia.]

ALL ARIA (AMapta: Eth. 'AAAfnirsi), a city of Crete of uncertain site, of which coins are extant, bearing on the obverse the head of Talks, and on tho reverse a fignre of Heracles standing, (l'olyb. ap. Stcph. 1). i. c.)

[graphic]

A'LLIA or A'LIA* (i 'AAfar, Pint,) a small river which flows into the Tiber, on its left bank, about 11 miles N. of Rome. It was on its banks that the Romans sustained the memorable defeat by the Gauls under Brennus in n. c. 390, which led to the capture and destruction of the city by the barbarians. On this account the day on which the battle was fought, the 16th of July (xv. Kal. Sextiles), called the Diet A Meruit, was ever after regarded as disastrous, and it was forbidden to transact any public business on it. (Liv. vi. 1, 28; Virg. Aen. vii. 717; Tac. Ilitt. ii.91; Vtrr.deL.L. vi. § 32; Lucan. vii. 408; Cic Ep. ad Alt. ix. 5; Kal. Amitcrn. ap. Orell. Inter, vol. ii. p. 394.) A few years later, B.C. 377, the Praenestines and their allies, during a war with Rome, took up a position on the Allia, trusting that it would prove of evil omen to their adversaries; but their hopes

* According to Niebuhr (vol. ii. p. 533, not.) the correct form is Ai.tA, but the ordinary form Alma is supported by many good MSS., and retained by the most recent editor of Livy. The note of Servius (ad Aen. vii. 717) is certainly founded on A misconception.

were deceived, and they were totally defeated by the dictator Cincinnati. (Liv. vL 28; Entrap. iL 2.) The situation of this celebrated, but insignificant, stream is marked with unusual precision by Livy: "Aegre (hostibns) ad undecimum lapidem occursum est, qua flumen Allia Crnstuminis montibus praealto deffuens alveo, hand multum infra viarn Tiberino amni miscetur." (v. 37.) The Gauls were advancing upon Rome by the left bank of the Tiber, so that there can be no doubt that the " via" here mentioned is the Via Salaria, and the correctness of the distance is confirmed by Plutarch ( Cam ill. 18), who reckons it at 90 stadia, and by Eutropius (i. 20), while Vibius Sequester, who places it at 14 miles from Rome (p. 3), is an authority of no value on such a point. Notwithstanding this accurate description, the identification of the river designated has been the subject of much doubt and discussion, principally arising from the circumstance that there is no stream which actually crosses the Via Salaria at the required distance from Rome. Indeed the only two streams which can in any degree deserve the title of rivers, that flow into this part of the Tiber, are the Rio del Motto, which crosses the modern road at the Otteria del Grillo about 18 miles from Rome, and the Fotto di Conca, which rises at a place called Conca (near the site of Ficulea), about 13 miles from Rome, but flows in a southerly direction and crosses the Via Salaria at Malpatto, not quite 7 miles from the city. The former of these, though supposed by Clnvcrius to be the Allia, is not only much too distant from Rome, but does not correspond with tho description of Livy, as it flows through a nearly flat country, and its banks are low and defenceless. The Fotto di Conca on the contrary is too near to Rome, where it crosses the road and enters the Tiber; on which account Nibby and Cell havo supposed the battle to have been fought higher up its course, above Torre di S. Giovanni. But the expressions of Livy above cited and his whole narrative clearly prove that he conceived the battle to have been fought close to the Tiber, so that the Romans rested their left wing on that river, and their right on the Crustumian hills, protected by the reserve force which was posted on one of those hills, and against which Brennus directed his first attack. Both these two rivers must therefore be rejected; but between them are two smaller streams which, though little more than ditches in appearance, flow through deep and narrow ravines, where they issue from the hills; the first of these, which rises not far from the Fotto di Conca, crosses the road about a mile beyond La Marcigliana, and rather more than 9 from Rome; the second, called the Scolu del Catale, about 3 miles further on, at a spot named the Fontc di Papa, which is just more than 12 miles from Rome. The choice must lie between these two, .-if which the former has been adopted by Holsteniua and Westphal, but the latter has on the whole the best claim to be regarded as the true Allia. It coincides in all respects with Livy's description, except that the distance is a mile too great; but the difference in the other case is greater, and the correspondence in no other respect more satisfactory. If it be objected that the little brook at F'onlc di Papa is too trifling a stream to have earned such an immortal name, it may be observed that the very particular manner in which Livy describes the locality, sufficiently shows that it was not one necessarily familiar to his readers, nor does any rientiTM of the river Allia occur at a later period of Roman history. (Cluver. ItaL p. 709; Moisten. AdmoL p. 127; Westphal, Romitche Kampagne, p. 127; Gell'» Top. of Rome, p. 44—48; Nibby, Dntoni di Roma, voL L p. 125; Keichard, Thenar. Topogr.) [E. H. B.]

ALLI'FAE CAAAiifal, Strab., Diod.; "AAA«pa, PtoL, Eth. Allifanus: Alife), a city of Samnium, situated in tile valley of the Vulturous, at the foot of the lofty mountain group now called the Monte ilotue. It was close to the frontiers of Campania, and is enumerated among the Campanian cities by Pliny (iii. 5. 9), and by Silius Italicus (viiL 537); but strabo expressly calls it a Samnite city (p. 238). That it was so at an earlier period is certain, as we find it repeatedly mentioned in the wars of the Romans with that people. Thus, at the breaking oat of the Second Samnite War, in B. c 326, it was one of the first places which fell into the hands of the Romans: who, however, subsequently lost it, and it was retaken by C. Marcius Kutilus in B. c. 310. Again, in B. c. 307, a decisive victory over the Samnitfla was gained by the proconsul Fabius beneath its walls. (Liv. viii. 25, ix. 38, 42; Diod. xx. 35.) During the Second Punic War its territory was alternately traversed or occupied by the Banians and by H-TMih«l (Lit. xxii. 13, 17, 18, xxvi. 9), but Do mention is made of the town itself. Strabo speaks of it as one of the few cities of the Samnites which had survived the calamities of the Social War: and we learn from Cicero that it possessed an extensive and fertile territory in the valley of the Vulturnns, which appears to have adjoined that of Venafrum. (Pro Plane. 9, de Leg. Agr. ii. 25.) According to the Liber Coloniarum (p. 231), a colony was established there by the triumvirs, and its colonial rank, though not mentioned by Pliny, is confirmed by the evidence of inscriptions. These also attest that it continued to be a place of importance under the empire: and was adorned with many new public buildings under the reign of Hadrian. (Zumpt, de Colomie, p. 335; Well. Inter. 140, 3887; Bomanelli, vol.ii. pp.451 —(56.) It is placed by the Itineraries on the direct road from Borne to lieneventum by the Via Latina, at the distance of 17 miles from Teanum, and 43 from Beneventum; but the latter number is certainly too large. (Itin. Ant. pp. 122, 304.) The modern Alife is a poor and decayed place, though it still retains an episcopal see and the title of a city: it occupies the ancient site, and has preserved great part of its ancient walls and gates, as well as numerous other vestiges of antiquity, including the remains of a theatre and amphitheatre, and considerable ruins of Thermae, which appear to have been constructed on a most extensive and splendid scale. (Bomanelli, I.e.; Craven, Abruzzi, voLi. p. 21.) [E. H.B.]

ALLO'BBOGES ('AAAdspryct, 'AW&Spvyt j.and 'AAAo€po-v«, as the Greeks write the name), a Gallic people, whose territory lay on the east side of the Rhone, and chiefly between the Rhone and the Isars (/sere). On the west they were bounded by the Segusiani (Caes. B. G. L 10). In Caesar's time (B. G. L 6) the Rhodanus, near its outlet from the lake Lemannoa, or the lake of Geneva, was the boundary between the Allobroges and the Helvetii; and the furthest town of the Allobroges on the Helvetic border was Geneva, at which pLace there was a road over the Rhone into the Helvetic territory by a bridge. The Sequani were the northern neigh

bours of the Allobroges, who seem to have had some territory on the north side of the Rhone above the junction of the Rhone with the Arar (Saone). To the south of the Allobroges were the Vocontii. The limits of their territory may be generally defined in one direction, by a line drawn from Vienna ( Tienne) on the Rhone, which was their chief city, to Geneva on the Leman lake. Their land was a wine country.

The Allobroges are first mentioned in history as having joined Hannibal B. c 218 in his invasion of Italy (Liv. xxi. 31). The Aedni, who were the first allies of Rome north of the Alps, having complained of the incursions of the Allobroges into their territory, the Allobroges were attacked and defeated near the junction of the Rhone and the Saone by Q. Fabius Maxim us (n. c. 121), who from his victory derived the cognomen Allobrogicus. Under Roman dominion they became a more agricultural people, as Strabo describes them (p. 185): most of them lived in small towns or villages, and their chief place was Vienna. The Allobroges were looked on with suspicion by their conquerors, for though conquered they retained their old animosity; and their dislike of Roman dominion will explain the attempt made by the conspirators with Catiline to gain over the Allobroges through some ambassadors of the nation who were then in Rome (n. c 63). The ambassadors, however, through fear or some other motive, betrayed the conspirators (Sail. Cat. 41). When Caesar was governor of Gallia, the Allobroges north of the Rhone tied to him fur protection against the flclvetii, who were then marching through their country, B. c. 58 (B. (1. i. 11). The Allobroges had a senate, or some body that in a manner corresponded to the Roman senate (Cic. Cat. UL 5). In the division of Gallia under Augustus, the Allobroges were included in Narhonensis, the Pruvinria of Caesar (/>'. G. i. 10); and in the late division of Gallia, they fonned the Viennensis. [G. L.]

ALMA, ALMUS ("AXua. Dion Cass. lv. 30; Aurel. Vict. Epitom. 38, Probui; Eutrop. ix. 17; Vopiscns, Probue, 18), a mountain in Lower Pannonia, near Sirmium. The two robber-chieftains li.it" made this mountain their stronghold during the Dalmatian insurrection in A. D. 6—7. (Irict. of Biogr. art. Bato.) It was planted with vines by the emperor Probus about A. r>. 280—81, the spot being probably recommended to him by its contiguity to his native town of Sirmium. [W. B. D.]

AI.MO, a small river flowing into the Tiber on its left bank, just below the walls of Rome. Ovid calls it " cursu brevissitnus Almo" (Met xiv. 329), from which it is probable that he regarded the stream that rises from a copious source under an artificial grotto at a spot called La Caffarella as the true Almo. This stream is, however, joined by others that furnish a much larger supply of water, one of the most considerable of which, called the Marrana degli Orti, flows from the source near Marino that was the ancient Aqua Ferentina, another is commonly known as the Aequo Santa. The grotto and source already mentioned were long regarded, bnt certainly without foundation, as those of Egeria, and the Vnllis Egeriae was supposed to be the Voile drlla Caffarella, through which the Almo flows. The grotto itself appears to have been constructed in imperial times: it contains a marble figure, much mutilated, which is probably that of the tutelary deity of the stream, or the god Almo. (Nardiui, Roma Anlica, vol. i. pp. 157—101, with Nibby'a notes; Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. p. 130; Cell, Top. of Rome, p. 48; Burgess, Antiquities of Rome, vol. i. p. 107.) From this spot, which is about half a utile from the church of S. Sebastiano, and two miles from the gates of Home, the Almo has a course of between 3 and 4 miles to its confluence with the Tiber, crossing on the way both the Via Appia and the Via Ostiensis. It was at the spot where it joins the Tiber that the celebrated statue of Cybele was landed, when it was brought from I'essinus in Phrygia to Rome in B. 0. 204; and in memory of this circumstance the singular ceremony was observed of washing the image of the goddess herself, ati well as her sacred implements, in the waters of the Almo, on a certain day (6 Kal. Apr., or the 27th of March) in every year: a superstition which subsisted down to the final extinction of paganism. (Ov. Fast. iv. 337—340; Lucan. i. 600; Martial, iii. 47. 2; Stat. Sih. v. 1. 222; Sil. Ital. viii. 365; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 3. § 7.) The little stream appears to have retained the name of Almo as late as the seventh century: it is now commonly called the Acquataccia, a name which is supposed by some to be a corruption of Acqua d Appia, from its crossing the Via Appia. The spot where it is traversed by that road was about 1J mile from the ancient Porta Capena; but the first region of the city, according to the arrangement of Augustus, was extended to the very bank of the Almo. (Preller, Die Regional. Rome, p. 2.) [E. H. B.]

ALMO'PIA ('AAwr(a), a district in Macedonia inhabited by the Almopks ('AApwrcj), is said to have been one of the early conquests of the Argive colony of the Temenidae. Leake supposes it to be the same country now called Uoglena, which bordered upon the ancient Edessa to the NE. Ptolemy assigns to the Almopes three towns, Horma ("Op^io), Europus (Et/ponros), and Apsalus ("AiI/aAoj). (Thuc. ii. 99; Steph. B.». v.; Lycophr. 1238; PtoL iii. 13. §24; Leaks,Northern Greece, vol. iii. p.444.)

ALONTA ('AAeVra: Terek), one of the chief rivers of Sarmatia Asiatica, flowing into the W. side of the Caspian, S. of the Udon (OCSxv, Kouma), which is S. of the Rha ( Volga). This order, given by Ptolemy (v. 9. § 12), seems sufficient to identify the rivers; as the Rha is certainly the Volga, and the Kouma and Terek are the only large rivers that can answer to the other two. The Terek rises in M. Elbrouz, the highest summit of the Caucasus, and after a rapid course nearly due E. for 350 miles, falls into the Caspian by several mouths near 44° N. lat. [P. S.]

A'LOPE ('A\<iin7: Eth. 'AAoirlrTjt, 'AAoirtuj). 1. A town of l'hthiotis in Thessaly, placed by Steplianus between Larissa Cremaste and Echinus. There was a dispute among the ancient critics whether this town was the same as the Alope in Homer(//.ii.682; Strab.pp.427,432; Stcph.B.*.c).

2. A town of the Opuntian Locrians on the coast between Daphnus and Cynus. Its ruins have been discovered by Gell on an insulated hill near the shore. (Thuc ii. 26; Strab. p. 426; Scyl. p. 23; Cell, Hitter, p. 233.)

3. A town of the Ozolian Locrians of uncertain site. (Strab. p. 427.)

ALOTECE. [attica.]

ALOPECONNE'SUS ('hKuTtKivrnaos), a town on the western coast of the Thracian Chersonesus. It wxs an Aeolian colony, and was believed to havo derived its name from tlie fact that the settlors were directed by an oracle to establish the colony, where

they should first meet a fox with its cub. (Steph. B. s. v.; Scymiius, 29; Liv. xxxi. 16; Pomp. Mela, ii. 2.) In the time of the Macedonian ascendancy, it was allied with, and under the protection of Athens. (Dem. de Coron. p. 256, c. Arittocr. p. 675.) [L. S.]

ALO'RUS(*AAa>pot: Eth. 'aaoi^ttji), a town of Macedonia in the district Bottiaea, is placed by Stephanus in the innermost recess of the Thermaie gulf. According to Scylax it was situated between the Haliacmon and Lydias. Lease supposes it to have occupied the site of Paled-khora, near Kapsokhori. The town is chiefly known on account of its being the birthplace of Ptolemy, who usurped the Macedonian throne after the murder of Alexander II., son of Amyntas, and who is usually called Ptolemaeus Alorites. (Scyl. p. 26; Steph. B. *. r.; Strab. p. 330; Leake, Northern Greece, voL iii. p. 435, seq.; Diet, of Riogr. voL iii. p. 568.)

ALPE'NI ('aaitjjko/, Herod, vii. 176; 'aa«i»*i iroAis, Ilerod. vii. 216- Eth. 'A\rrn>6s), a town of the Epicnemidii Locri at the E. entrance of the para of Thermopylae. For details, see Thermopylae.

ALPES (ai "aajtw; sometimes also, but rarely ra 'AK-wtivk ton and To "AAiria Spy), was die name given in ancient as well as modern times to the great chain of mountains—the most extensive and loftiest in Europe,— which forms the northern boundary of Italy, separating that country from Gaul and Germany. They extend without interruption from the coast of the Mediterranean between Massilia and Genua, to that of the Adriatic near Trieste, but their boundaries are imperfectly defined, it being almost impossible to fix on any point of demarcation between the Alps and the Apennines, while at the opposite extremity, the eastern ridges of the Alps, which separate the Adriatic from the vallies of the Sace and the Drove, are closely connected with the Illyrian ranges of mountains, which continue almost without interruption to the Black Sea. Hence Pliny speaks of the ridges of the Alps as softening as they descend into IHyricum (" mitescentia Alpium joga per medium IHyricum," iii. 25. s. 28), and Mela goes so far as to assert that the Alps extend into Thrace (Mela, ii. 4). But though there is much plausibility in this view considered as a question of geographical theory, it is not probable that the term was ever familiarly employed in so extensive a sense. On the other hand Strata seems to consider the Jura and even the mountains of the Black Forest in Swabia, in which the Danube takes its rise, as mere onsets of the Alps (p. 207). The name is probably derived from a Celtic word Alb or Alp, signifying " a height:" though others derive it from an adjective Alb "white," which is connected with the Latin Albus, and is the root of the name of Albion. (Strab. p. 202; and see Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary.)

It was not till a late period that the Greeks appear to have obtained any distinct knowledge of the Alps, which were probably in early times regarded as a part of the Rhipaean mountains, a general appellation for the great mountain chain, which formed the extreme limit of their geographical knowledge to the north. Lycophron is the earliest extant author who has mentioned their name, which he however erroneously writes SaAiria (Alex. 1361): and the account given by Apollonius Rhodius (iv. 630, fol.), of the sources of the Rhodanus and the Eridanus proves his entire ignoranco of the geography of these regions. Tho conquest of Cisalpine Gaul by tho Romans, and still more the passage of Hannibal over the Alps,

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