« السابقةمتابعة »
first drew general attention to the mountains in names have been preserved to us are the Mons CEMA, question, and Polybius, who had himself visited the in which the Varus had its source (Plin. iii. 4. s. 5), pation of the Alpine chain between Italy and Gaul, now called la Caillole; and the MonS VESULUS, now was the first to give an accurate description of them. Monte Viso, from which the Padus takes its rise. Still his geographical knowledge of their course and (Plin. ii. 16. s. 20; Mela, ii. 4; Serv.ad Aen. x. 708.) extent was very imperfect: he justly describes thern Pliny calls this the most lofty summit of the Alps, as extending from the neighbourhood of Massilia to which is far from being correct, but its isolated chathe head of the Adriatic gulf, but places the sources racter, and proximity to the plains of Italy, combined of the Rhone in the neighbourhood of the latter, and with its really great elevation of 11,200 feet above en alers the Alps and that river as running parallel the sea, would readily convey this impression to an with each other from NE. to SW. (Polyb. ii. 14, unscientific observer. 15, fii. 47.) Strabo more correctly describes the At a later period of the empire we find the Alpes Alps is forming a great curve like a bow, the con | Maritiinae constituting a separate province, with its care side of which was turned towards the plains of own Procurator (Orell. Inscr. 2214, 3331, 5040), Italy: the apex of the curve being the territory of but the district thus designated was much more exthe Salassi, while both extremities make a bend tensive than the limits just stated, as the capital of ruand, the one to the Ligurian shore near Genoa, the the province was Ebrodunum (Embrun) in Gaul. other to the head of the Adriatic. (Strab.' pp. 128, | (Böcking, ad Notit. Dign. pp. 473, 488.) 210.) He jastly adds that throughout this whole 2. ALPES COTTIAE, or COTTIANAE, the Cottian extent they formed a continuous chain or ridge, so Alps, included the next portion of the chain, from that they might be almost regarded as one moun- the Mons Vesulus northward, extending apparently tuin: but that to the east and north they sent out to the neighbourhood of the Mont Cenis, though various offshoots and minor ranges in different direc- their limit is not clearly defined. They derived their toas. (Id. iv. p. 207.) Already previous to the name from Cotties, an Alpine chieftain, who having tine of Strabo the complete subjugation of the Alpine conciliated the tavour and friendship of Augustus tribes by Augustus, and the construction of several was left by him in possession of this portion of the high roads across the principal passes of the chain, Alps, with the title of Praefect. His territory, which as well as the increased commercial intercourse with comprised twelve petty tribes, appears to have exthe nations on the other side, had begun to render tended from Ebrodunum or Embrun in Gaul, as far the Alps comparatively familiar to the Romans. But as Segusio or Susa in Italy, and included the pass of Strabo himself remarks (p. 71) that their geogra- | the Mont Genèvre, one of the most frequented and Whical position was still imperfectly known, and the important lines of communication between the two errors of detail of which he is guilty in describing countries. (Strab. pp. 179, 204; Plin. üi. 20. s. 24; thein fully confirm the statement. Ptolemy, though | Tac. Hist. i. 61, iv, 68; Amm. Marc. xv. 10.) The writing at a later period, seems to have been still territory of Cottius was united by Nero to the Roman more imperfectly acquainted with them, as he re- empire, and constituted a separate province under presents the Mons Adula (the St. Gothard or Splü- | the name of Alpes Cottiae. But after the time of gen) as the point where the chain takes its great Constantine this appellation was extended so as to bend frotn a northern to an easterly direction, while comprise the whole of the province or region of Italy Strabo correctly assigns the territory of the Salassi previously known as Liguria. [LIGURIA.] (Orell. as the point where this change takes place.
Inscr. 2156, 3601; Notit. Dign. ii. p. 66, and As the Romans became better acquainted with Böcking, ad loc.; P. Diac. ii. 17.) The principal the Alps, they began to distinguish the different rivers which have their sources in this part of the portions of the chain by various appellations, which Alps are the DRUENTIA (Durance) on the W. coatinned in use under the empire, and are still ge- and the DURIA (Dora Riparia) on the E., which perally adopted by geographers. These distinctive is confounded by Strabo (p. 203) with the river of ezitbets are as follows:
the same name (now called Dora Baltea) that flows 1. ALPES MARITIMAE (ANTELS Tapários, or ma- through the country of the Salassi. patalkooli), the Maritime Alps, was the name given, 3. ALPES GRAIAE ( AXTEIS Spaiai, Ptol.) called probably from an early period, to that portion of the also Mons GRAIUS (Tac. Hist. iv. 68), was the name range which abuts iminediately upon the Tyrrhenian given to the Alps through which lay the pass Dow Sen, between Marseilles and Genoa. Their limit was known as the Little St. Bernard. The precise exfixed by some writers at the Portus Monoeci or Mo- tent in which the term was employed cannot be fixed, muco, inmediately above which rises a lofty headland and probably was never defined by the ancients on which stood the trophy erected by Augustus to themselves; but modern geographers generally regard commerborate the subjugation of the Alpine tribes. | it as comprising the portion of the chain which ex[TROPAECX ACGUSTI] Strabo however more tends froin the Mont Cenis to Mont Blanc. The judiciously regards the whole range along the coast real origin of the appellation is unknown; it is proof Liguria as far as Vada Sabbata (Vado), as be-bably derived from some Celtic word, but the Romans kinging to the Maritime Alps: and this appears to in later times interpreted it as meaning Grecian, and have been in accordance with the common usage of connected it with the fabulous passage of the Alps later times, as we find both the Intemelii and In- by Hercules on his return from Spain. In confirm. gauni generally reckoned among the Alpine tribes. ation of this it appears that some ancient altars (Strab. pp. 201, 202; Liv. xxviii. 46; Tac. Hist. (probably Celtic monuments) were regarded as ü. 12; Vopisc. Procul. 12.) From this point as far having been erected by him upon this occasion, and as the river Varus (Var) the mountains descend the mountains themselves are called by some writers quite to the sea-shore: but from the mouth of the ALPES GRAECAE. (Plin.iii. 20. 8. 24; Amm. Marc. Varus they trend to the north, and this continues to xv. 10. $ 9; Petron. de B.C. 144-151; Nep. Hann. be the direction of the main chain as far as the com- | 3.) Livy appears to apply the name of Cremonis jnmencement of the Pennine Alps. The only moun- gum"to this part of the Alps (xxi. 38), a name which sains in this part of the range of which the ancient has been supposed to be retained by the Cramont, it mountain near St.Didier. Pliny (xi. 42. s.97) terms ) iii. 4; Plin. iii. 25. s. 28), while the more southern them ALPES CENTRONICAE from the Gaulish tribe range, which bounds the plains of Venetia, and curres of the Centrones, who occupied their western slopes. round the modern Frioul to the neighbourhood of
4. ALPES PENNINAE, or POENINAE, the Pennine Trieste, was variously known as the ALPES CARAlps, was the appellation by which the Romans de- NICAE and JULIAE. The former designation, emsignated the loftiest and most central part of the ployed by Pliny (I. c.), they derived from the Carni chain, extending from the Mont Blanc on the W., to who inhabited their mountain fastnesses: the latter, the Monte Rosa on the E. The first form of the which appears to have become customary in later name is evidently the most correct, and was derived times (Tac. Hist. ïï. 8; Amm. Marc. xxi. 9, xxxi. from the Celtic “ Pen” or “ Ben," a height or sum | 16; Itin. Hier. p. 560; Sex. Ruf. Breviar. 7), init; but the opinion having gained ground that the from Julius Caesar, who first reduced the Carni to pass of the Great St. Bernard over these mountains subjection, and founded in their territory the towns was the route pursued by Hannibal, the name was of Julium Carnicum and Forum Julii, of which the considered to be connected with that of the Cartha- | latter has given to the province its modern name of ginians (Poeni), and hence the form Poeninae is the Frioul. We find also this part of the Alps somefrequently adopted by later writers. Livy himself times termed ALPES VENETAE (Amm. Marc. xxxi. points out the error, and adds that the name was 16. $ 7) from their bordering on the province of really derived, according to the testimony of the in- Venetia. The mountain ridge immediately above habitants, from a deity to whom an altar was conse- Trieste, which separates the waters of the Adriatic crated on the summit of the pass, probably the same from the valley of the Save, and connects the Alps, who was afterwards worshipped by the Romans properly so called, with the mountains of Dalmatia themselves as Jupiter Penninus. (Liv, xxi. 38; Plin. and Illyricum, was known to the Romans as Moxs iii. 17. s. 21; Strab. p. 205; Tac. Hist. i. 61, 87; OCRA (Orpa, Strab. p. 207; Ptol. üi. 1. $ 1), Amm. Marc. xv. 10; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. x. 13; from whence one of the petty tribes in the neighOrell. Inscr. vol. i. p. 104.) The limits of the bourhood of Tergeste was called the Subocrini. (Plin. Pennine Alps are nowhere very clearly designated; iii. 20. s. 24.) Strabo justly observes that this is the but it seems that the whole upper valley of the lowest part of the whole Alpine range: in consequence Rhone, the modern Valais, was called Vallis Poenina of which it was from a very early period traversed (see Orell. Inscr. 211), and Ammianus expressly by a much frequented pass, that became the mediuin places the sources of the Rhone in the Pennine Alps of active commercial intercourse from the Roman (xv. 11. $ 16), so that the term must have been colony of Aquileia with the valleys of the Sare and frequently applied to the whole extent of the moun- Drave, and by means of those rivers with the plains tain chain from the Mont Blanc eastward as far as on the banks of the Danube. the St. Gothard. The name of ALPES LEPONTIAE 7. We also find, as already mentioned, the name from the Gaulish tribe of the Lepontii, is frequently of the Alps sometimes extended to the mountain applied by modern geographers to the part of the ranges of Illyricum and Dalmatia: thus Pliny (xi. range inhabited by them between the Monte Rosa 42. s. 97) speaks of the ALPES DALMATICAE, and and the Mont St. Gothard, but there is no ancient Tacitus of the ALPES PANNONICAE (Hist. ii. 98, authority for the name. The “ Alpes Graiae et ii. 1), by which however he perhaps means little Poeninae," during the later periods of the Roman more than the Julian Alps. But this extensive use empire, constituted a separate province, which was of the term does not seem to have ever been generally united with Transalpine Gaul. Its chief towns were adopted. Darantasia and Octodurus. (Amm. Marc. xv. 11. The physical characters of the Alps, and those $ 12; Orell. Inscr. 3888; Not. Dign. ii. p. 72; natural phenomena which, though not peculiar to Böcking, ad loc. p. 472.) Connected with these them, they yet exhibit on a greater scale than any we find mentioned the Alpes Atractianae or Atrecti- other mountains of Europe, must have early attracted anae, a name otherwise wholly unknown.
the attention of travellers and geographers: and the 5. The ALPES RHAETICAE, or Rhaetian Alps, may difficulties and dangers of the passes over them were, be considered as adjoining the Pennine Alps on the as was natural, greatly exaggerated. Polybius was east, and including the greater part of the countries the first to give a rational account of them, and has now called the Grisons and the Tyrol. Under this described their characteristic features on occasion more general appellation appears to have been com- of the passage of Hannibal in a manner of which the prised the mountain mass called Mons Adula, in accuracy has been attested by all modern writers. which both Strabo and Ptolemy place the sources of Strabo also gives a very good account of them, noticing the Rhine [ADULA Mons), while Tacitus expressly particularly the danger arising from the avalanches tells us that that river rises in one of the most inac-or sudden falls of snow and ice, which detached cessible and lofty mountains of the Rhaetian Alps. themselves from the vast frozen masses above, and (Germ. 1.) The more eastern portion of the Rhae hurried the traveller over the side of the precipice tian Alps, in which the Athesis and Atagis have (p. 204). Few attempts appear to have been their sources, is called by Pliny and by various other made to estimate their actual height; but Polybius writers the ALPES TRIDENTINAE, from the important remarks that it greatly exceeds that of the highest city of Tridentum in the Southern Tyrol. (Plin. iii. mountains of Greece and Thrace, Olympus, Ossa, Athos 16. s. 20; Dion Cass. liv. 22; Flor. iii. 4.)
&c.: for that almost any of these mountains might 6. The eastern portion of the Alps from the valley be ascended by an active walker in a single day of the Athesis and the pass of the Brenner to the while he would scarcely ascend the Alps in five; a plains of Pannonia and the sources of the Save appear | statement greatly exaggerated. (Polyb.op. Strab. to have been known by various appellations, of which p. 209.) Strabo on the contrary tells us, that the it is not easy to determine the precise extent or ap- direct ascent of the highest summits of the mountains plication. The northern arm of the chain, which in the territory of the Medulli, did not exceed extends through Noricum to the neighbourhood of | 100 stadia, and the same distance for the descent on Vienna, was known as the ALPES NORICAE (Flor. | the other side into Italy (p. 203), while Pliny
(ü. 65) appears to estimate the perpendicular heiglit reader may consult Walckenaer, Geographie des of some of the loftiest summits at not less than fifty Gaules vol. ii. pp. 43—66. miles! The length of the whole range is estimated The eternal snows and glaciers of the Alps are the by Polybius at only 2200 stadia, while Caelius An- sources from which flow several of the largest rivers tipater (quoted by Pliny ü. 18. s. 22) stated it as of Europe: the Rhone, the Rhine, and the Po, as well Dat less than 1000 miles, reckoning along the foot of as the great tributaries of the Danube, the Inn, the the mountains from sea to sea. Pliny himself esti- | Drave and the Save. It would be useless here to nates the same distance calculated from the river enter into a geographical or detailed enumeration of Varas to the Arsia at 745 miles, a fair approxima the countless minor streams which derive their ta to the truth. He also justly remarks that the sources from the Alps, and which will be found under Fery different estimates of the breadth of the Alps the countries to which they severally belong. sisen by different authors were founded on the fact of its great inequality: the eastern portion of the
Passes of the Alps. range between Germany and Italy being not less than Many of the passes across the great central chain 100 miles across, while the other portions did not of the Alps are so clearly indicated by the course of erred 70. (Plin. iii. 19. s. 23.) Strabo tells us that the rivers which rise in them, and the vallies through while the more lofty summits of the Alps were either which these flow, that they must probably have been civered with perpetual snow, or so bare and rugged known to the neighbouring tribes from a very early us to be altogether uninhabitable, the sides were period. Long before the passage of the western catbed with extensive forests, and the lower slopes Alps by Hannibal, we know that these mountains and sallies were cultivated and well peopled. There were crossed by successive swarms of Gaulish inwas bowever always a scarcity of corn, which the vaders (Polyb. iii. 48; Liv, v. 33), and there is every inhabitants procured from those of the plains in ex- reason to suppose that the more easily accessible passes change for the productions of their mountains, the of the Rhaetian and Julian Alps had afforded a way chief of which were resin, pitch, pine wood for torches, for the migrations of nations in still earlier ages. TII, honey, and cheese. Previous to the time of The particular route taken by Hannibal is still a Angustas, the Alpine tribes had been given to pre- subject of controversy.* But it is clear from the whole datory habits, and were continually plundering their narrative of Polybius, that it was one already preDere wealthy neighbours, but after they had been viously known and frequented by the mountaineers completely subdued and roads made through their that guided him; and a few years later his brother territories they devoted themselves more to the arts Hasdrubal appears to have crossed the same pass of peace and husbandry. (Strab. pp. 206, 207.) with comparatively little difficulty. Polybius, acNur were the Alps wanting in more valuable pro- cording to Strabo, was acquainted with only four ductions. Gold mines or rather washings were passes, viz.: 1. that through Liguria by the Maritime Forked in them in various places, especially in the Alps; 2. that through the Taurini, which was the territory of the Salassi (the Val d'Aosta), where one traversed by Hannibal; 3. that through the Sathe Romans derived a considerable revenue from them; lassi; and 4. that through the Rhaetians. (Polyb. and in the Noric Alps, near Aquileia, where gold was ap. Strab. p. 209.) At a later period Pompey, on fand in lamps as big as a bean after digging only a his march into Spain (B. C. 77), opened out a pasfew feet below the surface (Strab. pp. 205, 208). sage for his army, which he describes as “ different The inn mines of the Noric Alps were also well from that of Hannibal, but more convenient for the born to the Romans, and highly esteemed for the Romans.” (Pompeii Epist. ap. Sallust. Hist. iii. excellent quality of the metal furnished by them, p. 230, ed. Gerlach.) Shortly after this time Varro which was peculiarly well adapted for swords. (Plin. (in a passage in which there appears to be much Inv.14. 8.41; Hor. Carm. 1. 16. 9, Epod. xvii.71.) confusion) speaks of five passes across the Alps Tbe wek crystal so abundant in the Alps was much (without including the more easterly ones), which valued by the Romans, and diligently sought for in he enumerates as follows: “Una, quae est juxta consequence by the natives. (Plin. xxxvii.2. s.9, 10.) mare per Liguras; altera qua Hannibal transiit;
Several kinds of animals are also noticed by ancient tertia qua Pompeius ad Hispaniense bellum proWriters as peculiar to the Alps; among these are the fectus est : quarta qua Hasdrubal de Gallia in Charnois (the rupicapra of Pliny), the Ibex, and the Italiam venit : quinta, quae quondam Graecis Marcot. Pliny also mentions white hares and white possessa est, quae exinde Alpes Graeciae appelgroase or Ptarmigan. (Plin. viii. 79. 8. 81, x. 68. lantur." (Varr, ap. Serv. ad Aen. x. 13.) From &.35; Varr. de R. R. iii. 12.) Polybius described a the time of the reduction of the Transalpine Gauls Large animal of the deer kind, but with a neck like a by J. Caesar, and that of the Alpine tribes by Auwill bear, evidently the Elk(Cervus Alces) now found gustus, the passes over the Alps came to be well cally in the north of Europe. (Polyb. ap. Strab. p. 208.) known, and were traversed by high roads, several of
It would be impossible here to enumerate in detail which, however, on account of the natural difficulties all the petty tribes which inhabited the vallies and of the mountains, were not practicable for carriages. slopes of the Alps. The inscription on the trophy | These passes were the following: of Angustas already mentioned, gives the names of 1 1. “ PER ALPES MARITIMAS," along the coast not less than forty-four "Gentes Alpinae devictae," of Liguria, at the foot of the Maritime Alps from many of which are otherwise wholly unknown (Plin. Genua to the mouth of the Varus. Though the
. 20. . 24). The inscription on the arch at Susa line of sea-coast must always have offered a natural mentions fourteen tribes that were subject to Cottius, means of communication, it could hardly have been on which the greater part are equally obscure. frequented by the Romans until the wild tribes of (Orell. Inscr. 626; Millin, Voy. en Piemont, vol. i. the Ligurians had been effectually subdued ; and it D. 106.) Those tribes, whose locality can be deter- appears certain that no regular road was constructed mined with tolerable certainty, or whose names appear in history, will be found under their respective * See the article HANNIBAL, in the Dict. of Biogr uticle: for an examination of the whole list the vol. ii. p. 333, and the works there referred to.
along it till the time of Augustus. The monument cation between Italy and Gaul. (Strab p. 208; which that emperor erected over the highest part of the i Tac. Hist. ii. 66, iv. 68.) pass (just above the Portus Monoeci), to commemo- The stations on this route are thus given in the rate the reduction of the Alpine tribes, is still ex- Itinerary, beginning from Eporedia, at the entrance tant, and the Roman road may be distinctly traced of the Val d'Aosta :for several miles on each side of it. [TROPAEA
M.P. AUGUSTI.] It did not follow the sanie line as the
Vitricium (Verrez). .
xxi. modern road, but, after ascending from near Men
Augusta Praetoria (Aosta) - xxv. tone to the summit of the pass at Turbia, descended
Arebrigium (S. Didier) - XXV. a side valley to Cemenelion (Cimiez), and proceeded
Rergintrum (Bourg. s. Maurice) xxiv. from thence direct to the mouth of the Varus, leaving
Darantasia (Moustiers) - - xviii. Nicaea on the left. The stations along this road
Obilinum - -
xli. from Vada Sabbata (Vado) to Antipolis are thus Ad Publicanos (Conflans) given in the Itin. Ant. p. 296:
| From thence there branched off two lines of road, M.P.
M.P. the one by Lemincum (Chambery) and Augusta Pullopice . xii. Lumone
Allobrogum to Vienna, the other northwards to GeAlbingauno Alpe Summa (l'urbia) vi.
neva and the Lacus Lemannus. (Albenga) - viii. Cerenelo (Cimiez) - viïi.
4. “ PER ALPES PENNINAS," by the Great St. Luco Borinani - xv. Varum flumen . vi.
Bernard. This route, which branched off from the Costa Balenae - Xvi. Antipolis (Antibes) - .. former at Augusta Praetoria, and led direct across Albintimilio (Vin
the mountain, from thence to Octodurus (Martigny) timiglia) - xvi.
in the valley of the Rhone, and the head of the Lake This line of road is given in the Itinerary as a part Lemannus, appears to have been known and freof the Via Aurelia, of which it was undoubtedly a quented from very early times, though it was never continuation; but we learn from the inscriptions of rendered practicable for carriages. Caesar speaks of the mile-stones discovered near Turbia that it was it as being used to a considerable extent by merproperly called the Via Julia.
chants and traders, notwithstanding the exactions to 2. “Per ALPES COTTLAS," by the pass now which they were subjected by the wild tribes that called the Mont Genèvre, from Augusta Taurinorum then occupied this part of the Alps. (B. G. ii. 1.) to Brigantio (Briançon) and Ebrodunum (Embrun) The numerous inscriptions and votive tablets that in Gaul. This was the most direct line of communi have been discovered sufficiently attest how much cation from the north of Italy to Transalpine Gaul: this pass was frequented in later times: and it was it is evidently that followed by Caesar when he repeatedly traversed by Roman armies. (Orell. hastened to oppose the Helvetii, “qua proximum Inscr. vol. i. p. 104; Tac. Hist. i. 61, iv. 68.) The iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat" (B. G. i. distances by this road are thus given in the Itinerary. 10), and is probably the saine already mentioned as From Augusta Praetoria to the summit of the pass, having been first explored by Pompey. It was after- Summo Pennino, where stood a temple of Jupiter wards one of the passes most frequented by the Ro- M. P. xxv.; thence to Octodorus (Martigny) xxv.; mans, and is termed by Ammianus (xv. 10)“ via and from thence to Viviscum (Vevay) 34 miles, media et compendiaria.” That writer has given a passing two obscure stations, the names of which are detailed account of the pass, the highest ridge of probably corrupt. which was known by the name of MATRONAE Mons, 5. The next pass, for which we find no approa name retained in the middle ages, and found in priate name, led from the head of the Lacus Larius the Itin. Hierosol. p. 556. Just at its foot, on the to Brigantia (Bregenz), on the Lake of Constance. Italian side, was the station AD MARTIS, probably We find do mention of this route in early times; but near the modern village of Oulx. The distances it must have been that taken by Stilicho, in the depth given in the Itin. Ant. (p. 341) are, from Taurini of winter, when he proceeded from Mediolanum (Augusta Taurinorum) to Segusio (Susa) 51 M. P. through the Rhaetian Alps to summon the Vinde(a great overstatement: the correct distance would licians and Noricans to the relief of Honorius. (Clauence
| dian. B. Get. v. 320-360.) The Itineraries give Ad Martis - xvi. Ramae - xvii. two routes across this part of the Alps; the one
Brigantio - xviii. Eburodono xviii. apparently following the line of the modern pass of Though now little frequented, this pass is one of the the Splügen, by Clavenna (Chiavenna) and Tarlowest and easiest of those over the main chain. vessedo (?) to Curia (Coire): the other crossing the
3. “ PER ALPES GRAIAS," by the Little St. Ber- pass of the Septimer, by Murus and Tinnetio (Tinnard. This route, which led from Milan and the zen) to Curia, where it rejoined the preceding route. plains of the Po by the valley of the Salassi to Au 6. " PER ALPES RHAETICAS or TRIDENTINAS," gusta Praetoria (Aosta), and from thence across the through the modern Tyrol, which, from the natural mountain pass into the valley of the Isara (Isère), | facilities it presents, must always have been one of and through the Tarentaise to Vienna and Lug- the most obvious means of cominunication between dunum, is supposed by many writers to have been | Italy and the countries on the S. of the Danube. that followed by Hannibal. It was certainly crossed The high road led from Verona to Tridentum (where by D. Brutus with his army after the battle of Mu- it was joined by a cross road from Opitergium through: tina, B. C. 43. But though it presents much less the Val Sugana), and thence up the valley of the natural difficulties than its neighbour the Great St. Athesis as far as Botzen, from which point it folBernard, it appears to have been little frequented, lowed the Atagis or Eisach to its source, and crossed on account of the predatory habits of the Salassians, the pass of the Brenner to Veldidana (Wilden, near nntil Augustus, after having completely subdued Insbruck), and from thence across another mountain that people, constructed a carriage road over the pass to Augusta Vindelicorum. [RHAETIA.] Graian Alps, which thenceforward became one of 7. A road led from Aquileia to Julium Camicum the most important and frequented lines of communi-(Zuglio), and from thence across the Julian Alps to
Loncinm in the valley of the Gail, and by that valley , for believing that it anciently flowed to the NW., and the Puster Thal to join the preceding road at and disappeared in the Katavóthra of the marshi of Vijitenam, near the foot of the Brenner. The sta- | Taki.* (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 112, seq.) ties (few of which can be determined with any The two reputed sources of the Alpheius and Eucertainiy) are thus given (Itin. Ant. p. 279): - rotas are found near the remains of Asea, at the
M.P. copious source of water called Frangócrysi; but From Aquileia Ad Tricesimum - xxx. whether the source of the Alpheius be really the
Julium Carnicum XXX. vent of the lake of Taki, cannot be decided with
xxii. certainty. These two fountains unite their waters, Agunto - - xviii.
as Pausanias describes, and again sink into the Littamo . - xxiii.
earth. After passing under a mountain called TzimSebato - - xxiii.
banı, the Alpheius reappears at Mármara, probably Vipiteno - - xxxiii.
Pegae. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 37, seq.) 8. Another high road led from Aquileia castward Below Pegae, the Alpheius receives the HELISSON up the valley of the Wippach, and from thence ('EAloo Áv: River of Daviá), on which Megalopolis at runs the barren mountainous tract of comparatively was situated, 30 stadia from the confluence. Below small eleration (the Mons Ocra), which separates it this, and near the town of Brenthe (Karitena), the from the valley of the Savus, to Aemona in Pan Alpheius flows through a defile in the mountains, Dna. There can be no doubt that this pass, which called the pass of Lavdha. This pass is the only presents no considerable natural difficulties, was from opening in the mountains, by which the waters of the earliest ages the highway of nations from the central Arcadia find their way to the western sea. lanks of the Danube into Italy, as it again became It divides the upper plain of the Alpheius, of which after the fall of the Roman empire. (P. Diac. ii. 10.) Megalopolis was the chief place, from the lower The distance from Aquileia to Aemona is given by plain, in which Heraea was situated. (Leake, the Itin. Ant. at 76 Roman miles, which cannot be Morea, vol. ii. p. 19, seg.) Below Heraea, the Far from the truth; but the intermediate stations are Alpheius receives the LADON (Aáowr), which rises very uncertain.
[E. H. B.] near Cleitor, and is celebrated in mythology as the ALPHEIUS ('Alpeós: Ruféa, Rufiá or Rofia, | father of Daphne. The Ladon is now called Ruféa, and River of Karitena), the chief river of Pelo Rufiá or Rofia, by which name the Alpheius is ponpesus, rises in the SE. of Arcadia on the fron- called below its junction with the Ladon. In the tiers of Laconia, flows in a westerly direction through upper part of its course the Alpheius is usually Arcadia and Elis, and after passing Olympia falls called the River of Karitena. Below the Ladon, into the Ionian Sea. The Alpheius, like several at the distance of 20 stadia, the Alpheius receives ether rivers and lakes in Arcadia, disappears more the ERYMANTHUS ('Epúpavos), rising in the than once in the limestone mountains of the country, mountain of the same name, and forming the bounand then emerges again, after flowing some distance dary between Elis and the territories of Heraea in underground. Pausanias (vii. 54. § 1, seq., 44. Arcadia After entering Elis, it flows past Olym
4) relates that the source of the Alpheius is at pia, forming the boundary between Pisatis and Phylace, on the frontiers of Arcadia and Laconia; Triphylia, and falls into the Cyparissian gulf in the and that, after receiving a stream rising from many | Ionian sea. At the mouth of the river was a temple small fountains, at a place called Symbola, it flows and grove of Artemis Alpheionia. From the pass of into the territory of Tegea, where it sinks under- Lavdha to the sea, the Alpheins is wide and shalgrand. It rises again at the distance of 5 stadia low; in summer it is divided into several torrents, from Asea, close to the fountain of the Eurotas. flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide The two rivers then mix their waters, and after gravelly bed, while in winter it is full, rapid, and
sing in a common channel for the distance of turbid. Its banks produce a great number of large Learly 20 stadia, they again sink underground, and plane-trees. (Leake, Morea, vol. ï. p. 67, Pelo. Feappear, the Eurotas in Laconia, the Alpheius ponnesiaca, p. 8.)
Pegue, the Fountains, in the territory of Mega-1 Alpheius appears as a celebrated river-god in buolis in Arcadia. Strabo (p. 343) also states that mythology; and it was apparently the subterranean the Alpheius and Eurotas rise from two fountains passage of the river in the upper part of its course Der A ea, and that, after flowing several stadia which gave rise to the fable that the Alpheius flowed orderground, the Eurotas reappears in the Blemi- beneath the sea, and attempted to mingle its waters Datis in Laconia, and the Alpheius in Arcadia. In with the fountain of Arethusa in the island of Or
aber passage (p. 275) Strabo relates, that it was tygia in Syracuse. (Dict. of Biogr. art. Alpheius.) a common belief that if two chaplets dedicated to Hence Ovid calls the nymph Arethusa, Alphêias. the Alpheius and the Eurotas were thrown into the (Met. v. 487.) Virgil (Aen. x. 179) gives the epistrear near Asez, each would reappear at the sources thet of Alpheae to the Etruscan city of Pisae, because of the river to which it was destined. This story the latter was said to have been founded by colonists accords with the statement of Pausanias as to the from Pisa in Elis, near which the Alpheius flowed. ania of the waters from the two fountains, and ALSA, a small river of Venetia (Plin. iii. 18. s. 22) their course in a common channel. The account of still called the Ausa, which flows into the lagunes of Pagsanias is confirmed in many particulars by the Marano, a few miles W. of Aquileia. A battle ebrervations of Colonel Leake and others. The was fought on its banks in A. D. 340, between the river, in the first part of its course, is now called younger Constantine and the generals of his brother the Saranda, which rises at Krya Vrysi, the ancient Constans, in which Constantine himself was slain, Phyluce, and which receives, a little below Krya and his body thrown into the river Alsa. (Victor, l'resi, a stream formed of several small mountain | Epit. 41. $ 21; Hieron. Chron. ad ann. 2356.) torrents, by which the ancient Symbola is recognised. On entering the Tegeatic plain, the Saranda * The preceding account will be made clearer by Dow flows to the NE.; but there are strong reasons referring to the map under MANTINEIA.